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Susan Kohl Malone, Babette Zemel, Charlene Compher, Margaret Souders, Jesse Chittams, Aleda Leis Thompson, Allan Pack, Terri H Lipman
The relationship between sleep duration and obesity in adolescents is inconclusive. This may stem from a more complex relationship between sleep and obesity than previously considered. Shifts toward evening preferences, later sleep-wake times and irregular sleep-wake patterns are typical during adolescence but their relationship to body mass index (BMI) has been relatively unexplored. This cross-sectional study examined associations between sleep duration, midpoint of sleep and social jet lag (estimated from 7 days of continuous actigraphy monitoring), and morningness/eveningness with BMIs (BMI z-scores) and waist-to-height ratios in 14-17-year-old adolescents...
August 11, 2016: Chronobiology International
Lenka Pivarciova, Hanka Vaneckova, Jan Provaznik, Bulah Chia-Hsiang Wu, Martin Pivarci, Olga Peckova, Olga Bazalova, Stepan Cada, Petr Kment, Joanna Kotwica-Rolinska, David Dolezel
Circadian clocks keep organisms in synchrony with external day-night cycles. The free running period (FRP) of the clock, however, is usually only close to-not exactly-24 h. Here, we explored the geographical variation in the FRP of the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, in 59 field-lines originating from a wide variety of localities representing geographically different environments. We have identified a remarkable range in the FRPs between field-lines, with the fastest clock at ~21 h and the slowest close to 28 h, a range comparable to the collections of clock mutants in model organisms...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Seth D Rhoades, Arjun Sengupta, Aalim M Weljie
Sleep and circadian rhythms studies have recently benefited from metabolomics analyses, uncovering new connections between chronobiology and metabolism. From untargeted mass spectrometry to quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a diversity of analytical approaches has been applied for biomarker discovery in the field. In this review we consider advances in the application of metabolomics technologies which have uncovered significant effects of sleep and circadian cycles on several metabolites, namely phosphatidylcholine species, medium-chain carnitines, and aromatic amino acids...
October 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
M Merino-Andreu, A Alvarez-Ruiz de Larrinaga, J A Madrid-Perez, M A Martinez-Martinez, F J Puertas-Cuesta, A J Asencio-Guerra, O Romero Santo-Tomas, M J Jurado-Luque, F J Segarra-Isern, T Canet-Sanz, P Gimenez-Rodriguez, J Teran-Santos, M L Alonso-Alvarez, D Garcia-Borreguero Diaz-Varela, B Barriuso-Esteban
One of the main objectives of the Spanish Sleep Society is to promote healthy sleep in both the general population and in health professionals. This document aims to conduct a review of the current scientific literature on sleep habits that can serve as the basis on which to establish a set of general recommendations, regarding healthy sleep, for use by the general population in Spain as well as to identify the main challenges faced by research into sleep habits. The document has been developed by a multidisciplinary team made up of members of the Spanish Sleep Society who are experts in paediatric sleep medicine, clinical neurophysiology, pulmonology, neurology, chronobiology, physiology and psychology...
October 3, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Julia M Selfridge, Tetsuya Gotoh, Samuel Schiffhauer, JingJing Liu, Philip E Stauffer, Andrew Li, Daniel G S Capelluto, Carla V Finkielstein
Circadian rhythms are a collection of endogenously driven biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes that oscillate in a 24-h cycle and can be entrained by external cues. Circadian clock molecules are responsible for the expression of regulatory components that modulate, among others, the cell's metabolism and energy consumption. In clinical practice, the regulation of clock mechanisms is relevant to biotransformation of therapeutics. Accordingly, xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification, the two processes that directly influence drug effectiveness and toxicity, are direct manifestations of the daily oscillations of the cellular and biochemical processes taking place within the gastrointestinal, hepatic/biliary, and renal/urologic systems...
