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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317954/a-multiple-treatment-comparison-of-eleven-disease-modifying-drugs-used-for-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Vida Hamidi, Elisabeth Couto, Tove Ringerike, Marianne Klemp
Background: Several disease-modifying drug therapies are available for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). To ensure the most appropriate MS management, we assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the disease-modifying medicines used for MS. Methods: We conducted a systematic review including 11 disease-modifying drugs used for treatment of adult patients diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS. We performed a network meta-analysis using both direct and indirect evidence...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316514/risk-based-cost-benefit-analysis-for-evaluating-microbial-risk-mitigation-in-a-drinking-water-system
#2
Viktor Bergion, Andreas Lindhe, Ekaterina Sokolova, Lars Rosén
Waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal diseases can cause large costs to society. Risk management needs to be holistic and transparent in order to reduce these risks in an effective manner. Microbial risk mitigation measures in a drinking water system were investigated using a novel approach combining probabilistic risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis. Lake Vomb in Sweden was used to exemplify and illustrate the risk-based decision model. Four mitigation alternatives were compared, where the first three alternatives, A1-A3, represented connecting 25, 50 and 75%, respectively, of on-site wastewater treatment systems in the catchment to the municipal wastewater treatment plant...
December 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314020/preference-resistance-to-change-and-the-cumulative-decision-model
#3
Randolph C Grace
According to behavioral momentum theory (Nevin & Grace, 2000a), preference in concurrent chains and resistance to change in multiple schedules are independent measures of a common construct representing reinforcement history. Here I review the original studies on preference and resistance to change in which reinforcement variables were manipulated parametrically, conducted by Nevin, Grace and colleagues between 1997 and 2002, as well as more recent research. The cumulative decision model proposed by Grace and colleagues for concurrent chains is shown to provide a good account of both preference and resistance to change, and is able to predict the increased sensitivity to reinforcer rate and magnitude observed with constant-duration components...
January 4, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307066/prevention-of-landfill-pollution-by-multicriteria-spatial-decision-support-systems-mc-sdss-development-implementation-and-case-study
#4
Afshin Khoshand, Ali Hasani Bafrani, Mohammad Zahedipour, Seyed Ahmad Mirbagheri, Majid Ehtehsami
Landfilling of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the serious environmental concerns as improper location of MSW landfill site can release the pollutants into the surrounding environment. The process of selecting MSW landfill site is a complicated decision making problem since it is subjected to simultaneous assessment of several environmental criteria, rules, and restrictions besides sociocultural and economic ones. The current study suggests a framework based on Multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS) to select landfill site...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304936/cost-effectiveness-and-value-of-information-analysis-of-brief-interventions-to-promote-physical-activity-in-primary-care
#5
Vijay Singh Gc, Marc Suhrcke, Wendy Hardeman, Stephen Sutton, Edward C F Wilson
BACKGROUND: Brief interventions (BIs) delivered in primary care have shown potential to increase physical activity levels and may be cost-effective, at least in the short-term, when compared with usual care. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on their longer term costs and health benefits. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of BIs to promote physical activity in primary care and to guide future research priorities using value of information analysis...
January 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298669/preferred-prenatal-counselling-at-the-limits-of-viability-a-survey-among-dutch-perinatal-professionals
#6
Ms Rosa Geurtzen, Arno Van Heijst, Rosella Hermens, Hubertina Scheepers, Mallory Woiski, Jos Draaisma, Marije Hogeveen
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, intensive care can be offered in the Netherlands at 24+0 weeks gestation (with parental consent) but the Dutch guideline lacks recommendations on organization, content and preferred decision-making of the counselling. Our aim is to explore preferred prenatal counselling at the limits of viability by Dutch perinatal professionals and compare this to current care. METHODS: Online nationwide survey as part of the PreCo study (2013) amongst obstetricians and neonatologists in all Dutch level III perinatal care centers (n = 205)...
January 3, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297049/cost-effectiveness-of-the-adjuvanted-herpes-zoster-subunit-vaccine-in-older-adults
#7
Phuc Le, Michael B Rothberg
Importance: The live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine (ZVL) is recommended for immunocompetent adults 60 years or older, but the efficacy wanes with age and over time. A new adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) has higher efficacy but might be more expensive. The choice of vaccines depends on their relative values. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of HZ/su. Design, Setting, and Participants: Markov decision model with transition probabilities based on the US medical literature...
