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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729344/exogenous-stress-hormones-alter-energetic-and-nutrient-costs-of-development-and-metamorphosis
#1
Lucas J Kirschman, Marshall D McCue, Justin G Boyles, Robin W Warne
Variation in environmental conditions during larval life stages can shape development during critical windows and have lasting effects on the adult organism. Changes in larval developmental rates in response to environmental conditions, for example, can trade-off with growth to determine body size and condition at metamorphosis, which can affect adult survival and fecundity. However, it is unclear how use of energy and nutrients shape trade-offs across life stage transitions because no studies have quantified these costs of larval development and metamorphosis...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719905/childhood-onset-adult-growth-hormone-deficiency-clinical-hormonal-and-radiological-assessment-in-a-single-center-in-china
#2
Hongbo Yang, Huijuan Zhu, Xuemin Yan, Hui Pan
BACKGROUND: Although growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is an important issue in pediatric patients, adult GHD (AGHD) is a neglected field of endocrinology in China. The aim of this study is to characterize the clinical, hormonal, and radiological features in childhood-onset AGHD (CO AGHD) in a single center in China and to compare them with counterparts from Japan. METHODS: The medical records of 78 Chinese patients with CO AGHD were reviewed and compared with data from the HypoCCS database study from Japan (N = 69)...
July 18, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709905/royal-jelly-decreases-corticosterone-levels-and-improves-the-brain-antioxidant-system-in-restraint-and-cold-stressed-rats
#3
Renata Roland Teixeira, Adriele Vieira de Souza, Leonardo Gomes Peixoto, Helen Lara Machado, Douglas Carvalho Caixeta, Danielle Diniz Vilela, Nathalia Belele Baptista, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Foued Salmen Espindola
Restraint and cold stress induces the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to release corticosterone from the adrenal gland, which can worsen the antioxidant defense system in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated the corticosterone levels and the antioxidant defense system in the cerebellum and brain, as well as in its isolated regions, such as cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus of stressed rats supplemented with royal jelly (RJ). Wistar rats were supplemented with RJ for 14days and the stress induction started on the 7th day...
July 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694329/feminization-of-male-mouse-liver-by-persistent-growth-hormone-stimulation-activation-of-sex-biased-transcriptional-networks-and-dynamic-changes-in-chromatin-states
#4
Dana Lau-Corona, Alexander Suvorov, David J Waxman
Sex-dependent pituitary GH secretory profiles--pulsatile in males and persistent in females--regulate sex-biased, STAT5-dependent expression of hundreds of genes in mouse liver, imparting sex differences in hepatic drug/lipid metabolism and disease risk. Here we examine transcriptional and epigenetic changes induced by continuous-GH infusion (cGH) in male mice, which rapidly feminizes the temporal profile of liver STAT5 activity. cGH repressed 86% of male-biased genes and induced 68% of female-biased genes within 4-days; however, several highly female-specific genes showed weak or no feminization, even after 14-days cGH...
July 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688111/vasopressin-and-metabolic-disorders-translation-from-experimental-models-to-clinical-use
#5
Kazuaki Nakamura, Gilberto Velho, Nadine Bouby
Vasopressin has many physiological actions in addition to its well-defined role in the control of fluid homeostasis and urine concentration. An increasing body of evidence suggests that the vasopressin-hydration axis plays a role in glucose homeostasis. This review summarizes the knowledge accumulated over the last decades about the influence of vasopressin in the short-term regulation of glycemia. It describes the possible role of this hormone through activation of V1a and V1b receptors on liver and pancreas functions and on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687198/neu-p11-a-novel-mt1-mt2-agonist-reverses-diabetes-by-suppressing-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-rats
#6
Jun Zhou, Jin Zhang, XiaoHong Luo, MaoXing Li, Ying Yue, Moshe Laudon, ZhengPing Jia, RuXue Zhang
Excessive glucocorticoid (GC) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) reduces insulin sensitivity, impairs β-cell function, increases gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, impairs glucose uptake and metabolism, and reduces the insulinotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1. Melatonin, which serves as a physiological regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has been suggested to have anti-diabetic effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the MT1/MT2 melatonin agonist Neu-P11 on glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM rats induced by a high fat diet combined with low doses of streptozotocin...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623763/saturated-high-fat-feeding-independent-of-obesity-alters-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-but-not-anxiety-like-behaviour
#7
Cecile Hryhorczuk, Léa Décarie-Spain, Sandeep Sharma, Caroline Daneault, Christine Des Rosiers, Thierry Alquier, Stephanie Fulton
Overconsumption of dietary fat can elicit impairments in emotional processes and the response to stress. While excess dietary lipids have been shown to alter hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and promote anxiety-like behaviour, it is not known if such changes rely on elevated body weight and if these effects are specific to the type of dietary fat. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a saturated and a monounsaturated high-fat diet (HFD) on HPA axis function and anxiety-like behaviour in rats...
