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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346185/higher-art-adherence-is-associated-with-lower-systemic-inflammation-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-ugandans-who-achieve-virologic-suppression
#1
Jose R Castillo-Mancilla, Mary Morrow, Yap Boum, Helen Byakwaga, Jessica E Haberer, Jeffrey N Martin, David Bangsberg, Samantha Mawhinney, Nicholas Musinguzi, Yong Huang, Russell P Tracy, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth Williams, Conrad Muzoora, Peter W Hunt, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: Residual systemic inflammation persists despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is associated with non-AIDS clinical outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the association between ART adherence and inflammation in Ugandans living with HIV who were predominantly receiving nevirapine-based ART with a thymidine analog backbone and were virologically suppressed by conventional assays. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), D-dimer, soluble (s)CD14, sCD163, the kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) ratio, in addition to CD8 T-cell activation, were measured at baseline and 6 months after ART initiation in treatment-naïve adults who achieved an undetectable plasma HIV RNA (<400 copies/mL) at their 6-month visit...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345929/antihypertensive-effects-molecular-docking-study-and-isothermal-titration-calorimetry-assay-of-the-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-inhibitory-peptides-from-chlorella-vulgaris
#2
Jingli Xie, Xujun Chen, Junjie Wu, Yanyan Zhang, Yan Zhou, Lujia Zhang, Yajie Tang, Dong-Zhi Wei
The aim of this work is to explore angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and discover the inhibitory mechanism of the peptides. After C. vulgaris proteins were gastrointestinal digested in silico, several ACE inhibitory peptides with C-terminal tryptophan were screened. Among them, two novel non-competitive ACE inhibitors, Thr-Thr-Trp (TTW) and Val-His-Trp (VHW), exhibited the highest inhibitory activity indicated by IC50 values, 0.61 ± 0.12 and 0.91 ± 0...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345193/serotonin-2a-receptor-inhibition-protects-against-the-development-of-pulmonary-hypertension-and-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-neonatal-mice
#3
Cassidy Delaney, Laurie Sherlock, Susan Fisher, Joanne K Maltzahn, Clyde J Wright, Eva Nozik-Grayck
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) worsens clinical outcomes in former preterm infants. Increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signaling plays a prominent role in PH pathogenesis and progression in adults. We hypothesized that increased 5-HT signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of neonatal PH complicating BPD and neonatal lung injury. Thus, we interrogated 5-HT signaling in neonatal mice exposed to bleomycin, previously demonstrated to induce PH and alveolar simplification...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343519/uremic-solute-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-tissue-factor-axis-associates-with-thrombosis-after-vascular-injury-in-humans
#4
Vijaya B Kolachalama, Moshe Shashar, Faisal Alousi, Sowmya Shivanna, Keshab Rijal, Mostafa E Belghasem, Joshua Walker, Shinobu Matsuura, Gary H Chang, C Michael Gibson, Laura M Dember, Jean M Francis, Katya Ravid, Vipul C Chitalia
Individuals with CKD are particularly predisposed to thrombosis after vascular injury. Using mouse models, we recently described indoxyl sulfate, a tryptophan metabolite retained in CKD and an activator of tissue factor (TF) through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling, as an inducer of thrombosis across the CKD spectrum. However, the translation of findings from animal models to humans is often challenging. Here, we investigated the uremic solute-AHR-TF thrombosis axis in two human cohorts, using a targeted metabolomics approach to probe a set of tryptophan products and high-throughput assays to measure AHR and TF activity...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343258/mass-spectrometric-profiling-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-reveals-metabolite-biomarkers-for-cns-involvement-in-varicella-zoster-virus-reactivation
#5
Maike Kuhn, Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Manas K Akmatov, Frank Klawonn, Junxi Wang, Thomas Skripuletz, Volkhard Kaever, Martin Stangel, Frank Pessler
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation spans the spectrum from uncomplicated segmental herpes zoster to life-threatening disseminated CNS infection. Moreover, in the absence of a small animal model for this human pathogen, studies of pathogenesis at the organismal level depend on analysis of human biosamples. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites may reflect critical aspects of host responses and end-organ damage in neuroinfection and neuroinflammation. We therefore applied a targeted metabolomics screen of CSF to three clinically distinct forms of VZV reactivation and infectious and non-infectious disease controls in order to identify biomarkers for CNS involvement in VZV reactivation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342326/mixed-fluorotryptophan-substitutions-at-the-same-residue-expand-the-versatility-of-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-f-protein-nmr-spectroscopy
#6
Calem Kenward, Kyungsoo Shin, Jan Rainey
The strategy of applying fluorine NMR to characterize ligand binding to a membrane protein prepared with mixtures of tryptophans substituted with F at different positions on the indole ring was tested. The ¹⁹F NMR behavior of 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-fluorotryptophan were directly compared as a function of both micellar environment and fragment size for two overlapping apelin receptor (AR/APJ) segments - one with a single transmembrane (TM) helix and two tryptophan residues, the other with three TM helices and two additional tryptophan residues...
