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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091994/source-analysis-of-organic-matter-in-swine-wastewater-after-anaerobic-digestion-with-eem-parafac
#1
Zhuo Zeng, Ping Zheng, Aqiang Ding, Meng Zhang, Ghulam Abbas, Wei Li
Swine wastewater is one of the most serious pollution sources, and it has attracted a great public concern in China. Anaerobic digestion technology is extensively used in swine wastewater treatment. However, the anaerobic digestion effluents are difficult to meet the discharge standard. The results from batch experiments showed that plenty of refractory organic matter remained in the effluents after mesophilic anaerobic digestion for 30 days. The effluent total COD (tCOD) and soluble COD (sCOD) were 483 and 324 mg/L, respectively, with the sCOD/tCOD ratio of 0...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090435/-13-c-metabolomics-nmr-and-iroa-for-unknown-identification
#2
Chaevien S Clendinen, Gregory S Stupp, Bing Wang, Timothy J Garrett, Arthur S Edison
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Isotopic Ratio Outlier Analysis (IROA) is an untargeted metabolomics method that uses stable isotopic labeling and LC-HRMS for identification and relative quantification of metabolites in a biological sample under varying experimental conditions. OBJECTIVE: We demonstrate a method using high-sensitivity (13)C NMR to identify an unknown metabolite isolated from fractionated material from an IROA LC-HRMS experiment. METHODS: IROA samples from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were fractionated using LC-HRMS using 5 repeated injections and collecting 30 sec fractions...
August 2016: Current Metabolomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089858/glucose-amino-acids-and-fatty-acids-directly-regulate-ghrelin-and-nucb2-nesfatin-1-in-the-intestine-and-hepatopancreas-of-goldfish-carassius-auratus-in-vitro
#3
Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Luis Fabián Canosa, Suraj Unniappan
Ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are two peptidyl hormones primarily involved in food intake regulation. We previously reported that the amount of dietary carbohydrates, protein and lipids modulates the expression of these peptides in goldfish in vivo. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the effects of single nutrients on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas. First, immunolocalization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in goldfish hepatopancreas cells was studied by immunohistochemistry. Second, the effects of 2 and 4h-long exposures of cultured intestine and hepatopancreas sections to glucose, L-tryptophan, oleic acid, linolenic acid (LNA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 gene and protein expression were studied...
January 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088157/stochastic-thermodynamics-of-a-chemical-nanomachine-the-channeling-enzyme-tryptophan-synthase
#4
Dimitri Loutchko, Maximilian Eisbach, Alexander S Mikhailov
The enzyme tryptophan synthase is characterized by a complex pattern of allosteric interactions that regulate the catalytic activity of its two subunits and opening or closing of their ligand gates. As a single macromolecule, it implements 13 different reaction steps, with an intermediate product directly channeled from one subunit to another. Based on experimental data, a stochastic model for the operation of tryptophan synthase has been earlier constructed [D. Loutchko, D. Gonze, and A. S. Mikhailov, J. Phys...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087339/differential-behavioral-sensitivity-to-carbon-dioxide-co2-inhalation-in-rats
#5
Andrew Winter, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Devanshi Naik, Renu Sah
Inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is frequently employed as a biological challenge to evoke intense fear and anxiety. In individuals with panic disorder, CO2 reliably evokes panic attacks. Sensitivity to CO2 is highly heterogeneous among individuals, and although a genetic component is implicated, underlying mechanisms are not clear. Preclinical models that can simulate differential responsivity to CO2 are therefore relevant. In the current study we investigated CO2-evoked behavioral responses in four different rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar (W), Long Evans (LE) and Wistar-Kyoto, (WK) rats...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086815/antibiotics-induced-depletion-of-mice-microbiota-induces-changes-in-host-serotonin-biosynthesis-and-intestinal-motility
#6
Xiaolong Ge, Chao Ding, Wei Zhao, Lizhi Xu, Hongliang Tian, Jianfeng Gong, Minsheng Zhu, Jieshou Li, Ning Li
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal motility is affected by gut microbiota and the relationship between them has become a hot topic. However, mechanisms of microbiota in regulating motility have not been well defined. We thus investigated the effect of microbiota depletion by antibiotics on gastrointestinal motility, colonic serotonin levels, and bile acids metabolism. METHODS: After 4 weeks with antibiotics treatments, gastrointestinal and colon transit, defecation frequency, water content, and other fecal parameters were measured and analyzed in both wild-type and antibiotics-treated mice, respectively...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078987/role-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-dopaminergic-system-disturbances-implications-for-anhedonic-features-of-mdd
#7
Zihang Pan, Joshua D Rosenblat, Walter Swardfager, Roger S McIntyre
Anhedonia, characterized by a loss of interest and/or pleasure in previously enjoyable activities, is an important diagnostic criterion of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Converging evidence implicates a behaviouralcausal relationship between proinflammatory cytokines and disturbances that characterize anhedonia in the context of MDD. Additionally, anhedonia has been implicated in disturbances of key central dopaminergic modulatory pathways. Emerging research into the roles of tetrahydrobiopterin, a cytokine-targeted co-enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine, and kynurenine, a product of inflammation-sensitive breakdown of tryptophan via indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, have shed new light into the role of inflammation in mediating anhedonic behaviours...
