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lipid pituitary

Ermina Bach, Andreas B Møller, Jens O L Jørgensen, Mikkel H Vendelbo, Niels Jessen, Steen B Pedersen, Thomas S Nielsen, Niels Møller
OBJECTIVE: Acute and chronic inflammatory and metabolic responses are generated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during acute illness and in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but whether these responses depend on intact pituitary release of hormones are not clearly identified. We compared the metabolic effects of LPS in hypopituitary patients (HPs) (in the absence of growth hormone (GH) and ACTH responses) and healthy control subjects (CTR) (with normal pituitary hormone responses)...
November 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Maurizio Vitti, Giovanna Di Emidio, Michela Di Carlo, Gaspare Carta, Andrea Antonosante, Paolo Giovanni Artini, Annamaria Cimini, Carla Tatone, Elisabetta Benedetti
Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions...
2016: PPAR Research
Maya Vadiveloo, Josiemer Mattei
BACKGROUND: Discrimination promotes multisystem physiological dysregulation termed allostatic load, which predicts morbidity and mortality. It remains unclear whether weight-related discrimination influences allostatic load. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to prospectively examine 10-year associations between weight discrimination, allostatic load, and its components among adults 25-75 years in the Midlife Development in the US Biomarker Substudy. METHODS: Participants with information on weight discrimination were analyzed (n=986)...
August 23, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Wendy R Kam, Yang Liu, Juan Ding, David A Sullivan
PURPOSE: Researchers have hypothesized that treatment with cyclosporine A (CyA), interleukin-1 receptor antagonists (IL-1RA; e.g., anakinra), P2Y2 receptor agonists (e.g., uridine triphosphate; UTP), and rebamipide may alleviate human meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and/or dry eye disease. Investigators have also proposed that prostaglandin analogues (e.g., bimatoprost) may induce MGD. Our goal was to determine whether these compounds directly influence human meibomian gland epithelial cell (HMGEC) function...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Mona Schaalan, Waleed Mohamed, Rania Rahmo
BACKGROUND: In practice, there is increasing recognition of the importance of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in the cardiovascular disease progression. The association of brain natriuretic peptide with obesity and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in adults and aged patients is well established, but that in pediatrics needs thorough elucidation. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the association of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis mediators (cortisol and aldosterone) with plasma NT-pro β-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels on metabolic, immune-inflammatory and endothelial markers in young obese pediatric patients...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Juan J Chillarón, Mercè Fernández-Miró, Mercè Albareda, Sara Fontserè, Cristina Colom, Lluís Vila, Juan Pedro-Botet, Juana A Flores Le-Roux
: Testosterone deficiency (Td) has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Few studies have evaluated this condition in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of testosterone undecanoate (TU) on insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and lipid profile in patients with Td and T1D. We performed a randomized placebo-controlled multicenter study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: a) age ≥ 18 years; b) autoimmune diabetes; c) Td (total testosterone <10 nmol/L or calculated free testosterone <225 pmol/L and low/normal LH; d) ability to sign informed consent; e) comply with the study protocol...
September 30, 2016: Endocrine Journal
D D Wang, W G Li, Y Y Zhang
Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) plays a crucial role in lipid sensing, innate immunity, atherogenesis, and glycolipid metabolism. This aims of this study were to delineate the CD36 mRNA expression profile in 16 duck tissues using relative quantitative real-time PCR and to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the duck CD36 gene by PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA direct sequencing. In addition, this study investigated CD36 gene expression, genetic variation, and their effect on serum biochemical indices in duck...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Hiroyuki Wakiguchi, Shouichi Ohga
  Liposteroid, a lipid emulsion containing dexamethasone, was developed in Japan. This drug is effective against rheumatoid arthritis, and has fewer side effects than dexamethasone. Moreover, at high dosage, liposteroid has been effectively used for the treatment of macrophage activation syndrome, because the lipid emulsions are easily taken up by phagocytes, and are retained in macrophages. Its anti-inflammatory effect was found to be 2-5 times higher than that of dexamethasone in arthritis and granuloma rat models...
2016: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
Ellen W Yeung, Rebecca Place, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Paul Visich, Eric Hoffman, Sheila O Walker, Douglas A Granger
Adversity experienced early in life has the potential to influence physical health later in life. The stress-health relation may be partially explained by stress-related effects on cardiovascular risk factors. This study explored links between individual differences in trait-like variation in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with cardiovascular risk factors in children. 474 children (M age=9.22years; 54% female; 83% Caucasian) were included in this study, in which cardiovascular risk was assessed using the following indices - triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose (Glu); resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, and % fat...
September 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Wilasinee Suwanjang, Andrey Y Abramov, Komgrid Charngkaew, Piyarat Govitrapong, Banthit Chetsawang
Stressor exposure activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and causes elevations in the levels of glucocorticoids (GC) from the adrenal glands. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that prolonged exposure to high GC levels can lead to oxidative stress, calcium deregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in a number of cell types. However, melatonin, via its antioxidant activity, exhibits a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Therefore, in the present study, we explored the protective effect of melatonin in GC-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
July 2016: Neurochemistry International
T Venkatesan, Y Zadvornova, H Raff, C J Hillard
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are important neuromodulators of nausea and vomiting. This led us to hypothesize that patients with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) have lower serum endocannabinoids (eCBs) and higher salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. METHODS: Serum eCBs and related lipids, N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA) and N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and salivary cortisol, and alpha amylase (index of sympathetic nervous system activity) were measured in 22 CVS patients (age 40 ± 11, female = 17) in the well and sick phases and 12 matched controls (age 37 ± 12, female = 10)...