June 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612976/lithium-ameliorates-sleep-deprivation-induced-mania-like-behavior-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis-alterations-oxidative-stress-and-elevations-of-cytokine-concentrations-in-the-brain-and-serum-of-mice
#8
Samira S Valvassori, Wilson R Resende, Gustavo Dal-Pont, Heron Sangaletti-Pereira, Fernanda F Gava, Bruna R Peterle, Roger B Varela, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, João Quevedo
OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of lithium administration on behavior, oxidative stress parameters and cytokine levels in the periphery and brain of mice subjected to an animal model of mania induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD). METHODS: Male C57 mice were treated with saline or lithium for 7 days. The sleep deprivation protocol started on the 5th day during for the last 36 hours of the treatment period. Immediately after the sleep deprivation protocol, animals locomotor activity was evaluated and serum and brain samples was extracted to evaluation of corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone circulating levels, oxidative stress parameters and citokynes levels...
June 14, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599146/maternal-lipids-in-pregnancy-are-associated-with-increased-offspring-cortisol-reactivity-in-childhood
#9
Theresia H Mina, Marius Lahti, Amanda J Drake, Shareen Forbes, Fiona C Denison, Katri Räikkönen, Jane E Norman, Rebecca M Reynolds
Prenatal programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has long term implications for offspring health. Biological mechanisms underlying programming of the offspring HPA axis are poorly understood. We hypothesised that altered maternal metabolism including higher maternal obesity, glucose and lipids are novel programming factors for altered offspring HPA axis activity. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 54 children aged 3-5 years under experimental conditions (before and after a delay of self-gratification test)...
May 31, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586412/high-fat-diet-and-female-fertility
#10
Natalie M Hohos, Malgorzata E Skaznik-Wikiel
The prevalence of obesity is high among reproductive age women and is associated with impaired reproductive function. Obesity is multifactorial in origin, yet many cases of obesity result from overconsumption of a diet high in fat. Excess dietary fat increases both adipose and non-adipose tissue lipid content, and through lipotoxicity leads to cell dysfunction and death. High dietary fat intake, with or without the development of obesity, impairs female hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis functionality and fertility...
June 6, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552719/regulation-of-longevity-by-fgf21-interaction-between-energy-metabolism-and-stress-responses
#11
REVIEW
Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like member of FGF family which controls metabolic multiorgan crosstalk enhancing energy expenditure through glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, FGF21 acts as a stress hormone induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress and dysfunctions of mitochondria and autophagy in several tissues. FGF21 also controls stress responses and metabolism by modulating the functions of somatotropic axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) pathway. FGF21 is a potent longevity factor coordinating interactions between energy metabolism and stress responses...
August 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552377/influence-of-water-salinity-on-genes-implicated-in-somatic-growth-lipid-metabolism-and-food-intake-in-pejerrey-odontesthes-bonariensis
#12
Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Mario Oswaldo Tovar, Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Pedro Gómez-Requeni, Suraj Unniappan, Luis Fabián Canosa
Pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis, is an euryhaline fish of commercial importance in Argentina. This work aimed to determine if water salinity affects the expression of genes involved in somatic growth (gh; ghr-I; ghr-II; igf-I), lipid metabolism (Δ6-desaturase) and food intake (nucb2/nesfatin-1). First, we identified the full-length cDNA sequences of Δ6-desaturase (involved in lipid metabolism) and nesfatin-1 (an anorexigen). Then, pejerrey juveniles were reared during 8weeks in three different water salinity conditions: 2...
August 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541489/respiratory-effects-and-systemic-stress-response-following-acute-acrolein-inhalation-in-rats
#13
Samantha J Snow, Marie A McGee, Andres Henriquez, Judy E Richards, Mette C Schladweiler, Allen D Ledbetter, Urmila P Kodavanti
Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically-impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4h/day for 1 or 2 days...
May 24, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476050/influence-of-pilocarpine-and-timolol-on-human-meibomian-gland-epithelial-cells
#14
Yi Zhang, Wendy R Kam, Yang Liu, Xiaomin Chen, David A Sullivan
PURPOSE: Investigators have discovered that topical antiglaucoma drugs may induce meibomian gland dysfunction. This response may contribute to the dry eye disease commonly found in patients with glaucoma taking such medications. We hypothesize that drug action involves a direct effect on human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGECs). To test this hypothesis, we examined the influence of the antiglaucoma drugs, pilocarpine and timolol, on the morphology, survival, proliferation, and differentiation of HMGECs...