January 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077028/ferulic-acid-suppresses-expression-of-tryptophan-metabolic-key-enzyme-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-via-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-p38-mapk-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-microglial-cells
#8
Manami Koshiguchi, Hitoshi Komazaki, Shizuka Hirai, Yukari Egashira
Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenol compound found in plants that has anti-inflammatory properties. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan catabolic enzyme induced in immune cells, including glial cells, during inflammation. Enhanced IDO expression leads to reduced tryptophan levels and increased levels of toxic metabolites, including quinolinic acid. Therefore, inhibition of IDO expression may be effective in suppressing progression of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined the effect of FA in microglial cells on IDO expression levels and related inflammatory signal molecules...
January 12, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076814/gsmtx4-mechanism-of-inhibiting-mechanosensitive-ion-channels
#9
Radhakrishnan Gnanasambandam, Chiranjib Ghatak, Anthony Yasmann, Kazuhisa Nishizawa, Frederick Sachs, Alexey S Ladokhin, Sergei I Sukharev, Thomas M Suchyna
GsMTx4 is a spider venom peptide that inhibits cationic mechanosensitive channels (MSCs). It has six lysine residues that have been proposed to affect membrane binding. We synthesized six analogs with single lysine-to-glutamate substitutions and tested them against Piezo1 channels in outside-out patches and independently measured lipid binding. Four analogs had ∼20% lower efficacy than the wild-type (WT) peptide. The equilibrium constants calculated from the rates of inhibition and washout did not correlate with the changes in inhibition...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076364/ifn%C3%AE-regulates-activated-v%C3%AE-2-t-cells-through-a-feedback-mechanism-mediated-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Karoline Fechter, Akaitz Dorronsoro, Emma Jakobsson, Izaskun Ferrin, Valérie Lang, Pilar Sepulveda, Daniel J Pennington, César Trigueros
γδ T cells play a role in a wide range of diseases such as autoimmunity and cancer. The majority of circulating human γδ T lymphocytes express a Vγ9Vδ2+ (Vδ2+) T cell receptor (TCR) and following activation release pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we show that IFNγ, produced by Vδ2+ cells, activates mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated immunosupression, which in turn exerts a negative feedback mechanism on γδ T cell function ranging from cytokine production to proliferation. Importantly, this modulatory effect is limited to a short period of time (<24 hours) post-T cell activation, after which MSCs can no longer exert their immunoregulatory capacity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076309/activation-of-the-tryptophan-serotonin-pathway-is-associated-with-severity-and-predicts-outcomes-in-pneumonia-results-of-a-long-term-cohort-study
#11
Marc A Meier, Manuel Ottiger, Alaadin Vögeli, Christian Steuer, Luca Bernasconi, Robert Thomann, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Christoph Henzen, Claus Hoess, Werner Zimmerli, Andreas Huber, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
BACKGROUND: As part of the immune defense during infection, an increase in enzyme activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) leads to a breakdown of tryptophan to kynurenine. In previous animal studies, therapeutic antagonism of IDO resulted in reduced sepsis mortality. We investigated the prognostic ability of tryptophan, serotonin, kynurenine and IDO (represented by the ratio of kynurenine/tryptophan) to predict adverse clinical outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074372/tracking-fluorescent-components-of-dissolved-organic-matter-from-soils-in-large-scale-irrigated-area
#12
Hongwei Pan, Huibin Yu, Yonghui Song, Lin Zhu, Ruixia Liu, Erdeng Du
Combination of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and principal component analysis (PCA) was engaged to track fluorescent components of dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from soils, to seek potential factors, and to reveal their correlations with physico-chemical properties of soils. Soil samples at different depths were collected in Hetao irrigated area of Inner Mongolia, China. Five fluorescent components (C1 to C5) were identified by PARAFAC modeling of DOM extracted from the soil samples...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071717/tryptophan-and-non-tryptophan-fluorescence-of-the-eye-lens-proteins-provides-diagnostics-of-cataract-at-the-molecular-level
#13
Anna Gakamsky, Rory R Duncan, Nicola M Howarth, Baljean Dhillon, Kim K Buttenschön, Daniel J Daly, Dmitry Gakamsky
The chemical nature of the non-tryptophan (non-Trp) fluorescence of porcine and human eye lens proteins was identified by Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Fluorescence Steady-State and Lifetime spectroscopy as post-translational modifications (PTM) of Trp and Arg amino acid residues. Fluorescence intensity profiles measured along the optical axis of human eye lenses with age-related nuclear cataract showed increasing concentration of fluorescent PTM towards the lens centre in accord with the increased optical density in the lens nucleolus...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070799/metabolic-alterations-and-the-protective-effect-of-punicalagin-against-glutamate-induced-oxidative-toxicity-in-ht22-cells
#14
Kavitha Pathakoti, Lavanya Goodla, Manjunath Manubolu, Tewin Tencomnao
Oxidative stress is involved in many neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Punicalagin (PC) is a hydrolysable polyphenol derived from Punica granatum and a potent antioxidant. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of PC on glutamate-induced oxidative stress was evaluated in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT22. PC treatment protected HT22 cells from glutamate-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner, potentially attenuated glutamate-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and restored the mitochondrial membrane depolarization...
