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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906184/1-methyl-tryptophan-attenuates-regulatory-t-cells-differentiation-due-to-the-inhibition-of-estrogen-ido1-mrc2-axis-in-endometriosis
#1
Chunyan Wei, Jie Mei, Lingli Tang, Yukai Liu, Dajin Li, Mingqing Li, Xiaoyong Zhu
Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells contribute to the local dysfunctional immune environment in endometriosis, an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease, which affects the function of ectopic endometrial tissue clearance by the immune system. The reason for the high percentage of peritoneal Treg in endometriosis patients is unknown. Here, we show that the proportion of peritoneal Treg cells increases as endometriosis progresses. To determine the probable mechanism, we established a naive T cell-macrophage-endometrial stromal cell (ESC) co-culture system to mimic the peritoneal cavity microenvironment...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905596/spectral-pointillism-of-enhanced-raman-scattering-for-accessing-structural-and-conformational-information-on-single-protein
#2
Jean-Emmanuel Clément, Aymeric Leray, Alexandre Bouhelier, Eric Finot
In this contribution, we provide new insights on the temporal fluctuations of surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of large single molecules such as proteins. Because they can only fit partly into small active volume, SERS analysis is referred to spectral pointillism where only protein subdomains are shined and the whole protein landscape is built from the dynamics of successive individual spectra. By applying our approach on bovine serum albumin, we show that single protein subdomains are mostly comprised of three distinct amino acids...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904735/urinary-metabolomics-of-young-italian-autistic-children-supports-abnormal-tryptophan-and-purine-metabolism
#3
Federica Gevi, Lello Zolla, Stefano Gabriele, Antonio M Persico
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still diagnosed through behavioral observation, due to a lack of laboratory biomarkers, which could greatly aid clinicians in providing earlier and more reliable diagnoses. Metabolomics on human biofluids provides a sensitive tool to identify metabolite profiles potentially usable as biomarkers for ASD. Initial metabolomic studies, analyzing urines and plasma of ASD and control individuals, suggested that autistic patients may share some metabolic abnormalities, despite several inconsistencies stemming from differences in technology, ethnicity, age range, and definition of "control" status...
2016: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904018/impact-of-plasma-kynurenine-level-on-functional-capacity-and-outcome-in-heart-failure%C3%A3-results-from-studies-investigating-co-morbidities-aggravating-heart-failure-sica-hf
#4
Masaaki Konishi, Nicole Ebner, Jochen Springer, Joerg C Schefold, Wolfram Doehner, Thomas Bernd Dschietzig, Stefan D Anker, Stephan von Haehling
BACKGROUND: Kynurenine is a circulating metabolite from the essential amino acid tryptophan. Accelerated degradation of kynurenine in skeletal muscle has been reported to provide an anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between blood kynurenine and muscle mass/function in patients with heart failure (HF), in whom diseased muscle mass/function plays a pathophysiological role.Methods and Results:Plasma kynurenine was assessed in 249 patients with HF (67±11 years, 21% women) and in 45 controls from the SICA-HF study...
November 30, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903651/t-cells-encountering-myeloid-cells-programmed-for-amino-acid-dependent-immunosuppression-use-rictor-mtorc2-for-proliferative-checkpoint-decisions
#5
Lee-Ann Van de Velde, Chitra Subramanian, Amber M Smith, Luke Barron, Joseph E Qualls, Geoffrey Neale, Adolfo Alfonso-Pecchio, Suzanne Jackowski, Charles O Rock, Thomas A Wynn, Peter J Murray
Modulation of T cell proliferation and function by immunoregulatory myeloid cells is an essential means of preventing self-reactivity and restoring tissue homeostasis. Consumption of amino acids such as arginine and tryptophan by immunoregulatory macrophages is one pathway that suppresses local T cell proliferation. Using a reduced complexity in vitro macrophage: T cell co-culture system, we show that macrophage Arginase-1 (Arg1) is the only factor required by M2 macrophages to block T cells in G1, and this effect is mediated by L-arginine elimination rather than metabolite generation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902886/lateral-gene-transfer-of-p-cresol-and-indole-producing-enzymes-from-environmental-bacteria-to-mastigamoeba-balamuthi
#6
Eva Nývltová, Robert Šuťák, Vojtěch Žárský, Karel Harant, Ivan Hrdý, Jan Tachezy
p-Cresol and indole are volatile biologically active products of the bacterial degradation of tyrosine and tryptophan, respectively. They are typically produced by bacteria in animal intestines, soil and various sediments. Here, we demonstrate that the free-living eukaryote Mastigamoeba balamuthi and its pathogenic relative Entamoeba histolytica produce significant amounts of indole via tryptophanase activity. Unexpectedly, M. balamuthi also produces p-cresol in concentrations that are bacteriostatic to non-p-cresol-producing bacteria...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899931/melatonin-in-plants-and-plant-culture-systems-variability-stability-and-efficient-quantification
#7
Lauren A E Erland, Abhishek Chattopadhyay, Andrew Maxwell P Jones, Praveen K Saxena
Despite growing evidence of the importance of melatonin and serotonin in the plant life, there is still much debate over the stability of melatonin, with extraction and analysis methods varying greatly from lab to lab with respect to time, temperature, light levels, extraction solvents, and mechanical disruption. The variability in methodology has created conflicting results that confound the comparison of studies to determine the role of melatonin in plant physiology. We here describe a fully validated method for the quantification of melatonin, serotonin and their biosynthetic precursors: tryptophan, tryptamine and N-acetylserotonin by liquid chromatography single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in diverse plant species and tissues...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899666/structures-of-human-srp72-complexes-provide-insights-into-srp-rna-remodeling-and-ribosome-interaction