January 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342189/the-microbiota-metabolite-indole-inhibits-salmonella-virulence-involvement-of-the-phopq-two-component-system
#7
Nandita Kohli, Zeni Crisp, Rebekah Riordan, Michael Li, Robert C Alaniz, Arul Jayaraman
The microbial community present in the gastrointestinal tract is an important component of the host defense against pathogen infections. We previously demonstrated that indole, a microbial metabolite of tryptophan, reduces enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 attachment to intestinal epithelial cells and biofilm formation, suggesting that indole may be an effector/attenuator of colonization for a number of enteric pathogens. Here, we report that indole attenuates Salmonella Typhimurium (Salmonella) virulence and invasion as well as increases resistance to colonization in host cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342113/mitochondria-oxidative-stress-and-the-kynurenine-system-with-a-focus-on-ageing-and-neuroprotection
#8
REVIEW
Katalin Sas, Elza Szabó, László Vécsei
In this review, the potential causes of ageing are discussed. We seek to gain insight into the main physiological functions of mitochondria and discuss alterations in their function and the genome, which are supposed to be the central mechanisms in senescence. We conclude by presenting the potential modulating role of the kynurenine pathway in the ageing processes. Mitochondrial dynamics are supposed to have important physiological roles in maintaining cell homeostasis. During ageing, a decrease in mitochondrial dynamics was reported, potentially compromising the function of mitochondria...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341448/beneficial-actions-of-microbiota-derived-tryptophan-metabolites
#9
REVIEW
J J Galligan
Tryptophan is an important dietary amino acid and it is the precursor for 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in the nervous system and by enterochromaffin cells in the gut mucosa. Tryptophan is also metabolized by enzymes in the gut mucosa and also by enzymes produced by the gut microbiome. Diet and the microbiome can contribute to metabolic disease in part by causing intestinal inflammation and increased permeability. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Jennis et al. test the hypothesis that indole tryptophan metabolites produced by gut bacteria might be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and beneficial metabolic effects of the gut microbiome and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for weight loss by obese patients...
February 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340478/the-long-and-successful-journey-of-electrochemically-active-amino-acids-from-fundamental-adsorption-studies-to-potential-surface-engineering-tools
#10
André H B Dourado, Fabián C Pastrián, Susana I Córdoba DE Torresi
Proteins have been the subject of electrochemical studies. It is possible to apply electrochemical techniques to obtain information about their structure due to the presence of five electroactive amino acids that can be oriented to the outside of the peptidic chain. These amino acids are L-Tryptophan (L-Trp), L-Tyrosine (L-Tyr), L-Histidine (L-His), L-Methionine (L-Met) and L-Cysteine (L-Cys); their electrochemical behavior being subject of extensive research, but it is still controversial. No spectroscopic investigations have been reported on L-Trp, and due to the short life time of the intermediates, ex situ techniques cannot be employed, leading to a never-ending discussion about possible intermediates...
