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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530523/cost-effectiveness-of-peginterferon-beta-1a-and-alemtuzumab-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Ankur A Dashputre, Khalid M Kamal, Gauri Pawar
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, affecting 2.5 million people globally and 400,000 people in the United States. While no cure exists for MS, the goal is to manage the disease using disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), which have been shown to slow disease progression and prevent relapses. Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) is the most common form of MS at the time of diagnosis. Peginterferon beta-1a (PEG) and alemtuzumab (ALT) were recently approved and have demonstrated good clinical outcomes, including reduced relapse rates in clinical trials...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529152/coevolution-of-patch-type-dependent-emigration-and-patch-type-dependent-immigration
#2
Helene C Weigang
The three phases of dispersal - emigration, transfer and immigration - are affecting each other and the former and latter decisions may depend on patch types. Despite the inevitable fact of the complexity of the dispersal process, patch-type dependencies of dispersal decisions modelled as emigration and immigration are usually missing in theoretical dispersal models. Here, I investigate the coevolution of patch-type dependent emigration and patch-type dependent immigration in an extended Hamilton-May model...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504536/a-signal-detection-analysis-of-eyewitness-identification-across-the-adult-lifespan
#3
Melissa F Colloff, Kimberley A Wade, John T Wixted, Elizabeth A Maylor
Middle-aged and older adults are frequently victims and witnesses of crime, but knowledge of how identification performance changes over the adult life span is sparse. The authors asked young (18-30 years), middle-aged (31-59 years), and older (60-95 years) adults (N = 2,670) to watch a video of a mock crime and to attempt to identify the culprit from a fair lineup (in which all of the lineup members matched the appearance of the suspect) or an unfair lineup (in which the suspect stood out). They also asked subjects to provide confidence ratings for their identification decisions...
May 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500428/a-novel-classification-method-for-aid-decision-of-traditional-chinese-patent-medicines-for-stroke-treatment
#4
Yufeng Zhao, Bo Liu, Liyun He, Wenjing Bai, Xueyun Yu, Xinyu Cao, Lin Luo, Peijing Rong, Yuxue Zhao, Guozheng Li, Baoyan Liu
Traditional Chinese patent medicines are widely used to treat stroke because it has good efficacy in the clinical environment. However, because of the lack of knowledge on traditional Chinese patent medicines, many Western physicians, who are accountable for the majority of clinical prescriptions for such medicine, are confused with the use of traditional Chinese patent medicines. Therefore, the aid-decision method is critical and necessary to help Western physicians rationally use traditional Chinese patent medicines...
May 13, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497724/explaining-moral-behavior
#5
Magda Osman, Alex Wiegmann
In this review we make a simple theoretical argument which is that for theory development, computational modeling, and general frameworks for understanding moral psychology researchers should build on domain-general principles from reasoning, judgment, and decision-making research. Our approach is radical with respect to typical models that exist in moral psychology that tend to propose complex innate moral grammars and even evolutionarily guided moral principles. In support of our argument we show that by using a simple value-based decision model we can capture a range of core moral behaviors...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490325/reaching-beyond-the-review-of-research-evidence-a-qualitative-study-of-decision-making-during-the-development-of-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-disease-prevention-in-healthcare
#6
Linda Richter Sundberg, Rickard Garvare, Monica Elisabeth Nyström
BACKGROUND: The judgment and decision making process during guideline development is central for producing high-quality clinical practice guidelines, but the topic is relatively underexplored in the guideline research literature. We have studied the development process of national guidelines with a disease-prevention scope produced by the National board of Health and Welfare (NBHW) in Sweden. The NBHW formal guideline development model states that guideline recommendations should be based on five decision-criteria: research evidence; curative/preventive effect size, severity of the condition; cost-effectiveness; and ethical considerations...