#8
Matthias M M Becker, Karine Lapouge, Bernd Segnitz, Klemens Wild, Irmgard Sinning
Co-translational protein targeting and membrane protein insertion is a fundamental process and depends on the signal recognition particle (SRP). In mammals, SRP is composed of the SRP RNA crucial for SRP assembly and function and six proteins. The two largest proteins SRP68 and SRP72 form a heterodimer and bind to a regulatory site of the SRP RNA. Despite their essential roles in the SRP pathway, structural information has been available only for the SRP68 RNA-binding domain (RBD). Here we present the crystal structures of the SRP68 protein-binding domain (PBD) in complex with SRP72-PBD and of the SRP72-RBD bound to the SRP S domain (SRP RNA, SRP19 and SRP68) detailing all interactions of SRP72 within SRP...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896446/biocompatible-silver-nanoparticles-prepared-with-amino-acids-and-a-green-method
#9
Ricardo Almeida de Matos, Lilia Coronato Courrol
The synthesis of nanoparticles is usually carried out by chemical reduction, which is effective but uses many toxic substances, making the process potentially harmful to the environment. Hence, as part of the search for environmentally friendly or green synthetic methods, this study aimed to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using only AgNO3, Milli-Q water, white light from a xenon lamp (Xe) and amino acids. Nanoparticles were synthetized using 21 amino acids, and the shapes and sizes of the resultant nanoparticles were evaluated...
November 28, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896310/preservation-of-essential-odor-guided-behaviors-and-odor-based-reversal-learning-after-targeting-adult-brain-serotonin-synthesis
#10
Kaitlin S Carlson, Meredith S Whitney, Marie A Gadziola, Evan S Deneris, Daniel W Wesson
The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is considered a powerful modulator of sensory system organization and function in a wide range of animals. The olfactory system is innervated by midbrain 5-HT neurons into both its primary and secondary odor-processing stages. Facilitated by this circuitry, 5-HT and its receptors modulate olfactory system function, including odor information input to the olfactory bulb. It is unknown, however, whether the olfactory system requires 5-HT for even its most basic behavioral functions...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895654/a-comprehensive-phylogeny-reveals-functional-conservation-of-the-uv-b-photoreceptor-uvr8-from-green-algae-to-higher-plants
#11
María B Fernández, Vanesa Tossi, Lorenzo Lamattina, Raúl Cassia
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) is present in sunlight (280-315 nm) and has diverse effects on living organisms. Low fluence rate of exposure induces a specific photomorphogenic response regulated by the UV-B response locus 8 (UVR8) receptor. UVR8 was first described in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the absence of stimuli it is located in the cytoplasm as a homodimer. However, upon UV-B irradiation, it switches to a monomer and interacts with the ubiquitin ligase E3 COP1 via the UVR8 β-propeller domain and the VP core. This induces the expression of the transcription factor HY5 leading to changes in the expression of genes associated with UV-B acclimation and stress tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894843/mir-509-5p-suppresses-the-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-by-targeting-ywhag
#12
Peng Wang, Yu Deng, XiangNing Fu
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) expression is prevalent in human malignancy development and progression. As previously reported, miR-509-5p has been identified as a tumor suppressor in various cancers, but its role and functional mechanism in NSCLC remains unknown. In the present study, we found that miR-509-5p was significantly downregulated in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and cell lines using Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In addition, overexpression of miR-509-5p markedly inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion and phosphorylation of Akt of NSCLC cells...
November 25, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891058/ido2-a-pathogenic-mediator-of-inflammatory-autoimmunity
#13
REVIEW
Lauren M F Merlo, Laura Mandik-Nayak
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2), a homolog of the better-studied tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme IDO1, is an immunomodulatory molecule with potential effects on various diseases including cancer and autoimmunity. Here, we review what is known about the direct connections between IDO2 and immune function, particularly in relationship to autoimmune inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Accumulating evidence indicates that IDO2 acts as a pro-inflammatory mediator of autoimmunity, with a functional phenotype distinct from IDO1...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889626/absence-of-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-reduces-mortality-of-acute-viral-myocarditis-in-mice
#14
Hisako Kubo, Masato Hoshi, Akihiro Mouri, Chieko Tashita, Yasuko Yamamoto, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Kuniaki Saito
Infection of the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in mice is an established model for viral myocarditis. Previously, we have demonstrated that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an L-tryptophan - kynurenine pathway (KP) enzyme, affects acute viral myocarditis. However, the roles of KP metabolites in EMCV infection remain unclear. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is one of the key regulatory enzymes, which metabolizes kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine in the KP. Therefore, we examined the role of KMO in acute viral infection by comparing between KMO(-/-) mice and KMO(+/+) mice...