January 11, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339827/the-impact-of-so2-on-wine-flavanols-and-indoles-in-relation-to-wine-style-and-age
#11
Panagiotis Arapitsas, Graziano Guella, Fulvio Mattivi
Wine has one of the broadest chemical profiles, and the common oenological practice of adding the antioxidant and antimicrobial sulfur dioxide has a major impact on its metabolomic fingerprint. In this study, we investigated novel discovered oenological reactions primarily occurring between wine metabolites and sulfur dioxide. The sulfonated derivatives of epicatechin, procyanidin B2, indole acetic acid, indole lactic acid and tryptophol were synthesized and for the first time quantified in wine. Analysis of 32 metabolites in 195 commercial wines (1986-2016 vintages) suggested that sulfonation of tryptophan metabolites characterised white wines, in contrast to red wines, where sulfonation of flavanols was preferred...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339338/the-phytotoxicities-of-decabromodiphenyl-ether-bde-209-to-different-rice-cultivars-oryza-sativa-l
#12
Kelun Li, Jie Chen, Lizhong Zhu
Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), as a major component of brominated flame retardants, has been detected in the agricultural soil in considerable amount. Given that BDE-209 is toxic, ubiquitous and persistent, BDE-209 might induce toxic effects on rice cultivars planted in contaminated soil. A comparative study was conducted on phytotoxicities and GC-MS based antioxidant-related metabolite levels to investigate the differences of phytotoxicities of BDE-209 to rice cultivars in Yangtze River Delta of China...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339252/structure-based-design-of-human-immuno-and-constitutive-proteasomes-inhibitors
#13
Nicolas Richy, Daad Sarraf, Xavier Maréchal, Naëla Janmamode, Rémy Le Guével, Emilie Genin, Michèle Reboud-Ravaux, Joëlle Vidal
Starting from the X-ray structure of our previous tripeptidic linear mimics of TMC-95A in complex with yeast 20S proteasome, we introduced new structural features to induce a differential inhibition between human constitutive and immunoproteasome 20S particles. Libraries of 24 tripeptidic and 6 dipeptidic derivatives were synthesized. The optimized preparation of 3-hydroxyoxindolyl alanine residues from tryptophan and their incorporation in peptides were described. Several potent inhibitors of human constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome acting at the nanomolar level (IC50 = 7...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339185/dose-response-relationship-of-tryptophan-with-large-neutral-amino-acids-and-its-impact-on-physiological-responses-in-the-chick-model
#14
Alhassan Usman Bello, Zulkifli Idrus, Goh Yong Meng, Edward J Narayan, Abdoreza Soleimani Farjam
Tryptophan (Trp) has been associated with the regulation of several behavioral and physiological processes, through stimulation of serotonergic activity. Tryptophan utilization at the metabolic level is influenced by the competitive carrier system it shares with large neutral amino acids (LNAA). This study was carried out using meat-type chicken as a model, to investigate the dose response effects of Trp/LNAA on fear response (tonic immobility; TI) and hormonal responses, including corticosterone (CORT), serotonin (5-HT), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)...
January 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337693/in-vitro-reconstitution-and-biochemical-characterization-of-human-phospholipid-scramblase-3-phospholipid-specificity-and-metal-ion-binding-studies
#15
Santosh Kumar Palanirajan, Ulaganathan Sivagnanam, Sowmiya Murugan, Sathyanarayana N Gummadi
Human phospholipid scramblase 3 (hPLSCR3) is a single pass transmembrane protein that plays a vital role in fat metabolism, mitochondrial function, structure, maintenance and apoptosis. The mechanism of action of scramblases remains still unknown and the role of scramblases in phospholipid translocation is heavily debated. hPLSCR3 is the only member of scramblase family localized to mitochondria and is involved in cardiolipin translocation at the mitochondrial membrane. Direct biochemical evidence of phospholipid translocation by hPLSCR3 is yet to be reported...
