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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906555/ligand-biased-regulation-of-ptdins-3-4-5-p3-dependent-signal-transduction-in-gpcr-control-of-pituitary-hormone-release
#1
Joshua G Pemberton, John P Chang
Biased signaling describes the selective activation of signal transduction cascades by structurally-related ligands downstream of shared G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Although class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are important components of GPCR-controlled transduction networks, little is known regarding the potential for biased regulation of class I PI3K-dependent signaling. The full compliment of class I PI3K catalytic subunits (p110α, p110β, p110δ and p110γ) first appear in bony fishes and, despite being associated with distinct cellular functions, all class I PI3Ks produce the lipid second-messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3)...
December 1, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882938/neutral-sphingomyelinase-smpd3-deficiency-disrupts-the-golgi-secretory-pathway-and-causes-growth-inhibition
#2
Wilhelm Stoffel, Ina Hammels, Bitta Jenke, Erika Binczek, Inga Schmidt-Soltau, Susanne Brodesser, Astrid Schauss, Julia Etich, Juliane Heilig, Frank Zaucke
Systemic loss of neutral sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) in mice leads to a novel form of systemic, juvenile hypoplasia (dwarfism). SMPD3 deficiency in mainly two growth regulating cell types contributes to the phenotype, in chondrocytes of skeletal growth zones to skeletal malformation and chondrodysplasia, and in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons to systemic hypothalamus-pituitary-somatotropic hypoplasia. The unbiased smpd3-/- mouse mutant and derived smpd3-/- primary chondrocytes were instrumental in defining the enigmatic role underlying the systemic and cell autonomous role of SMPD3 in the Golgi compartment...
November 24, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874199/glucose-and-lipids-levels-with-lanreotide-autogel-120-mg-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-acromegaly-data-from-the-primarys-study
#3
Philippe J Caron, Stephan Petersenn, Aude Houchard, Caroline Sert, John S Bevan
OBJECTIVE: Impaired glycaemic control, characteristic of acromegaly, can be exacerbated by treatment with somatostatin analogues (SSAs), particularly those with multireceptor activity. We present data from the PRIMARYS study on the impact of the SSA lanreotide, associated with tumour volume and hormonal improvements, on glucose and other metabolic parameters in acromegaly. DESIGN: PRIMARYS was a 48-week open-label single-arm phase-3b study of lanreotide autogel 120mg/4 weeks...
November 22, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802964/chronic-hyperprolactinemia-evoked-by-disruption-of-lactotrope-dopamine-d2-receptors-impacts-on-liver-and-adipocyte-genes-related-to-glucose-and-insulin-balance
#4
Guillermina Maria Luque, Felicitas Lopez-Vicchi, Ana Maria Ornstein, Belen Brie, Catalina De Winne, Esteban Fiore, Maria Ines Perez Millan, Guillermo Mazzolini, Marcelo Rubinstein, Damasia Becu-Villalobos
We studied the impact of high prolactin titers on liver and adipocyte gene expression related to glucose and insulin homeostasis, in correlation with obesity onset. To that end we used mutant female mice that selectively lack dopamine type 2 receptors (D2Rs) from pituitary lactotropes (lacDrd2KO) which have chronic high prolactin levels associated with increased body weight, marked increments in fat depots, adipocyte size, and serum lipids, a metabolic phenotype which intensifies with age. LacDrd2KO mice of two developmental ages, 5 and 10 months were used...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792531/physiological-stress-responses-in-amphibian-larvae-to-multiple-stressors-reveal-marked-anthropogenic-effects-even-below-lethal-levels
#5
Pablo Burraco, Ivan Gomez-Mestre
Natural and anthropogenic disturbances cause profound alterations in organisms, inducing physiological adjustments to avoid, reduce, or remedy the impact of disturbances. In vertebrates, the stress response is regulated via neuroendocrine pathways, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids have cascading effects on multiple physiological pathways, affecting the metabolic rate, reactive oxygen species production, or immune system. Determining the extent to which natural and anthropogenic environmental factors induce stress responses in vertebrates is of great importance in ecology and conservation biology...
November 2016: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562403/stress-hormone-release-is-a-key-component-of-the-metabolic-response-to-lipopolysaccharide-studies-in-hypopituitary-and-healthy-subjects
#6
Ermina Bach, Andreas B Møller, Jens O L Jørgensen, Mikkel H Vendelbo, Niels Jessen, Steen B Pedersen, Thomas S Nielsen, Niels Møller
OBJECTIVE: Acute and chronic inflammatory and metabolic responses are generated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during acute illness and in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but whether these responses depend on intact pituitary release of hormones are not clearly identified. We compared the metabolic effects of LPS in hypopituitary patients (HPs) (in the absence of growth hormone (GH) and ACTH responses) and healthy control subjects (CTR) (with normal pituitary hormone responses)...