May 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464677/bi-directional-audiovisual-influences-on-temporal-modulation-discrimination
#7
Leonard Varghese, Samuel R Mathias, Seth Bensussen, Kenny Chou, Hannah R Goldberg, Yile Sun, Robert Sekuler, Barbara G Shinn-Cunningham
Cross-modal interactions of auditory and visual temporal modulation were examined in a game-like experimental framework. Participants observed an audiovisual stimulus (an animated, sound-emitting fish) whose sound intensity and/or visual size oscillated sinusoidally at either 6 or 7 Hz. Participants made speeded judgments about the modulation rate in either the auditory or visual modality while doing their best to ignore information from the other modality. Modulation rate in the task-irrelevant modality matched the modulation rate in the task-relevant modality (congruent conditions), was at the other rate (incongruent conditions), or had no modulation (unmodulated conditions)...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463547/economic-decision-model-for-first-time-traumatic-patellar-dislocations-in-adolescents
#8
Benedict U Nwachukwu, Conan So, William W Schairer, Beth E Shubin-Stein, Sabrina M Strickland, Daniel W Green, Emily R Dodwell
BACKGROUND: The surgical management of traumatic patellar dislocations in adolescents is associated with a lower rate of recurrent dislocations compared with nonoperative care. However, the attendant cost of surgery and the quality-of-life benefit of a surgical treatment strategy are unclear. PURPOSE: To compare the cost-utility of 3 management strategies for acute first-time patellar dislocations in adolescents: (1) nonoperative treatment only, (2) initial nonoperative treatment with surgery only for recurrent dislocations, and (3) immediate surgery...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439818/can-experienced-surgeons-predict-the-additional-value-of-a-ct-scan-in-patients-with-displaced-intra-articular-distal-radius-fractures
#9
Y V Kleinlugtenbelt, K Madden, S R Groen, S J Ham, P Kloen, R Haverlag, M P Simons, M Bhandari, J C Goslings, V A B Scholtes, R W Poolman
There are no clear guidelines when an additional CT scan should be obtained for the treatment of displaced intra-articular distal radius fractures (DRF). This study aimed to investigate whether surgeons can predict the usefulness of CT scans to facilitate choice of treatment plan and/or pre-operative planning for DRF. Four surgeons evaluated 51 patients with displaced DRF. The choice of treatment (operative or nonoperative) was based on conventional radiographs. Subsequently, the surgeons were asked whether they would have requested an additional CT scan to determine this treatment choice, and also whether they required a CT scan for pre-operative planning...
April 24, 2017: Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436113/using-predictions-from-a-joint-model-for-longitudinal-and-survival-data-to-inform-the-optimal-time-of-intervention-in-an-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-screening-programme
#10
Michael J Sweeting
Joint models of longitudinal and survival data can be used to predict the risk of a future event occurring based on the evolution of an endogenous biomarker measured repeatedly over time. This has led naturally to the use of dynamic predictions that update each time a new longitudinal measurement is provided. In this paper, we show how such predictions can be utilised within a fuller decision modelling framework, in particular to allow planning of future interventions for patients under a 'watchful waiting' care pathway...
April 24, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414738/barriers-and-facilitators-for-men-to-attend-prenatal-care-and-obtain-hiv-voluntary-counseling-and-testing-in-brazil
#11
Nava Yeganeh, Mariana Simon, Deborah Mindry, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Maria Cristina Chaves, Breno Santos, Marineide Melo, Brenna Mendoza, Pamina Gorbach
BACKGROUND: Providing HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) to men who attend their partner's prenatal care is an intervention with potential to reduce HIV transmission to women and infants during the vulnerable period of pregnancy. Little is known about the acceptability of this intervention in global settings outside of Africa. METHODS: We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews to evaluate potential barriers and facilitators to prenatal care attendance for HIV VCT with 20 men who did and 15 men who did not attend prenatal care with their partners at Hospital Conceiçao in Porto Alegre, Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410983/toward-better-public-health-reporting-using-existing-off-the-shelf-approaches-the-value-of-medical-dictionaries-in-automated-cancer-detection-using-plaintext-medical-data
#12
Suranga N Kasthurirathne, Brian E Dixon, Judy Gichoya, Huiping Xu, Yuni Xia, Burke Mamlin, Shaun J Grannis
OBJECTIVES: Existing approaches to derive decision models from plaintext clinical data frequently depend on medical dictionaries as the sources of potential features. Prior research suggests that decision models developed using non-dictionary based feature sourcing approaches and "off the shelf" tools could predict cancer with performance metrics between 80%-90%. We sought to compare non-dictionary based models to models built using features derived from medical dictionaries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the detection of cancer cases from free text pathology reports using decision models built with combinations of dictionary or non-dictionary based feature sourcing approaches, 4 feature subset sizes, and 5 classification algorithms...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390820/mortality-reduction-and-cost-effectiveness-of-performing-hysterectomy-at-the-time-of-risk-reducing-salpingo-oophorectomy-for-prophylaxis-against-serous-serous-like-uterine-cancers-in-brca1-mutation-carriers
#13
Laura J Havrilesky, Haley A Moss, Junzo Chino, Evan R Myers, Noah D Kauff
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the survival benefit and cost-effectiveness of performing hysterectomy during risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) for BRCA1 mutation carriers. METHODS: Based on a recent prospective cohort study indicating an elevated incidence of serous/serous-like uterine cancers among BRCA1 mutation carriers, we constructed a modified Markov decision model from a payer perspective to inform decisions about performance of hysterectomy during RRSO at age 40...