June 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337219/citrus-bioflavonoid-hesperetin-as-inhibitor-of-two-thrombin-like-snake-venom-serine-proteases-isolated-from-crotalus-simus
#16
Roney Vander Dos Santos, Fabian Villalta-Romero, Danijela Stanisic, Luiz Borro, Goran Neshich, Ljubica Tasic
Around 5.5 million people suffer from snakebites per year, with about 400,000 cases with some type of sequelae, such as amputation, and 20,000 to 125,000 cases with the fatal end. Usually, the victim outcome depends on correct, agile and many times in situ intervention based on the proper identification of the snake venom type and its potential effects, among other factors. Therefore, knowledge on the snake venom composition and a research on inhibitors of snake venom target components might ameliorate envenoming dangerous outcome...
January 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335800/enrichment-and-characterization-of-a-bacterial-mixture-capable-of-utilizing-c-mannosyl-tryptophan-as-a-carbon-source
#17
Tanim J Hossain, Shino Manabe, Yukishige Ito, Toshiya Iida, Saori Kosono, Kenji Ueda, Akira Hosomi, Daishi Inoue, Tadashi Suzuki
C-Mannosylation, a protein-modification found in various eukaryotes, involves the attachment of a single mannose molecule to selected tryptophan residues of proteins. Since C-mannosyl tryptophan (CMW) was detected in human urine, it is generally thought that CMW is not catabolized inside our body and instead is excreted via the urine. This paper reports enrichment of a bacterial consortium from soil that degrades CMW. The bacteria grew in minimal medium supplemented with CMW as the carbon source. Interestingly, even after successive clonal picks of individual colonies, several species were still present in each colony as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, indicating that a single species may not be responsible for this activity...
January 15, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332579/alzheimer-s-disease-a-systemic-review-of-substantial-therapeutic-targets-and-the-leading-multi-functional-molecules
#18
Tarana Umar, Nasimul Hoda
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, having a complex aetiology with numerous possible drug targets. There are targets that have been known for years while more new targets and theories have also emerged. Beta amyloid and cholinesterases are the most significant biological targets for finding curative treatment of AD. The major class of drugs used for AD till now has been the Cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors. Other prevailing models of molecular pathogenesis in AD include neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and amyloid deposition, tryptophan degradation pathway, kinase and phosphatase activity imbalance and neuroinflammation...
January 12, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332455/dna-repair-mechanism-gene-xrcc1a-arg194trp-but-not-xrcc3-thr241met-polymorphism-increased-the-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-premenopausal-females-a-case-control-study-in-northeastern-region-of-india
#19
K Rekha Devi, Jishan Ahmed, Kanwar Narain, Kaustab Mukherjee, Gautam Majumdar, Saia Chenkual, Jason C Zonunmawia
X-ray repair cross complementary group gene is one of the most studied candidate gene involved in different types of cancers. Studies have shown that X-ray repair cross complementary genes are significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer in females. Moreover, studies have revealed that X-ray repair cross complementary gene polymorphism significantly varies between and within different ethnic groups globally. The present case-control study was aimed to investigate the association of X-ray repair cross complementary 1A (Arg194Trp) and X-ray repair cross complementary 3 (Thr241Met) polymorphism with the risk of breast cancer in females from northeastern region of India...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332424/salivary-metabolomics-profile-of-patients-with-recurrent-aphthous-ulcer-as-revealed-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#20
Yantao Li, Daoming Wang, Chunwei Zeng, Yichen Liu, Guangyuan Huang, Zhanlong Mei
Objective We compared the salivary nontargeted metabolite profiles between patients with recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) and healthy individuals to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with RAU. Methods Saliva samples were collected from 45 patients with RAU and 49 healthy individuals, and the salivary metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The metabolomic profiles were then analyzed using multivariate and univariate statistical methods, and enrichment of the metabolites in various biological pathways was assessed...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
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