January 2, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276728/a-practice-innovations-decision-model
#8
James E Rohrer
Objective: The purpose of this commentary is to propose a flexible practice innovations decision model (PIDM) for use in health services planning and management. Method: This is an example of fuzzy decision analysis. The elements of the model are explained by applying it to the decision of whether to open a primary care clinic in retail space. The model contains 10 criteria, each of which scored as 1 (met) or 0 (not met). The scores are summed to guide the decision...
January 2017: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247879/the-determinants-of-response-time-in-a-repeated-constant-sum-game-a-robust-bayesian-hierarchical-dual-process-model
#9
Leonidas Spiliopoulos
The investigation of response time and behavior has a long tradition in cognitive psychology, particularly for non-strategic decision-making. Recently, experimental economists have also studied response time in strategic interactions, but with an emphasis on either one-shot games or repeated social-dilemmas. I investigate the determinants of response time in a repeated (pure-conflict) game, admitting a unique mixed strategy Nash equilibrium, with fixed partner matching. Response times depend upon the interaction of two decision models embedded in a dual-process framework (Achtziger and Alós-Ferrer, 2014; Alós-Ferrer, 2016)...
December 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241890/value-of-information-analysis-of-multiparameter-tests-for-chemotherapy-in-early-breast-cancer-the-optima-prelim-trial
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Peter S Hall, Alison Smith, Claire Hulme, Armando Vargas-Palacios, Andreas Makris, Luke Hughes-Davies, Janet A Dunn, John M S Bartlett, David A Cameron, Andrea Marshall, Amy Campbell, Iain R Macpherson, Dan Rea, Adele Francis, Helena Earl, Adrienne Morgan, Robert C Stein, Christopher McCabe
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine is heralded as offering more effective treatments to smaller targeted patient populations. In breast cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy is standard for patients considered as high-risk after surgery. Molecular tests may identify patients who can safely avoid chemotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To use economic analysis before a large-scale clinical trial of molecular testing to confirm the value of the trial and help prioritize between candidate tests as randomized comparators...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207283/division-of-labor-as-an-emergent-phenomenon-of-social-coordination-the-example-of-playing-doubles-pong
#11
Niek H Benerink, Frank T J M Zaal, Remy Casanova, Nathalie Bonnardel, Reinoud J Bootsma
In many daily situations, our behavior is coordinated with that of others. This study investigated this coordination in a doubles-pong task. In this task, two participants each controlled a paddle that could move laterally near the bottom of a shared computer screen. With their paddles, the players needed to block balls that moved down under an angle. In doing so, they needed to make sure that their paddles did not collide. A successful interception led to the ball bouncing back upwards. Importantly, all communication other than through vision of the shared screen was excluded...
December 2, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206499/expert-judgment-based-multicriteria-decision-models-to-assess-the-risk-of-pesticides-on-reproduction-failures-of-grey-partridge
#12
J Devillers, H Devillers, E Bro, F Millot
A suite of models is proposed for estimating the risk of pesticides against the grey partridge (Perdix perdix) and their clutches. Radio-tracked data of females, description and location of the clutches, and data on the pesticide treatments during the laying periods of the partridges were used as basic information. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) modelling allowed us to characterize the pesticides by their 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P), vapour pressure, primary and ultimate biodegradation potential, acute toxicity (LD50) on P...
November 2017: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203507/the-short-term-health-and-economic-burden-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-china-a-modelling-study
#13
Tingting Xu, Livia Dainelli, Kai Yu, Liangkun Ma, Irma Silva Zolezzi, Patrick Detzel, Hai Fang
OBJECTIVES: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a higher risk for adverse health outcomes during pregnancy and delivery for both mothers and babies. This study aims to assess the short-term health and economic burden of GDM in China in 2015. DESIGN: Using TreeAge Pro, an analytical decision model was built to estimate the incremental costs and quality-of-life loss due to GDM, in comparison with pregnancy without GDM from the 28th gestational week until and including childbirth...
December 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202637/methods-for-handling-unobserved-covariates-in-a-bayesian-update-of-a-cost-effectiveness-model
#14
Benjamin Thorpe, Orlagh Carroll, Linda Sharples
Health economic decision models often involve a wide-ranging and complicated synthesis of evidence from a number of sources, making design and implementation of such models resource-heavy. When new data become available and reassessment of treatment recommendations is warranted, it may be more efficient to perform a Bayesian update of an existing model than to construct a new model. If the existing model depends on many, possibly correlated, covariates, then an update may produce biased estimates of model parameters if some of these covariates are completely absent from the new data...