November 23, 2016: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889579/protective-effects-of-high-tryptophan-diet-on-aging-induced-passive-avoidance-impairment-and-hippocampal-apoptosis
#15
Giuseppe Musumeci, Paola Castrogiovanni, Marta Anna Szychlinska, Rosa Imbesi, Carla Loreto, Sergio Castorina, Salvatore Giunta
In our previous work we have shown that L-Tryptophan (TrP) enriched diet prevents the age-induced decline of hippocampal Serotonin (5-HT) production. Considering that loss or reduction in 5-HT neurotransmission may contribute to age-related cognitive decline, here we have investigated the effect of such diet on passive avoidance (PA) behavior, cell death, pro- and anti- apoptotic molecules (BAX, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3) and an important transcription factor involved in synaptic plasticity and memory (CREB). The increase in 5-HT neurotransmission in the Hippocampus (Hp) of aged rats was induced by 1 month of high TrP administration...
November 23, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888143/dissolution-behavior-of-co-amorphous-amino-acid-indomethacin-mixtures-the-ability-of-amino-acids-to-stabilize-the-supersaturated-state-of-indomethacin
#16
Rami Ojarinta, Aki T Heikkinen, Elina Sievänen, Riikka Laitinen
Arginine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan have been previously shown to improve the solid-state stability of amorphous indomethacin. The present study investigates the ability of these amino acids to prolong the supersaturation of indomethacin in both aqueous and biorelevant conditions either when freely in solution or when formulated as co-amorphous mixtures. The co-amorphous amino acid-indomethacin mixtures (molar ratio 1:1) and amorphous indomethacin were prepared by cryomilling. Dissolution and precipitation tests were performed in buffer solutions (pH 5 and 6...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886578/kynurenic-acid-and-psychotic-symptoms-and-personality-traits-in-twins-with-psychiatric-morbidity
#17
Magdalena E Kegel, Viktoria Johansson, Lennart Wetterberg, Maria Bhat, Lilly Schwieler, Tyrone D Cannon, Ina Schuppe-Koistinen, Göran Engberg, Mikael Landén, Christina M Hultman, Sophie Erhardt
Increased cytokines and kynurenic acid (KYNA) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate cytokines and kynurenines in the CSF of twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to study these CSF markers in relation to psychotic symptoms and personality traits. CSF levels of tryptophan (TRP), KYNA, quinolinic acid (QUIN), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed in 23 twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and in their not affected co-twins...
November 16, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886064/probiotic-supplements-beneficially-affect-tryptophan-kynurenine-metabolism-and-reduce-the-incidence-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-trained-athletes-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
Barbara Strasser, Daniela Geiger, Markus Schauer, Johanna M Gostner, Hannes Gatterer, Martin Burtscher, Dietmar Fuchs
BACKGROUND: Prolonged intense exercise has been associated with transient suppression of immune function and an increased risk of infections. In this context, the catabolism of amino acid tryptophan via kynurenine may play an important role. The present study examined the effect of a probiotic supplement on the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and the metabolism of aromatic amino acids after exhaustive aerobic exercise in trained athletes during three months of winter training...
November 23, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885336/investigation-of-structural-dynamics-of-enzymes-and-protonation-states-of-substrates-using-computational-tools
#19
Chia-En A Chang, Yu-Ming M Huang, Leonard J Mueller, Wanli You
This review discusses the use of molecular modeling tools, together with existing experimental findings, to provide a complete atomic-level description of enzyme dynamics and function. We focus on functionally relevant conformational dynamics of enzymes and the protonation states of substrates. The conformational fluctuations of enzymes usually play a crucial role in substrate recognition and catalysis. Protein dynamics can be altered by a tiny change in a molecular system such as different protonation states of various intermediates or by a significant perturbation such as a ligand association...
June 2016: Catalysts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884676/protein-interactions-with-silver-nanoparticles-green-synthesis-and-biophysical-approach
#20
Nada Shaeel Al-Thabaiti, Maqsood Ahmad Malik, Zaheer Khan
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with an average particle size of 20nm were synthesized by using aromatic amino acid fluorescence active, tryptophan as a reducing agent. This study aims to investigate the interaction between Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and AgNPs as a function of particle size and shape. UV-vis analysis implies the formation of the ground state complex between BSA and AgNPs through electrostatic interactions. The fluorescence spectra indicated that the AgNPs have a potent ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA by static quenching mechanisms...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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