September 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Salwan Maqdasy, Amalia Trousson, Igor Tauveron, David H Volle, Silvère Baron, Jean-Marc A Lobaccaro
Liver X receptors (LXRs) α and β are nuclear receptors whose transcriptional activity is regulated by oxysterols, the oxidized forms of cholesterol. Described in the late 1990s as lipid sensors, both LXRs regulate cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Over the years, deep phenotypic analyses of mouse models deficient for LXRα and/or LXRβ have pointed out various other physiological functions including glucose homeostasis, immunology, and neuroprotection. This review enlightens the "endocrine" functions of LXRs; they deeply impact plasma glucose directly and by modulating insulin signaling, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, thyroid and pituitary hormone levels, and bone homeostasis...
June 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Małgorzata Rumińska, Ewelina Witkowska-Sędek, Anna Majcher, Beata Pyrżak
Fat accumulation leads to dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and to changes in thyroid function. A higher serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), with normal levels of thyroid hormones, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism, is often found in obese individuals. The influence on lipid and glucose metabolism of thyroid dysfunction in obese patients remains unclear. This retrospective study encompassed 110 obese children and 38 healthy non-obese children aged 5-18. Anthropometric measurements, including bioelectrical impedance, were taken in all children...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Dorte Glintborg
Hirsutism affects 5-25% women, and the condition is most often caused by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The initial evaluation of hirsute patients should include a thorough medical history, clinical evaluation, and standardized blood samples to diagnose the 5% hirsute patients with rare endocrine disorders. The majority of these examinations can be performed by the patient's general practitioner. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion and is a multiorgan disease affecting most endocrine organs including ovaries, adrenals, pituitary, fat cells, and endocrine pancreas...
April 2016: Danish Medical Journal
V Prazienkova, A Ticha, M Blechova, A Spolcova, B Zelezna, L Maletinska
Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) is an anorexigenic neuropeptide expressed in the brain where it regulates food intake and energy expenditure. The C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 of PrRP is crucial for its biological activity. In our previous study, we showed that PrRP analogs myristoylated or palmitoylated at the N- terminus seem to cross the blood-brain barrier and lower food intake following peripheral administration. In this study, myristoylated and palmitoylated PrRP31 analogs with a modified C-terminal Phe were designed and tested...
February 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Yung-Hsing Yeh, Jou-Chun Chou, Ting-Chun Weng, Fu-Kong Lieu, Jou-Yu Lin, Chii-Chang Yeh, Sindy Hu, Paulus S Wang, Galina Idova, Shyi-Wu Wang
Acrolein, an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde, exists in a wide range of sources. Acrolein can be not only generated from all types of smoke but also produced endogenously from the metabolism by lipid peroxidation. The cellular influence of acrolein is due to its electrophilic character via binding to and depleting cellular nucleophiles. Although the toxicity of acrolein has been extensively studied, there is relatively little information about its impact on hormone release. This study aimed at the effect of acrolein on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (H-P-A) axis...
July 2016: Steroids
Deng Wang, Jun Zhou, Jin Zhang, Mao-xing Li, Jian-guo Qiu, Zheng-ping Jia, Ru-xue Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects and potential mechanism of Kaixin-San and Danggui-Shaoyao-San on glucose and lipid metabolism in chronic stress rats fed with high-fat diet. METHODS: 50 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group (distilled water), high-fat diet with chronic stress group (distilled water), melatonin group(20 mg/kg), Kaixin-San group (445 mg/kg) and Danggui-Shaoyao-San group (3360 mg/kg). All drugs were orally administered. In addition to the normal control group, each group of rats were fed with high-fat, diet...
September 2015: Zhong Yao Cai, Zhongyaocai, Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
Robert Krysiak, Małgorzata Gilowska, Witold Szkróbka, Bogusław Okopień
BACKGROUND: Chronic metformin treatment was found to reduce elevated thyrotropin levels. Amiodarone treatment is associated with a range of effects in thyroid function from mild derangements to overt thyroid dysfunction. No previous study has investigated the effect of metformin on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis activity in patients with amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism. METHODS: The study included three age-, sex- and weight-matched groups of amiodarone-treated patients with type 2 diabetes: patients with treated overt hypothyroidism (group I, n=15), patients with untreated subclinical hypothyroidism (group II, n=15), and subjects without thyroid disorders (group III, n=18)...
April 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Robert Krysiak, Karolina Kowalcze, Bogusław Okopień
BACKGROUND: Statins have been found to exert antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of intensive and less aggressive statin treatment on thyroid autoimmunity and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis activity in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. METHODS: The study included 38 adult women with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, who required statin therapy and were allocated into one of two groups. Patients at very high cardiovascular risk (n=16) received intensive statin treatment (rosuvastatin 20-40mg daily), while patients at moderate or moderately high cardiovascular risk (n=22) were treated with simvastatin (20-40mg daily) for the following 6 months...
April 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Dusan Petrovic, Edward Pivin, Belen Ponte, Nasser Dhayat, Menno Pruijm, Georg Ehret, Daniel Ackermann, Idris Guessous, Sandrine Estoppey Younes, Antoinette Pechère-Bertschi, Bruno Vogt, Markus Mohaupt, Pierre-Yves Martin, Fred Paccaud, Michel Burnier, Murielle Bochud, Silvia Stringhini
Allostatic load (AL) is a marker of physiological dysregulation which reflects exposure to chronic stress. High AL has been related to poorer health outcomes including mortality. We examine here the association of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors with AL. Additionally, we investigate the extent to which AL is genetically determined. We included 803 participants (52% women, mean age 48±16years) from a population and family-based Swiss study. We computed an AL index aggregating 14 markers from cardiovascular, metabolic, lipidic, oxidative, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and inflammatory homeostatic axes...
May 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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