November 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559343/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-in-female-reproduction-and-fertility
#7
REVIEW
Maurizio Vitti, Giovanna Di Emidio, Michela Di Carlo, Gaspare Carta, Andrea Antonosante, Paolo Giovanni Artini, Annamaria Cimini, Carla Tatone, Elisabetta Benedetti
Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions...
2016: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553775/perceived-weight-discrimination-and-10-year-risk-of-allostatic-load-among-us-adults
#8
Maya Vadiveloo, Josiemer Mattei
BACKGROUND: Discrimination promotes multisystem physiological dysregulation termed allostatic load, which predicts morbidity and mortality. It remains unclear whether weight-related discrimination influences allostatic load. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to prospectively examine 10-year associations between weight discrimination, allostatic load, and its components among adults 25-75 years in the Midlife Development in the US Biomarker Substudy. METHODS: Participants with information on weight discrimination were analyzed (n=986)...
August 23, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552406/do-cyclosporine-a-an-il-1-receptor-antagonist-uridine-triphosphate-rebamipide-and-or-bimatoprost-regulate-human-meibomian-gland-epithelial-cells
#9
Wendy R Kam, Yang Liu, Juan Ding, David A Sullivan
PURPOSE: Researchers have hypothesized that treatment with cyclosporine A (CyA), interleukin-1 receptor antagonists (IL-1RA; e.g., anakinra), P2Y2 receptor agonists (e.g., uridine triphosphate; UTP), and rebamipide may alleviate human meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and/or dry eye disease. Investigators have also proposed that prostaglandin analogues (e.g., bimatoprost) may induce MGD. Our goal was to determine whether these compounds directly influence human meibomian gland epithelial cell (HMGEC) function...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478508/association-of-cardiac-nt-pro-%C3%AE-type-natriuretic-peptide-with-metabolic-and-endothelial-risk-factors-in-young-obese-hypertensive-patients-a-perspective-on-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activation
#10
Mona Schaalan, Waleed Mohamed, Rania Rahmo
BACKGROUND: In practice, there is increasing recognition of the importance of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in the cardiovascular disease progression. The association of brain natriuretic peptide with obesity and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in adults and aged patients is well established, but that in pediatrics needs thorough elucidation. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the association of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis mediators (cortisol and aldosterone) with plasma NT-pro β-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels on metabolic, immune-inflammatory and endothelial markers in young obese pediatric patients...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452372/testosterone-undecanoate-improves-lipid-profile-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-and-hypogonadotrophic-hypogonadism
#11
Juan J Chillarón, Mercè Fernández-Miró, Mercè Albareda, Sara Fontserè, Cristina Colom, Lluís Vila, Juan Pedro-Botet, Juana A Flores Le-Roux
: Testosterone deficiency (Td) has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Few studies have evaluated this condition in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of testosterone undecanoate (TU) on insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and lipid profile in patients with Td and T1D. We performed a randomized placebo-controlled multicenter study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: a) age ≥ 18 years; b) autoimmune diabetes; c) Td (total testosterone <10 nmol/L or calculated free testosterone <225 pmol/L and low/normal LH; d) ability to sign informed consent; e) comply with the study protocol...
September 30, 2016: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323079/association-of-cd36-expression-and-polymorphism-with-serum-biochemical-indices-in-cherry-valley-duck
#12
D D Wang, W G Li, Y Y Zhang
Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) plays a crucial role in lipid sensing, innate immunity, atherogenesis, and glycolipid metabolism. This aims of this study were to delineate the CD36 mRNA expression profile in 16 duck tissues using relative quantitative real-time PCR and to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the duck CD36 gene by PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA direct sequencing. In addition, this study investigated CD36 gene expression, genetic variation, and their effect on serum biochemical indices in duck...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320934/clinical-utility-of-the-liposteroid-therapy-potential-effects-on-the-macrophage-activation
#13
Hiroyuki Wakiguchi, Shouichi Ohga
  Liposteroid, a lipid emulsion containing dexamethasone, was developed in Japan. This drug is effective against rheumatoid arthritis, and has fewer side effects than dexamethasone. Moreover, at high dosage, liposteroid has been effectively used for the treatment of macrophage activation syndrome, because the lipid emulsions are easily taken up by phagocytes, and are retained in macrophages. Its anti-inflammatory effect was found to be 2-5 times higher than that of dexamethasone in arthritis and granuloma rat models...
