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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779264/compliance-to-follow-up-and-adherence-to-medication-in-hypertensive-patients-in-an-urban-informal-settlement-in-kenya-comparison-of-three-models-of-care
#1
Ng'endo Kuria, Anthony Reid, Philip Owiti, Hannock Tweya, Caleb Kipkurui Kibet, Lilian Mbau, Marcel Manzi, Victor Murunga, Tecla Namusonge, Joseph Kibachio
OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare, among three models of care, compliance to scheduled clinic appointments and adherence to anti-hypertensive medication of patients in an informal settlement of Kibera, Kenya. METHODS: Routinely collected patient data were used from three health facilities, six walkway clinics and one weekend/church clinic. Patients were eligible if they had received hypertension care for more than six months. Compliance with clinic appointments and self-reported adherence to medication were determined from clinic records and compared using the Chi-square test...
May 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770082/first-reported-case-of-multidrug-resistant-candida-auris-in-canada
#2
I S Schwartz, G W Hammond
Candida auris is a fungal pathogen that has recently emerged as a global threat to public health. It was first described in Japan in 2009 and has since been reported in 17 countries on five continents. This case report describes the first reported case of multidrug-resistant C. auris in Canada. In May 2017, a 64-year-old individual was evaluated for chronic otitis externa. Past medical history included a recent hospitalization in India for elective oral surgery that was complicated by an odontogenic brain abscess...
July 6, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769128/the-impact-of-the-scale-up-of-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-on-the-routine-clinical-diagnosis-procedures-for-febrile-illness-a-series-of-repeated-cross-sectional-studies-in-papua-new-guinea
#3
Justin Pulford, Serah Kurumop, Ivo Mueller, Peter M Siba, Manuel W Hetzel
BACKGROUND: This paper examines the impact of the scale-up of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) on routine clinical diagnosis procedures for febrile illness in primary healthcare settings in Papua New Guinea. METHODS: Repeat, cross-sectional surveys in randomly selected primary healthcare services were conducted. Surveys included passive observation of consecutive febrile case management cases and were completed immediately prior to RDT scale-up (2011) and at 12- (2012) and 60-months (2016) post scale-up...
May 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724223/estimating-the-incidence-of-enteric-fever-in-children-in-india-a-multi-site-active-fever-surveillance-of-pediatric-cohorts
#4
Jacob John, Ashish Bavdekar, Temsunaro Rongsen-Chandola, Shanta Dutta, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhi is responsible for about 20 million episodes of illness and over 140,000 deaths annually globally. South Asia has the highest documented burden of typhoid and is home to the multi-drug resistant H58 strain that makes treatment more challenging. The WHO recommends the use of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines in typhoid endemic countries. Decisions on the preferred immunization strategy should be based on an analysis of disease burden, availability, affordability, and operational feasibility...
May 3, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685179/prophylactic-antibiotics-to-reduce-pelvic-infection-in-women-having-miscarriage-surgery-the-aims-antibiotics-in-miscarriage-surgery-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
David Lissauer, Amie Wilson, Jane Daniels, Lee Middleton, Jon Bishop, Catherine Hewitt, Abi Merriel, Andrew Weeks, Chisale Mhango, Ronald Mataya, Frank Taulo, Theresa Ngalawesa, Agatha Chirwa, Colleta Mphasa, Tayamika Tambala, Grace Chiudzu, Caroline Mwalwanda, Agnes Mboma, Rahat Qureshi, Iffat Ahmed, Humera Ismail, Metin Gulmezoglu, Olufemi T Oladapo, Godfrey Mbaruku, Jerome Chibwana, Grace Watts, Beatus Simon, James Ditai, Charles Otim Tom, Jane-Frances Acam, John Ekunait, Helen Uniza, Margaret Iyaku, Margaret Anyango, Javier Zamora, Tracy Roberts, Ilias Goranitis, Nicola Desmond, Arri Coomarasamy
BACKGROUND: The estimated annual global burden of miscarriage is 33 million out of 210 million pregnancies. Many women undergoing miscarriage have surgery to remove pregnancy tissues, resulting in miscarriage surgery being one of the most common operations performed in hospitals in low-income countries. Infection is a serious consequence and can result in serious illness and death. In low-income settings, the infection rate following miscarriage surgery has been reported to be high. Good quality evidence on the use of prophylactic antibiotics for surgical miscarriage management is not available...
