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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189553/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-triggered-by-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Songkit Supakornnumporn, Bashar Katirji
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, used as immunotherapy in the treatment of melanoma and refractory cancer, may trigger autoimmune disorders. We describe a case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) after the treatment with ipilimumab and nivolumab and review 4 other reported cases. We confirmed the diagnosis of GBS by electrodiagnostic and cerebrospinal fluid studies. Electrodiagnostic results showed findings consistent with acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy and cerebrospinal fluid showed albuminocytologic dissociation...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187518/neurofascin-antibodies-in-autoimmune-genetic-and-idiopathic-neuropathies
#2
Elisabeth Burnor, Li Yang, Hao Zhou, Kristina R Patterson, Colin Quinn, Mary M Reilly, Alexander M Rossor, Steven S Scherer, Eric Lancaster
OBJECTIVE: To measure the frequency, persistence, isoform specificity, and clinical correlates of neurofascin antibodies in patients with peripheral neuropathies. METHODS: We studied cohorts of patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) (n = 59), genetic neuropathy (n = 111), and idiopathic neuropathy (n = 43) for immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM responses to 3 neurofascin (NF) isoforms (NF140, NF155, and NF186) using cell-based assays...
November 29, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182448/cerebrospinal-fluid-cytokine-expression-profile-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#3
Serena Bonin, Nunzia Zanotta, Arianna Sartori, Alessio Bratina, Paolo Manganotti, Giusto Trevisan, Manola Comar
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in patients with particular neurologic disorders is a powerful tool to evaluate specific central nervous system inflammatory markers for diagnostic needs, because CSF represents the specific immune micro-environment to the central nervous system. METHODS: CSF samples from 49 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and non-inflammatory neurologic disorders (NIND) as controls were submitted to protein expression profiles of 47 inflammatory biomarkers by multiplex Luminex bead assay to investigate possible differences in the inflammatory process for MS and CIDP...
November 28, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096750/clinical-efficacy-and-mechanism-of-lymphoplasma-exchange-in-the-treatment-of-guillain-barre-syndrome
#4
M-C Luo, W-F Wang, W-F Yin, Y Li, B-J Li, W-W Duan, Q-M Zeng, Y-B Luo, X-S Yang, H Yang
Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease of the nervous system and is the most common acute polyneuropathy. Both cellular and humoral immunity are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of GBS, and various types of activated CD4+ T cells are thought to orchestrate the onset and progression of GBS. Lymphoplasma exchange (LPE) filtering out activated lymphocytes while exchanging plasma has been used for GBS treatment for years. However the treatment is still not yet optimal. In order to assess the efficacy of this treatment, we evaluate the effect of LPE and determine the appropriate frequency of LPE treatments for GBS patients through comparing the neurological deficit scores and the changes in related immunology indicators of GBS patients before and after LPE treatment...
October 31, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037898/zika-virus-and-autoimmunity-one-step-forward
#5
REVIEW
Diana M Monsalve, Yovana Pacheco, Yeny Acosta-Ampudia, Yhojan Rodríguez, Carolina Ramírez-Santana, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with the development of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Whether ZIKV infection is related to other autoimmune diseases is unknown. Therefore, an association study to evaluate rheumatic and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with ZIKV disease was conducted through a panel of 14 autoantibodies. In addition, a literature review on ZIKV, and GBS and ITP was performed. Our results disclosed a lack of association of rheumatoid and thyroid autoimmunity with ZIKV disease...
October 14, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987189/diseases-of-the-peripheral-nerves
#6
Istvan Katona, Joachim Weis
This chapter reviews the diseases of the peripheral nerves from a neuropathologic point of view, with a special focus on specific morphologic changes, and includes a summary of the histopathologic methods available for their diagnosis. As the rate of obesity and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increase, diabetic neuropathy is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy. Many systemic disorders with metabolic origin, like amyloidosis, hepatic failure, vitamin deficiencies, uremia, lipid metabolism disorders, and others, can also cause axonal or myelin alterations in the peripheral nervous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968369/sensory-polyneuropathies
#7
Kelly Graham Gwathmey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes the methods of diagnosis and management of the sensory-predominant polyneuropathies. To simplify the approach to this category of patients, sensory-predominant polyneuropathies are divided broadly into either small fiber (or pain-predominant) neuropathies and large fiber (or ataxia-predominant) neuropathies, of which the sensory neuronopathies (dorsal root ganglionopathies) are highlighted. RECENT FINDINGS: Physicians can now easily perform skin biopsies in their offices, allowing access to the gold standard pathologic diagnostic tool for small fiber neuropathies...