2016: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262343/salivary-latent-trait-cortisol-ltc-relation-to-lipids-blood-pressure-and-body-composition-in-middle-childhood
#14
Ellen W Yeung, Rebecca Place, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Paul Visich, Eric Hoffman, Sheila O Walker, Douglas A Granger
Adversity experienced early in life has the potential to influence physical health later in life. The stress-health relation may be partially explained by stress-related effects on cardiovascular risk factors. This study explored links between individual differences in trait-like variation in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with cardiovascular risk factors in children. 474 children (M age=9.22years; 54% female; 83% Caucasian) were included in this study, in which cardiovascular risk was assessed using the following indices - triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose (Glu); resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, and % fat...
September 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27155536/melatonin-prevents-cytosolic-calcium-overload-mitochondrial-damage-and-cell-death-due-to-toxically-high-doses-of-dexamethasone-induced-oxidative-stress-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#15
Wilasinee Suwanjang, Andrey Y Abramov, Komgrid Charngkaew, Piyarat Govitrapong, Banthit Chetsawang
Stressor exposure activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and causes elevations in the levels of glucocorticoids (GC) from the adrenal glands. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that prolonged exposure to high GC levels can lead to oxidative stress, calcium deregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in a number of cell types. However, melatonin, via its antioxidant activity, exhibits a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Therefore, in the present study, we explored the protective effect of melatonin in GC-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
July 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098832/endocannabinoid-related-lipids-are-increased-during-an-episode-of-cyclic-vomiting-syndrome
#16
T Venkatesan, Y Zadvornova, H Raff, C J Hillard
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are important neuromodulators of nausea and vomiting. This led us to hypothesize that patients with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) have lower serum endocannabinoids (eCBs) and higher salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. METHODS: Serum eCBs and related lipids, N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA) and N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and salivary cortisol, and alpha amylase (index of sympathetic nervous system activity) were measured in 22 CVS patients (age 40 ± 11, female = 17) in the well and sick phases and 12 matched controls (age 37 ± 12, female = 10)...
September 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27091047/once-and-for-all-lxr%C3%AE-and-lxr%C3%AE-are-gatekeepers-of-the-endocrine-system
#17
REVIEW
Salwan Maqdasy, Amalia Trousson, Igor Tauveron, David H Volle, Silvère Baron, Jean-Marc A Lobaccaro
Liver X receptors (LXRs) α and β are nuclear receptors whose transcriptional activity is regulated by oxysterols, the oxidized forms of cholesterol. Described in the late 1990s as lipid sensors, both LXRs regulate cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Over the years, deep phenotypic analyses of mouse models deficient for LXRα and/or LXRβ have pointed out various other physiological functions including glucose homeostasis, immunology, and neuroprotection. This review enlightens the "endocrine" functions of LXRs; they deeply impact plasma glucose directly and by modulating insulin signaling, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, thyroid and pituitary hormone levels, and bone homeostasis...
June 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27068926/thyroid-function-in-obese-children-and-adolescents-and-its-association-with-anthropometric-and-metabolic-parameters
#18
Małgorzata Rumińska, Ewelina Witkowska-Sędek, Anna Majcher, Beata Pyrżak
Fat accumulation leads to dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and to changes in thyroid function. A higher serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), with normal levels of thyroid hormones, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism, is often found in obese individuals. The influence on lipid and glucose metabolism of thyroid dysfunction in obese patients remains unclear. This retrospective study encompassed 110 obese children and 38 healthy non-obese children aged 5-18. Anthropometric measurements, including bioelectrical impedance, were taken in all children...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034186/endocrine-and-metabolic-characteristics-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#19
Dorte Glintborg
Hirsutism affects 5-25% women, and the condition is most often caused by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The initial evaluation of hirsute patients should include a thorough medical history, clinical evaluation, and standardized blood samples to diagnose the 5% hirsute patients with rare endocrine disorders. The majority of these examinations can be performed by the patient's general practitioner. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion and is a multiorgan disease affecting most endocrine organs including ovaries, adrenals, pituitary, fat cells, and endocrine pancreas...
April 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27010901/pharmacological-characterization-of-lipidized-analogs-of-prolactin-releasing-peptide-with-a-modified-c-terminal-aromatic-ring
#20
V Prazienkova, A Ticha, M Blechova, A Spolcova, B Zelezna, L Maletinska
Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) is an anorexigenic neuropeptide expressed in the brain where it regulates food intake and energy expenditure. The C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 of PrRP is crucial for its biological activity. In our previous study, we showed that PrRP analogs myristoylated or palmitoylated at the N- terminus seem to cross the blood-brain barrier and lower food intake following peripheral administration. In this study, myristoylated and palmitoylated PrRP31 analogs with a modified C-terminal Phe were designed and tested...
February 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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