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"Decision model"

Adam F Osth, Anna Jansson, Simon Dennis, Andrew Heathcote
A robust finding in recognition memory is that performance declines monotonically across test trials. Despite the prevalence of this decline, there is a lack of consensus on the mechanism responsible. Three hypotheses have been put forward: (1) interference is caused by learning of test items (2) the test items cause a shift in the context representation used to cue memory and (3) participants change their speed-accuracy thresholds through the course of testing. We implemented all three possibilities in a combined model of recognition memory and decision making, which inherits the memory retrieval elements of the Osth and Dennis (2015) model and uses the diffusion decision model (DDM: Ratcliff, 1978) to generate choice and response times...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
Aline Piovezan Entringer, Márcia Pinto, Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias, Maria Auxiliadora de Souza Mendes Gomes
The purpose of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of spontaneous vaginal delivery and elective cesarean (with no clinical indication) for normal risk pregnant women, from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System. An analytical decision model was developed and included the choice of delivery mode and clinical consequences for mothers and newborns, from admission for delivery to hospital discharge. The reference population consisted of normal risk pregnant women with singleton, at-term gestations in cephalic position, subdivided into primiparas and multiparas with prior uterine scar...
May 10, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Jinxian Weng, Gang Du, Dan Li, Yao Yu
This study aims to develop a time-varying mixed logit model for the vehicle merging behavior in work zone merging areas during the merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. From the safety perspective, vehicle crash probability and severity between the merging vehicle and its surrounding vehicles are regarded as major factors influencing vehicle merging decisions. Model results show that the model with the use of vehicle crash risk probability and severity could provide higher prediction accuracy than previous models with the use of vehicle speeds and gap sizes...
May 10, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Adnan Alsumali, Ali Al-Hawag, Mihail Samnaliev, Tewodros Eguale
Bariatric surgery among patients with morbid obesity is very effective for providing long-term weight loss and remission of obesity-related co-morbidities. However, it is very expensive and its cost effectiveness is commonly argued. Long-term cost-effectiveness evaluations of bariatric surgery have often relied on decision models. A systematic review was performed on the methodologic approaches and their quality, evaluated the quality of reporting, and summarized findings and conclusions in published cost-effectiveness models of bariatric surgery for morbid obesity...
March 9, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Jan Gaebel, Erik Schreiber, Alexander Oeser, Steffen Oeltze-Jafra
Model-based decision support systems promise to be a valuable addition to oncological treatments and the implementation of personalized therapies. For the integration and sharing of decision models, the involved systems must be able to communicate with each other. In this paper, we propose a modularized architecture of dedicated systems for the integration of probabilistic decision models into existing hospital environments. These systems interconnect via web services and provide model sharing and processing capabilities for clinical information systems...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
(no author information available yet)
Nwachukwu BU, So C, Schairer WW, Shubin Stein BE, Strickland SM, Green DW, Dodwell ER. Economic decision model for first-time traumatic patellar dislocations in adolescents. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(10):2267-2275. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0363546517703347) In the above article, the fourth author's last name was misspelled as Shubin-Stein. It should have appeared as Shubin Stein.
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
V T Reckers-Droog, N J A van Exel, W B F Brouwer
The increasing demand for healthcare and the resulting pressure on available budgets render priority setting inevitable. If societies aim to improve health and distribute health(care) fairly, equity-efficiency trade-offs are necessary. In the Netherlands, proportional shortfall (PS) was introduced to quantify necessity of care, allowing a direct equity-efficiency trade-off. This study describes the history and application of PS in the Netherlands and examines the theoretical and empirical support for PS as well as its current role in healthcare decision making...
April 7, 2018: Health Policy
Coriene J L M Catsman, Martinus A Beek, Adri C Voogd, Paul G H Mulder, Ernest J T Luiten
BACKGROUND: Cosmetic result in breast cancer surgery is gaining increased interest. Currently, some 30-40% of the patients treated with breast conserving surgery (BCS) are dissatisfied with their final cosmetic result. In order to prevent disturbing breast deformity oncoplastic surgical techniques have been introduced. The extent of different levels of oncoplastic surgery incorporated in breast conserving surgery and its value with regard to cosmetic outcome, patient satisfaction and quality of life remains to be defined...