April 23, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657713/mid-upper-arm-circumference-based-case-detection-admission-and-discharging-of-under-five-children-in-a-large-scale-community-based-management-of-acute-malnutrition-program-in-nigeria
#6
Stanley Chitekwe, Sibhatu Biadgilign, Assaye Tolla, Mark Myatt
Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) threatens the lives of millions of children worldwide particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) is an approach to treating large numbers of cases of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in a community setting. There is a debate about the use of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) for admitting and discharging SAM children. This article describes the experience of using MUAC for screening, case-finding, referral, admission, and discharge in a large-scale CMAM program delivered through existing primary health care facilities in Nigeria...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657556/care-in-nursing-facilities-after-palliative-consult
#7
Joan G Carpenter, Patricia H Berry, Mary Ersek
Despite hospital palliative care consultations during which goals of care are discussed in the context of poor prognoses, older adults are admitted to nursing homes for post-acute care where the focus is on rehabilitation. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe factors that influence discontinuity between a palliative care consult and nursing home care and explore the potential consequences of this discontinuity. Twelve adults (mean age of 80 years) were enrolled from one community hospital and nursing home in the mid-Atlantic United States...
April 2018: Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing: JHPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627967/supervised-exercise-therapy-versus-home-based-exercise-therapy-versus-walking-advice-for-intermittent-claudication
#8
REVIEW
David Hageman, Hugo Jp Fokkenrood, Lindy Nm Gommans, Marijn Ml van den Houten, Joep Aw Teijink
BACKGROUND: Although supervised exercise therapy (SET) provides significant symptomatic benefit for patients with intermittent claudication (IC), it remains an underutilized tool. Widespread implementation of SET is restricted by lack of facilities and funding. Structured home-based exercise therapy (HBET) with an observation component (e.g., exercise logbooks, pedometers) and just walking advice (WA) are alternatives to SET. This is the second update of a review first published in 2006...
April 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594017/multivariable-risk-based-patient-selection-for-prostate-biopsy-in-a-primary-health-care-setting-referral-rate-and-biopsy-results-from-a-urology-outpatient-clinic
#9
Daniël F Osses, Arnout R Alberts, Gonny C F Bausch, Monique J Roobol
Background: According to their guidelines, Dutch general practitioners (GPs) refer men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level ≥3.0 ng/mL to the urologist for risk-based patient selection for prostate biopsy using the Rotterdam Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator (RPCRC). Use of the RPCRC in primary care could optimize the diagnostic pathway even further by reducing unnecessary referrals. To investigate this, we calculated the risk and assessed the rate of men referred to the urologist with PSA level ≥3...
February 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566739/collaborative-care-for-the-detection-and-management-of-depression-among-adults-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa-study-protocol-for-the-cobalt-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Lara Fairall, Inge Petersen, Babalwa Zani, Naomi Folb, Daniella Georgeu-Pepper, One Selohilwe, Ruwayda Petrus, Ntokozo Mntambo, Arvin Bhana, Carl Lombard, Max Bachmann, Crick Lund, Jill Hanass-Hancock, Daniel Chisholm, Paul McCrone, Sergio Carmona, Thomas Gaziano, Naomi Levitt, Tasneem Kathree, Graham Thornicroft
BACKGROUND: The scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes has seen HIV/AIDS transition to a chronic condition characterised by high rates of comorbidity with tuberculosis, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and mental health disorders. Depression is one such disorder that is associated with higher rates of non-adherence, progression to AIDS and greater mortality. Detection and treatment of comorbid depression is critical to achieve viral load suppression in more than 90% of those on ART and is in line with the recent 90-90-90 Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) targets...
March 22, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566666/assessing-linkage-to-and-retention-in-care-among-hiv-patients-in-uganda-and-identifying-opportunities-for-health-systems-strengthening-a-descriptive-study
#11
Caroline E Boeke, Vennie Nabitaka, Andrea Rowan, Katherine Guerra, Arnold Kabbale, Barbara Asire, Eleanor Magongo, Pamela Nawaggi, Vivienne Mulema, Betty Mirembe, Victor Bigira, Andrew Musoke, Cordelia Katureebe
BACKGROUND: While antiretroviral therapy (ART) availability for HIV patients has increased dramatically in Uganda, patient linkage to and retention in care remains a challenge. We assessed patterns of engagement in care in 20 Ugandan health facilities with low retention based on national reporting. METHODS: We assessed patient linkage to care (defined as registering for pre-ART or ART care at the facility within 1 month of HIV diagnosis) and 6-month retention in care (having a visit 3-6 months after ART initiation) and associations with patient-/facility-level factors using multivariate logistic regression...