April 5, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383957/accumulating-evidence-about-what-prospective-memory-costs-actually-reveal
#14
Luke Strickland, Andrew Heathcote, Roger W Remington, Shayne Loft
Event-based prospective memory (PM) tasks require participants to substitute an atypical PM response for an ongoing task response when presented with PM targets. Responses to ongoing tasks are often slower with the addition of PM demands ("PM costs"). Prominent PM theories attribute costs to capacity-sharing between the ongoing and PM tasks, which reduces the rate of processing of the ongoing task. We modeled PM costs using the Linear Ballistic Accumulator and the Diffusion Decision Model in a lexical-decision task with nonfocal PM targets defined by semantic categories...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380129/factors-associated-with-user-satisfaction-regarding-treatment-offered-in-brazilian-primary-health-care
#15
Ane Polline Lacerda Protasio, Luciano Bezerra Gomes, Liliane Dos Santos Machado, Ana Maria Gondim Valença
The Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care (PMAQ-AB) aimed to improve healthcare public service quality. The purpose of this study was to identify the main factors that influence user satisfaction in Brazilian primary health care services. This research was carried out using secondary data from the first cycle of the PMAQ-AB. A cluster analysis was carried out to find the dependent variable of user satisfaction; and logistic regression was applied in order to obtain the decision model. From the resulting regression model, two factors can be highlighted as regards influencing user satisfaction in Brazil: the user's perception that the team did not attempt to address their needs/problems within the health unit; and the user not feeling respected by the professionals in relation to cultural habits, customs, and religion or only sometimes feeling so...
March 30, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379779/a-procedure-for-deriving-formulas-to-convert-transition-rates-to-probabilities-for-multi-state-markov-models
#16
Edmund Jones, David Epstein, Leticia García-Mochón
For health-economic analyses that use multi-state Markov models, it is often necessary to convert from transition rates to transition probabilities, and for probabilistic sensitivity analysis and other purposes it is useful to have explicit algebraic formulas for these conversions, to avoid having to resort to numerical methods. However, if there are four or more states then the formulas can be extremely complicated. These calculations can be made using packages such as R, but many analysts and other stakeholders still prefer to use spreadsheets for these decision models...
March 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377444/development-of-a-risk-prediction-model-among-professional-hockey-players-with-visible-signs-of-concussion
#17
Jared M Bruce, Ruben J Echemendia, Willem Meeuwisse, Michael G Hutchison, Mark Aubry, Paul Comper
BACKGROUND: Little research examines how to best identify concussed athletes. The purpose of the present study was to develop a preliminary risk decision model that uses visible signs (VS) and mechanisms of injury (MOI) to predict the likelihood of subsequent concussion diagnosis. METHODS: Coders viewed and documented VS and associated MOI for all NHL games over the course of the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 regular seasons. After coding was completed, player concussions were identified from the NHL injury surveillance system and it was determined whether players exhibiting VS were subsequently diagnosed with concussions by club medical staff as a result of the coded event...
April 4, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371250/a-decision-model-to-estimate-a-risk-threshold-for-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-hospitalized-medical-patients
#18
P Le, K A Martinez, M A Pappas, M B Rothberg
Essentials Low risk patients don't require venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis; low risk is unquantified. We used a Markov model to estimate the risk threshold for VTE prophylaxis in medical inpatients. Prophylaxis was cost-effective for an average medical patient with a VTE risk of ≥ 1.0%. VTE prophylaxis can be personalized based on patient risk and age/life expectancy. SUMMARY: Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common preventable condition in medical inpatients. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended for inpatients who are not at low risk of VTE, but no specific risk threshold for prophylaxis has been defined...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347513/cost-effectiveness-of-maintaining-daily-intake-of-oat-%C3%AE-glucan-for-coronary-heart-disease-primary-prevention
#19
Stephanie R Earnshaw, Cheryl L McDade, YiFang Chu, Lisa E Fleige, John L Sievenpiper
PURPOSE: Oat β-glucan reduces cholesterol levels and thus reduces the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, its economic impact has not been well studied. We examined the economic impact of daily intake of ≥3 g of oat β-glucan in primary prevention of CHD in patients receiving statins or no pharmacologic treatment. METHODS: A decision model was developed to compare costs and outcomes associated with lowering cholesterol levels with no pharmacologic treatment and normal diet, no pharmacologic treatment plus ≥3 g/d of oat β-glucan, and statin therapy plus ≥3 g/d of oat β-glucan...
March 25, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345481/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-implementing-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-critical-care-units
#20
Jesus Ruiz-Ramos, Juan Frasquet, Eva Romá, Jose Luis Poveda-Andres, Miguel Salavert-Leti, Alvaro Castellanos, Paula Ramirez
AIMS: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) program implementation focused on critical care units based on assumptions for the Spanish setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A decision model comparing costs and outcomes of sepsis, community-acquired pneumonia, and nosocomial infections (including catheter-related bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and ventilator-associated pneumonia) in critical care units with or without an AS was designed...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
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