October 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968368/immune-axonal-polyneuropathy
#8
Jinny O Tavee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune axonal polyneuropathy is caused by a diverse group of disorders that share similar presentations and treatment regimens. This article focuses on the clinical findings, evaluation, and management of immune-mediated causes of axonal polyneuropathy, focusing primarily on large fiber sensorimotor polyneuropathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Specific characteristics of an immune-mediated polyneuropathy have been incorporated in a new diagnostic screening tool that is highly sensitive and can easily be used in the outpatient clinic setting...
October 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948076/peripheral-neuropathy-in-limbic-encephalitis-with-anti-glutamate-receptor-antibodies-case-report-and-systematic-literature-review
#9
Yi-Chia Wei, Chin-Chang Huang, Chi-Hung Liu, Hung-Chou Kuo, Jainn-Jim Lin
INTRODUCTION: Autoantibodies to the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor are known to be the causes of autoimmune encephalitis particularly limbic encephalitis. The involvement of the peripheral nervous system is rarely reported. METHODS: We analyzed the serial nerve conduction studies of a previously reported case of anti-AMPA receptor encephalitis, who was presented with conscious disturbance and quadriplegia...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936613/chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyradiculoneuropathy-and-anesthesia-a-case-series
#10
Andrew R Mortenson, Juraj Sprung, James C Watson, P James B Dyck, Toby N Weingarten
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired autoimmune demyelinating polyneuropathy characterized by symmetrical diffuse weakness that also can rarely affect bulbar and respiratory muscles. The study objective was to describe perioperative outcomes of patients with CIDP who received general anesthesia. This retrospective observational study evaluated patients with active (diagnosed or treated within the previous year) CIDP who underwent general anesthesia at our institution between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015...
September 21, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927011/assessing-autophagy-in-sciatic-nerves-of-a-rat-model-that-develops-inflammatory-autoimmune-peripheral-neuropathies
#11
REVIEW
Susana Brun, Nicolas Schall, Hélène Jeltsch-David, Jérôme de Sèze, Sylviane Muller
The rat sciatic nerve has attracted widespread attention as an excellent model system for studying autophagy alterations in peripheral neuropathies. In our laboratory, we have developed an original rat model, which we used currently in routine novel drug screening and to evaluate treatment strategies for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and other closely related diseases. Lewis rats injected with the S-palmitoylated P0(180-199) peptide develop a chronic, sometimes relapsing-remitting type of disease...
September 18, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919008/immunoadsorption-in-neurological-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Satoru Oji, Kyoichi Nomura
In recent years, immunoadsorption has been increasingly recognized as an alternative to therapeutic plasma exchange and used for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, myasthenia gravis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and multiple sclerosis, as well as autoimmune encephalitis. Unlike therapeutic plasma exchange, which requires fluid replacement with a blood solution such as fresh frozen plasma or albumin, immunoadsorption is a blood purification technique that enables the selective removal of humoral factors from separated plasma through a high-affinity adsorbent with tryptophan or phenylalanine...
August 26, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858846/tlr4-polymorphisms-seem-not-to-be-associated-with-prediabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-but-predispose-to-diabetic-retinopathy-tlr4-polymorphisms-in-glucose-continuum
#13
E T Zaharieva, Z A Kamenov, A S Savov
OBJECTIVES: Compared to type 1 diabetes, the role of the immune and autoimmune pathogenetic mechanisms is much less studied in the type 2 diabetes. Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) have a leading role in inflammation, insulin resistance, and vascular damage. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the polymorphisms in TLR4 gene and different stages in the glucose continuum from prediabetes to the type 2 diabetes and chronic microvascular complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 113 patients with the type 2 diabetes, 29 participants with prediabetes, and 28 controls...
July 1, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835984/relapsing-remitting-type-1-diabetes
#14
Kayleigh M van Megen, Matthew P Spindler, Fleur M Keij, Ineke Bosch, Fleur Sprangers, Annet van Royen-Kerkhof, Tatjana Nikolic, Bart O Roep
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 1 diabetes is believed to be an autoimmune disease associated with irreversible loss of insulin secretory function that follows a chronic progressive course. However, it has been speculated that relapsing/remitting disease progression may occur in type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We report the case of an 18-year-old girl with Graves' disease, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and multiple islet autoantibodies, presenting with relapsing/remitting hyperglycaemia...