March 23, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558338/integration-of-a-clinical-pharmacy-specialist-into-a-substance-use-disorder-intensive-outpatient-treatment-program-to-improve-prescribing-rates-of-alcohol-use-disorder-pharmacotherapy
#12
Erica Dimitropoulos, Stephanie Bertucci, Kara Wong
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated that the combination of pharmacotherapy and psychological interventions in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment is superior to either alone. Despite this, medications remain highly underutilized in many outpatient treatment facilities. Pharmacists can serve as an excellent resource to aid in improving access to medications. METHODS: This study was a prospective, longitudinal evaluation of a pharmacist's role in a substance use disorder (SUD) clinic, specifically an intensive outpatient program (IOP)...
March 20, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549555/nir-laser-pointer-for-in-vivo-photothermal-therapy-of-murine-lm3-tumor-using-intratumoral-china-ink-as-a-photothermal-agent
#13
Alfonso Blázquez-Castro, Lucas L Colombo, Silvia I Vanzulli, Juan C Stockert
The photothermal effect is one of the most promising photonic procedures currently under development to successfully treat several clinical disorders, none the least some kinds of cancer. At present, this field is undergoing a renewed interest due to advances in both photothermal materials and better-suited light sources. However, scientific studies in this area are sometimes hampered by the relative unavailability of state-of-art materials or the complexity of setting up a dedicated optical facility. Here, we present a simple and affordable approach to do research in the photothermal field that relies on a commercial NIR laser pointer and a readily available everyday pigment: China ink...
March 16, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541765/association-between-real-time-electronic-injury-surveillance-applications-and-clinical-documentation-and-data-acquisition-in-a-south-african-trauma-center
#14
Eiman Zargaran, Richard Spence, Lauren Adolph, Andrew Nicol, Nadine Schuurman, Pradeep Navsaria, Damon Ramsey, S Morad Hameed
Importance: Collection and analysis of up-to-date and accurate injury surveillance data are a key step in the maturation of trauma systems. Trauma registries have proven to be difficult to establish in low- and middle-income countries owing to the burden of trauma volume, cost, and complexity. Objective: To determine whether an electronic trauma health record (eTHR) used by physicians can serve as simultaneous clinical documentation and data acquisition tools. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 2-part quality improvement study included (1) preimplementation and postimplementation eTHR study with assessments of satisfaction by 41 trauma physicians, time to completion, and quality of data collected comparing paper and electronic charting; and (2) prospective ecologic study describing the burden of trauma seen at a Level I trauma center, using real-time data collected by the eTHR on consecutive patients during a 12-month study period...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523194/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-neonatal-infections-in-a-rural-bangladeshi-population-a-community-based-prospective-study
#15
Dipak K Mitra, Luke C Mullany, Meagan Harrison, Ishtiaq Mannan, Rashed Shah, Nazma Begum, Mamun Ibne Moin, Shams El Arifeen, Abdullah H Baqui
BACKGROUND: Infections cause about one fifth of the estimated 2.7 million annual neonatal deaths worldwide. Population-based data on burden and risk factors of neonatal infections are lacking in developing countries, which are required for the appropriate design of effective preventive and therapeutic interventions in resource-poor settings. METHODS: We used data from a community-based cluster-randomized trial conducted to evaluate the impact of two umbilical cord cleansing regimens with chlorhexidine solution on neonatal mortality and morbidity in a rural area of Sylhet District in Bangladesh...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509839/effect-of-offering-same-day-art-vs-usual-health-facility-referral-during-home-based-hiv-testing-on-linkage-to-care-and-viral-suppression-among-adults-with-hiv-in-lesotho-the-cascade-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Niklaus D Labhardt, Isaac Ringera, Thabo I Lejone, Thomas Klimkait, Josephine Muhairwe, Alain Amstutz, Tracy R Glass
Importance: Home-based HIV testing is a frequently used strategy to increase awareness of HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa. However, with referral to health facilities, less than half of those who test HIV positive link to care and initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). Objective: To determine whether offering same-day home-based ART to patients with HIV improves linkage to care and viral suppression in a rural, high-prevalence setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Design, Setting, and Participants: Open-label, 2-group, randomized clinical trial (February 22, 2016-September 17, 2017), involving 6 health care facilities in northern Lesotho...