January 9, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069823/identification-of-a-residue-glu60-in-trap-required-for-inducing-efficient-transcription-termination-at-the-trp-attenuator-independent-of-binding-tryptophan-and-rna
#15
Natalie M McAdams, Andrea Patterson, Paul Gollnick
Transcription of the tryptophan (trp) operon in Bacillus subtilis is regulated by an attenuation mechanism. Attenuation is controlled by the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP). TRAP binds to a site in the 5' leader region of the nascent trp transcript in response to the presence of excess intracellular tryptophan. This binding induces transcription termination upstream of the structural genes of the operon. In prior attenuation models, the role of TRAP was only to alter the secondary structure of the leader region RNA so as to promote formation of the trp attenuator, which was presumed to function as an intrinsic terminator...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069454/c1473g-polymorphism-in-mouse-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-gene-in-the-regulation-of-the-reaction-to-emotional-stress
#16
Ekaterina Y Bazhenova, Daria V Bazovkina, Elizabeth A Kulikova, Dariya V Fursenko, Nikita V Khotskin, Daria V Lichman, Alexander V Kulikov
Neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is involved in the regulation of stress response. Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) is the key enzyme of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis in the brain. C1473G polymorphism in Tph2 gene is the main factor defining the enzyme activity in the brain of laboratory mice. The effect of interaction between C1473G polymorphism and 30min restriction stress on the behavior in the open field test, c-Fos gene expression and 5-HT metabolism in the brain in adult male of B6-1473C and B6-1473G congenic mouse lines with high and low TPH2 activity was investigated...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069414/peptides-derived-from-%C3%AE-lactalbumin-membrane-binding-helices-oligomerize-in-presence-of-lipids-and-disrupt-bilayers
#17
Øyvind Strømland, Ørjan S Handegård, Morten G Larsen, Hanzhen Wen, Øyvind Halskau
Helix A and -C of α-Lactalbumin, a loosely folded amphitropic protein, perturb lipid monolayers by the formation of amyloid pore-like structures. To investigate whether these helices are able to disrupt fully formed bilayers, we designed peptides comprised of Helix A and -C, and investigated their membrane-perturbing properties. The peptides, designated A-Cage-C and A-Lnk-C, were prepared with tryptophan sites in the helical and the spacer segments in order to monitor which part were involved in membrane association under given conditions...
January 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067522/development-of-a-postcolumn-infused-internal-standard-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-method-for-quantitative-metabolomics-studies
#18
Hsiao-Wei Liao, Ching-Hua Kuo, Guan-Yuan Chen, Ming-Shiang Wu, Wei-Chih Liao, Ching-Hung Lin
Quantitative metabolomics has become much more important in clinical research in recent years. Individual differences in matrix effects (MEs) and the injection order effect are two major factors that reduce the quantification accuracy in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) based metabolomics studies. This study proposed a postcolumn infused-internal standard (PCI-IS) combined with a matrix normalization factor (MNFs) strategy to improve the analytical accuracy of quantitative metabolomics...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065794/adjuvant-quercetin-therapy-for-combined-treatment-of-epilepsy-and-comorbid-depression
#19
Tanveer Singh, Taranjot Kaur, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Epilepsy is one of the major neurological disorders frequently associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression. The predisposition of tryptophan metabolism towards kynurenine pathway has been reported as one of the plausible reasons for association of depression in epilepsy. Hence, this study was envisaged to evaluate the dose dependent inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme employing quercetin (screened employing in vitro method) with levetiracetam for combined management of epilepsy and comorbid depression...
January 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064128/a-novel-luminescence-functionalized-metal-organic-framework-nanoflowers-electrochemiluminesence-sensor-via-on-off-system
#20
Shu Zhu, Xia Lin, Peiyao Ran, Qiao Xia, Chengcheng Yang, Jiao Ma, Yingzi Fu
A novel solid-state electrochemiluminesence (ECL) "on-off" switch system for highly sensitive detection of tryptophan based on the luminescence-functionalized ruthenium metal-organic framework (Ru-MOF) nanoflowers and CdS quantum dots (CdSQDs) was described. Ru-MOF nanoflowers were prepared by a one-step solvothermal method at low temperature and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and fluorescence (FL) spectra...
January 3, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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