June 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473666/the-palmitoylation-of-the-n-terminal-extracellular-cys37-mediates-the-nuclear-translocation-of-vpac1-contributing-to-its-anti-apoptotic-activity
#15
Rongjie Yu, Hongyu Liu, Xinhe Peng, Yue Cui, Suqin Song, Like Wang, Huahua Zhang, An Hong, Tianhong Zhou
VPAC1 is class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) shared by pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The first cysteine (Cys37) in the N-terminal extracellular domain of mature VPAC1 is a free Cys not involved in the formation of conserved intramolecular disulfide bonds. In order to investigate the biological role of this Cys37 in VPAC1, the wild-type VPAC1 and Cys37/Ala mutant (VPAC1-C37/A) were expressed stably as fusion proteins with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) respectively in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470485/biomarkers-of-suicide-attempt-behavior-towards-a-biological-model-of-risk
#16
REVIEW
Katherin Sudol, J John Mann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rising suicide rate in the USA will not be reversed without improved risk assessment and prevention practices. To date, the best method for clinicians to assess a patient's risk for suicide is screening for past suicide attempts in the patient and their family. However, neuroimaging, genomic, and biochemical studies have generated a body of findings that allow description of an initial heuristic biological model for suicidal behavior that may have predictive value...
June 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457949/%C3%A3-ngstrom-size-exocytotic-fusion-pore-implications-for-pituitary-hormone-secretion
#17
REVIEW
Marko Kreft, Jernej Jorgačevski, Matjaž Stenovec, Robert Zorec
In the past, vesicle content release was thought to occur immediately and completely after triggering of exocytosis. However, vesicles may merge with the plasma membrane to form an Ångstrom diameter fusion pore that prevents the exit of secretions from the vesicle lumen. The advantage of such a narrow pore is to minimize the delay between the trigger and the release. Instead of stimulating a sequence of processes, leading to vesicle merger with the plasma membrane and a formation of a fusion pore, the stimulus only widens the pre-established fusion pore...
April 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433506/heifers-express-g-protein-coupled-receptor-61-in-anterior-pituitary-gonadotrophs-in-stage-dependent-manner
#18
Kiran Pandey, Onalenna Kereilwe, Vitaliano Borromeo, Hiroya Kadokawa
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRHRs) colocalize with insulin and glucocorticoid receptors in lipid rafts of the gonadotroph plasma membrane, where they facilitate downstream signaling. We recently found that orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)61 is expressed in the anterior pituitary (AP) of heifers, leading us to speculate that GPR61 colocalizes with GnRHR in the plasma membrane of gonadotroph and is expressed at specific times of the reproductive cycle. To test this hypothesis, we examined the coexpression of GnRHR, GPR61, and either luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit in AP tissue and cultured AP cells by immunofluorescence microscopy...
April 4, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384517/biomarker-response-and-hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal-axis-functioning-in-arctic-charr-from-bj%C3%A3-rn%C3%A3-ya-74%C3%A2-30-%C3%A2-n-norway-with-high-levels-of-organohalogenated-compounds
#19
Even H Jørgensen, Alec G Maule, Anita Evenset, Guttorm Christensen, Jenny Bytningsvik, Marianne Frantzen, Vladimir Nikiforov, Erin Faught, Mathilakath M Vijayan
The populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) residing in Lake Ellasjøen at Bjørnøya Island in the Norwegian Arctic (74° 30'N, 19° 00'E) possess substantially higher levels of organohalogenated compounds (strongly dominated by polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) than conspecifics residing in other, proximate lakes on the island. In the present study we sampled large (<400g), immature charr from Lake Ellasjøen (high PCB levels) and Lake Laksvatn (reference lake, low PCB levels) by hook and line for an immediate blood sampling, and blood and tissue sampling after a 1h confinement stressor...
June 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379580/association-of-tsh-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-overweight-and-obese-children-during-lifestyle-intervention
#20
Jesse M Rijks, Jogchum Plat, Elke Dorenbos, Bas Penders, Willem-Jan M Gerver, Anita C E Vreugdenhil
Context: Overweight and obese children have an increased risk to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in which thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been suggested as an intermediary factor. However, results of cross-sectional studies are inconclusive, and intervention studies investigating changes in TSH concentrations in association with changes in cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children are scarce. Objective: To gain insight in associations of circulating TSH concentrations and cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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