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503437/bilateral-pneumothoraces-in-a-trauma-patient-after-dobhoff-tube-insertion
#17
Ali Abidali, Alicia Mangram, Gina R Shirah, Whitney Wilson, Ahmed Abidali, Phillip Moeser, James K Dzandu
BACKGROUND Dobhoff tube insertion is a common procedure used in the clinical setting to deliver enteral nutrition. Although it is often viewed as an innocuous bedside procedure, there are risks for numerous complications such as tracheobronchial insertion, which could lead to deleterious consequences. We present to our knowledge the first reported case of bilateral pneumothoraces caused by the insertion of a Dobhoff tube. In addition, we also discuss common pitfalls for confirming the positioning of Dobhoff tubes, as well as risk factors that can predispose a patient to improper tube placement...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503230/effects-of-a-lifestyle-intervention-on-psychosocial-well-being-of-severe-mentally-ill-residential-patients-elips-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-pragmatic-trial
#18
Annemarie P M Stiekema, Anne Looijmans, Lisette van der Meer, Richard Bruggeman, Robert A Schoevers, Eva Corpeleijn, Frederike Jörg
Large studies investigating the psychosocial effects of lifestyle interventions in patients with a severe mental illness (SMI) are scarce, especially in residential patients. This large, randomized controlled, multicentre pragmatic trial assessed the psychosocial effects of a combined diet-and-exercise lifestyle intervention targeting the obesogenic environment of SMI residential patients. Twenty-nine sheltered and clinical care teams were randomized into intervention (n=15) or control (n=14) arm. Team tailored diet-and-exercise lifestyle plans were set up to change the obesogenic environment into a healthier setting, and team members were trained in supporting patients to make healthier choices...
March 1, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500206/developing-a-uk-registry-to-investigate-the-role-of-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-cmr-in-patients-who-activate-the-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-ppci-pathway-a-multicentre-feasibility-study-linking-routinely-collected-electronic-patient-data
#19
Rachel C Brierley, Maria Pufulete, Jessica Harris, Chiara Bucciarelli-Ducci, John P Greenwood, Stephen Dorman, Richard Anderson, Chris A Rogers, Barnaby C Reeves
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether it is feasible to set up a national registry, linking routinely collected data from hospital information systems (HIS), to investigate the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients who activate the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) pathway. DESIGN: Feasibility prospective cohort study, to establish whether: (1) consent can be implemented; (2) data linkage and extraction from multiple HIS can be achieved for >90% of consented patients; (3) local data can be successfully linked with hospital episode data (Hospital Episode Statistics, HES; Patient Episode Database for Wales, PEDW) for >90% of consented patients and (4) the proportion of patients activating the PPCI pathway who get a CMR scan is ≥10% in hospitals with dedicated CMR facilities...
March 1, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499865/ten-year-clinical-experience-of-humanitarian-cardiothoracic-surgery-in-rwanda-building-a-platform-for-ultimate-sustainability-in-a-resource-limited-setting
#20
JaBaris D Swain, Colleen Sinnott, Suellen Breakey, Rian Hasson Charles, Gita Mody, Napthal Nyirimanzi, Ceeya Patton-Bolman, Patricia Come, Gapira Ganza, Emmanuel Rusingiza, Nathan Ruhamya, Joseph Mucumbitsi, Jorge Borges, Martin Zammert, Jochen D Muehlschlegel, Robert Oakes, Bruce Leavitt, R Morton Bolman
OBJECTIVE: Despite its near complete eradication in resource-rich countries, rheumatic heart disease remains the most common acquired cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa. With a ratio of physicians/population of 1 per 10,500, including only 4 cardiologists for a population of 11.4 million, Rwanda represents a resource-limited setting lacking the local capacity to detect and treat early cases of strep throat and perform lifesaving operations for advanced rheumatic heart disease...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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