April 23, 2018: BMC Cancer
Oriana Ciani, David Epstein, Claire Rothery, Rod S Taylor, Mark Sculpher
Background: Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (fEVAR) is a new approach for complex abdominal aortic aneurysms, limited to a few specialist centers, with limited evidence base. We developed a cost-effectiveness decision model of fEVAR compared to open surgical repair (OSR) to investigate the likely direction of costs and benefits and inform further research projects on this technology. Methods: A systematic review with meta-analysis and a four-state Markov model were used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of fEVAR versus OSR...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Petros Pechlivanoglou, Mike Paulden, Ba' Pham, Josephine Wong, Susan D Horn, Murray Krahn
Recent evidence suggests that less frequent repositioning of long-term care residents at moderate to high risk of developing pressure ulcers (PrUs) is noninferior to current repositioning standards in preventing PrUs, but the long-term health and economic consequences of less frequent repositioning have not been adequately estimated. Our objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of different repositioning strategies (2-, 3-, 4-hour intervals). We conducted a cost-utility analysis using a lifetime horizon based on data from a randomized clinical trial and the literature...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Bartosz W Wojciechowski, Emmanuel M Pothos
Classical probability theory (CPT) has represented the rational standard for decision making in human cognition. Even though CPT has provided many descriptively excellent decision models, there have also been some empirical results persistently problematic for CPT accounts. The tension between the normative prescription of CPT and human behavior is particularly acute in cases where we have higher expectations for rational decisions. One such case concerns legal decision making from legal experts, such as attorneys and prosecutors and, more so, judges...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Erik Martijn van Bussel, Marc Boudewijn Victor Rouppe van der Voort, Ronald N Wessel, Godefridus G van Merode
RATIONALE: While theoretical frameworks for optimization of the outpatient processes are abundant, practical step-by-step analyses to give leads for improvement, to forecast capacity, and to support decision making are sparse. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This article demonstrates how to evaluate and optimize the triad of demand, (future) capacity, and access time of the outpatient clinic using a structured six-step method. METHODS: All individual logistical patient data of an orthopaedic outpatient clinic of one complete year were analysed using a 6-step method to evaluate demand, supply, and access time...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Eileen M Stock, John E Zeber, Catherine J McNeal, Javier E Banchs, Laurel A Copeland
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration issued Drug Safety Communications on several drugs associated with QT prolongation and fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Among these was citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) approved for depression and commonly used for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Evaluation of the risk for QT prolongation among other psychotropic drugs for individuals with PTSD remains limited. OBJECTIVE: Explore psychotropic drugs associated with QT prolongation among veterans with PTSD...
April 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Janez Prešern, Jernej Polajnar, Maarten de Groot, Maja Zorović, Meta Virant-Doberlet
Although vibrational signalling is among the most ancient and common forms of communication, many fundamental aspects of this communication channel are still poorly understood. Here, we studied mechanisms underlying orientation towards the source of vibrational signals in the stink bug Nezara viridula (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae), where female vibrational song enables male to locate her on the bean plant. At the junction between the main stem and the leaf stalks, male placed his legs on different sides of the branching and orientation at the branching point was not random...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kavita Singh, Ambalam M Chandrasekaran, Soumyadeep Bhaumik, Kaushik Chattopadhyay, Anuji Upekshika Gamage, Padmal De Silva, Ambuj Roy, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Nikhil Tandon
OBJECTIVES: More than 80% of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) burden now lies in low and middle-income countries. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify and implement the most cost-effective interventions, particularly in the resource-constraint South Asian settings. Thus, we aimed to systematically review the cost-effectiveness of individual-level, group-level and population-level interventions to control CVD and DM in South Asia. METHODS: We searched 14 electronic databases up to August 2016...
April 3, 2018: BMJ Open
Mandana Zanganeh, Peymane Adab, Bai Li, Emma Frew
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a major global public health problem, with governments increasingly having to undertake various strategies to reduce excess weight in their populations. Considering the increasing number of well-conducted intervention studies in the field of childhood obesity prevention, there are relatively few published economic evaluations. The proposed systematic review will explore the methods of these economic evaluations, examine the limitations and establish the evidence base for cost-effectiveness analyses...
April 2, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Rachel A Davidson, Linda K Nozick, Tricia Wachtendorf, Brian Blanton, Brian Colle, Randall L Kolar, Sarah DeYoung, Kendra M Dresback, Wenqi Yi, Kun Yang, Nicholas Leonardo
This article introduces a new integrated scenario-based evacuation (ISE) framework to support hurricane evacuation decision making. It explicitly captures the dynamics, uncertainty, and human-natural system interactions that are fundamental to the challenge of hurricane evacuation, but have not been fully captured in previous formal evacuation models. The hazard is represented with an ensemble of probabilistic scenarios, population behavior with a dynamic decision model, and traffic with a dynamic user equilibrium model...
March 30, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Nuccia Morici, Enrico Piccinelli, Dario Brunelli, Alice Sacco, Giovanna Viola, Jacopo A Oreglia, Fabrizio Oliva, Marco Valgimigli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Eline M Krijkamp, Fernando Alarid-Escudero, Eva A Enns, Hawre J Jalal, M G Myriam Hunink, Petros Pechlivanoglou
Microsimulation models are becoming increasingly common in the field of decision modeling for health. Because microsimulation models are computationally more demanding than traditional Markov cohort models, the use of computer programming languages in their development has become more common. R is a programming language that has gained recognition within the field of decision modeling. It has the capacity to perform microsimulation models more efficiently than software commonly used for decision modeling, incorporate statistical analyses within decision models, and produce more transparent models and reproducible results...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Elizaveta Sopina, Jan Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review to identify and discuss methodological issues surrounding decision modelling for economic evaluation of non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) in dementia. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for publications using decision modelling to investigate the cost-effectiveness of NPIs for individuals with dementia. Search was limited to studies in English. Studies were excluded if they evaluated interventions aimed only at caregivers of patients with dementia, or if they only included economic evaluation alongside an RCT without additional modelling...
March 26, 2018: Health Economics Review
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