November 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831691/parvovirus-b19-infection-associated-with-hemolytic-anemia-and-cranial-polyneuropathy
#15
João Sequeira, Ana Calado, Margarida Dias, Manuel Manita
Parvovirus B19 (PB19) is a common, widespread, small, single-stranded DNA virus which has been linked with a broad spectrum of clinical illnesses, including a variety of neurological complications such as encephalitis, meningitis, myelitis, stroke, cerebellar ataxia, and neuropathy. The authors describe a case of PB19 infection associated with hemolytic anemia and cranial polyneuropathy involving the second and third cranial nerves in a 23-year-old immunocompetent woman. The diagnosis of acute PB19 infection was established with detection of positive DNA and anti-PB19 IgM antibodies in blood samples...
October 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827487/clinical-and-laboratory-profiles-of-idiopathic-small-fiber-neuropathy-in-children-case-series
#16
Jafar Kafaie, Ali Al Balushi, Minsoo Kim, Alan Pestronk
The role of autoimmune mechanisms in idiopathic small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is not completely understood. Serum IgM binding to trisulfated disaccharide IdoA2S-GlcNS-6S (TS-HDS) and IgG to fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 were associated with sensory motor polyneuropathies and sensory neuronopathy among others. In this retrospective case review, we describe the clinical and laboratory findings of idiopathic SFN in a small cohort of pediatric patients. Eight children were diagnosed with SFN clinically and confirmed by reduced epidermal nerve fiber density...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811143/nadph-oxidases-as-drug-targets-and-biomarkers-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-what-is-the-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Silvia Sorce, Roland Stocker, Tamara Seredenina, Rikard Holmdahl, Adriano Aguzzi, Adriano Chio, Antoine Depaulis, Freddy Heitz, Peter Olofsson, Tomas Olsson, Venceslas Duveau, Despina Sanoudou, Sara Skosgater, Antonia Vlahou, Dominique Wasquel, Karl-Heinz Krause, Vincent Jaquet
Neurodegenerative disease are frequently characterized by microglia activation and/or leukocyte infiltration in the parenchyma of the central nervous system and at the molecular level by increased oxidative modifications of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. NADPH oxidases (NOX) emerged as a novel promising class of pharmacological targets for the treatment of neurodegeneration due to their role in oxidant generation and presumably in regulating microglia activation. The unique function of NOX is the generation of superoxide anion (O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
November 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708133/autoantibodies-in-chronic-inflammatory-neuropathies-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications
#18
REVIEW
Luis Querol, Jérôme Devaux, Ricard Rojas-Garcia, Isabel Illa
The chronic inflammatory neuropathies (CINs) are rare, very disabling autoimmune disorders that generally respond well to immune therapies such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). The most common forms of CIN are chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), multifocal motor neuropathy, and polyneuropathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance. The field of CIN has undergone a major advance with the identification of IgG4 autoantibodies directed against paranodal proteins in patients with CIDP...
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690947/autoamputation-and-polyneuropathy-in-mixed-connective-tissue-disorder-a-case-report
#19
Syeda Naqvi, Vikash Talib, Razia Aijaz, Zeeshan Ali, Shehroz Bashir, Syed Masroor Ahmad, Shabnam Naveed
Mixed connective tissue disorder (MCTD) is a multisystem disease with overlapping features of other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), myositis, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma. MCTD presents with a distinctive antibody in serum known as U1-ribonucleoprotein (RNP). MCTD is quite rare as compared to other connective tissue disorders like SLE, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, and polymyositis. We describe a case of MCTD in a young Asian female of 30 year old. This case highlights rare co-existence of polyneuropathy and autoamputation in MCTD disorder...
June 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639596/guillain-barre-syndrome-demographics-clinical-profile-seasonal-variation-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-of-central-india
#20
Manisha Shrivastava, Shah Nehal, Navaid Seema
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease and a recognized cause of generalized progressive paralysis worldwide. The present study was aimed to document the clinical findings, demographics and seasonal variations amongst the patients with GBS during the hospital stay. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 66 referred cases diagnosed as GBS was conducted. Medical records and the data related to age, sex, antecedent illness, duration of symptoms before admission, muscle power graded by the Medical Research Council scale, functional scores, details of Intensive Care Unit complications and need for ventilation were obtained...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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