December 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194534/why-not-try-harder-computational-approach-to-motivation-deficits-in-neuro-psychiatric-diseases
#15
Mathias Pessiglione, Fabien Vinckier, Sébastien Bouret, Jean Daunizeau, Raphaël Le Bouc
Motivation deficits, such as apathy, are pervasive in both neurological and psychiatric diseases. Even when they are not the core symptom, they reduce quality of life, compromise functional outcome and increase the burden for caregivers. They are currently assessed with clinical scales that do not give any mechanistic insight susceptible to guide therapeutic intervention. Here, we present another approach that consists of phenotyping the behaviour of patients in motivation tests, using computational models...
November 29, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177457/assessing-the-capacity-of-social-determinants-of-health-data-to-augment-predictive-models-identifying-patients-in-need-of-wraparound-social-services
#16
Suranga N Kasthurirathne, Joshua R Vest, Nir Menachemi, Paul K Halverson, Shaun J Grannis
Introduction: A growing variety of diverse data sources is emerging to better inform health care delivery and health outcomes. We sought to evaluate the capacity for clinical, socioeconomic, and public health data sources to predict the need for various social service referrals among patients at a safety-net hospital. Materials and Methods: We integrated patient clinical data and community-level data representing patients' social determinants of health (SDH) obtained from multiple sources to build random forest decision models to predict the need for any, mental health, dietitian, social work, or other SDH service referrals...
November 21, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173105/economic-evaluation-of-teledentistry-in-cleft-lip-and-palate-patients
#17
Jonathan Teoh, Arthur Hsueh, Rodrigo Mariño, David Manton, Kerrod Hallett
OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of Teledentistry (TD) in delivering specialist dental services at the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) for rural and regional patients and to conduct an economic evaluation by building a decision model to estimate the costs and effectiveness of Teledental consultations compared with standard consultations at the RCH. METHODS: A model-based analysis was conducted to determine the potential costs of implementing TD at the RCH. The outcome measure was timely consultations (whether the patient presented within an appropriate time according to the recommended schedule)...
November 27, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168989/should-i-stay-or-should-i-go-now-or-should-i-wait-and-see-influences-on-wildfire-evacuation-decisions
#18
Sarah McCaffrey, Robyn Wilson, Avishek Konar
As climate change has contributed to longer fire seasons and populations living in fire-prone ecosystems increase, wildfires have begun to affect a growing number of people. As a result, interest in understanding the wildfire evacuation decision process has increased. Of particular interest is understanding why some people leave early, some choose to stay and defend their homes, and others wait to assess conditions before making a final decision. Individuals who tend to wait and see are of particular concern given the dangers of late evacuation...
November 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159405/management-of-tiny-unruptured-intracranial-aneurysms-a-comparative-effectiveness-analysis
#19
Ajay Malhotra, Xiao Wu, Howard P Forman, Charles C Matouk, Dheeraj Gandhi, Pina Sanelli
Importance: Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are relatively common in the general population and are being increasingly diagnosed; a significant proportion are tiny (≤3 mm) aneurysms. There is significant heterogeneity in practice and lack of clear guidelines on the management of incidental, tiny UIAs. It is important to quantify the implications of different management strategies in terms of health benefits to patients. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of routine treatment (aneurysm coiling) vs 3 strategies for imaging surveillance compared with no preventive treatment or routine follow-up of tiny UIAs...
January 1, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147887/a-preliminary-prediction-model-for-potentially-guiding-patient-choices-between-breast-conserving-surgery-and-mastectomy-in-early-breast-cancer-patients-a-dutch-experience
#20
Elvira Vos, Linetta Koppert, Winnifred van Lankeren, Cornelis Verhoef, Bas Groot Koerkamp, Myriam Hunink
PURPOSE: To guide early stage breast cancer patients to choose between breast conserving surgery (BCS) and mastectomy (MST) considering the predicted cosmetic result and quality of life (QoL). METHODS: A decision model was built to compare QoL after BCS and MST. Treatment could result in BCS with good cosmesis, BCS with poor cosmesis, MST only, and MST with breast reconstruction. QoL for these treatment outcomes were obtained from a previous study and the literature and translated into EuroQoL-5D derived utilities...
November 17, 2017: Quality of Life Research
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