October 3, 2016: Drugs
Roberto Manfredini, Fabio Manfredini, Fabio Fabbian, Raffaella Salmi, Massimo Gallerani, Eduardo Bossone, Abhishek J Deshmukh
Several pathophysiologic factors, not harmful if taken alone, are capable of triggering unfavorable events when presenting together within the same temporal window (chronorisk), and the occurrence of many cardiovascular events is not evenly distributed in time. Both acute myocardial infarction and takotsubo syndrome seem to exhibit a temporal preference in their onset, characterized by variations according to time of day, day of the week, and month of the year, although with both analogies and differences.
October 2016: Heart Failure Clinics
Paradi Mirmirani
Chronic telogen effluvium describes the clinical condition noted mostly in middle-aged women of increased, diffuse scalp hair shedding that is prolonged and often presents with a fluctuating course that may continue for years but does not lead to visible hair thinning. Despite its description almost 20 years ago, the underlying pathologic cause of CTE is yet to be identified. However the culmination of research in the field of hair biology and the burgeoning field of chronobiology may lead to exciting breakthroughs in our understanding of CTE...
2016: Dermatology Online Journal
Nicole Lovato, Gorica Micic, Michael Gradisar, Sally A Ferguson, Helen J Burgess, David J Kennaway, Leon Lack
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of bright light and/or melatonin treatment for Delayed Sleep Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) is contingent upon an accurate clinical assessment of the circadian phase. However, the process of determining this circadian phase can be costly and is not yet readily available in the clinical setting. The present study investigated whether more cost-effective and convenient estimates of the circadian phase, such as self-reported sleep timing, can be used to predict the circadian phase and guide the timing of light and/or melatonin treatment (i...
September 9, 2016: Chronobiology International
Duygu Neval Sayın İpek
OBJECTIVE: The aim of present study was to investigate the chronobiology and identification of Hypoderma species in cattle slaughtered in the Diyarbakir Province of Turkey. METHODS: In total, 736 hides and subcutaneous tissue of slaughtered cattle were examined for the presence of second- and third-instar larvae in the slaughterhouse between November 2012 and May 2013. Third-instar larvae were collected from the slaughterhouses, and gDNA isolates were examined by PCR-RFLP analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene of mt-DNA using TaqI enzyme...
June 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Tracy E Slanger, J Valérie Gross, Andreas Pinger, Peter Morfeld, Miriam Bellinger, Anna-Lena Duhme, Rosalinde Amancay Reichardt Ortega, Giovanni Costa, Tim R Driscoll, Russell G Foster, Lin Fritschi, Mikael Sallinen, Juha Liira, Thomas C Erren
BACKGROUND: Shift work is often associated with sleepiness and sleep disorders. Person-directed, non-pharmacological interventions may positively influence the impact of shift work on sleep, thereby improving workers' well-being, safety, and health. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of person-directed, non-pharmacological interventions for reducing sleepiness at work and improving the length and quality of sleep between shifts for shift workers. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, Embase, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, PsycINFO, OpenGrey, and OSH-UPDATE from inception to August 2015...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Francisco Javier García Callejo, Jaume Redondo Martínez, Tomás Pérez Carbonell, Rafael Monzó Gandía, M Paz Martínez Beneyto, Inés Rincón Piedrahita
INTRODUCTION: Hiccup crises are generally benign and self-limiting, but longer episodes affect quality of life and must be treated. There are recognisable causes that otorhinolaryngologists must know and be aware for diagnosis and therapeutic alternatives. The main expression is a spasmodic glottic noise with characteristic neck alterations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study from 1979 with patients suffering persistent or recurrent hiccups. Chronobiology, comorbidity, findings from explorations, therapies and outcomes were noted...
August 16, 2016: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
Samuel S C Rund, Boyoung Yoo, Camille Alam, Taryn Green, Melissa T Stephens, Erliang Zeng, Gary F George, Aaron D Sheppard, Giles E Duffield, Tijana Milenković, Michael E Pfrender
BACKGROUND: Marine and freshwater zooplankton exhibit daily rhythmic patterns of behavior and physiology which may be regulated directly by the light:dark (LD) cycle and/or a molecular circadian clock. One of the best-studied zooplankton taxa, the freshwater crustacean Daphnia, has a 24 h diel vertical migration (DVM) behavior whereby the organism travels up and down through the water column daily. DVM plays a critical role in resource tracking and the behavioral avoidance of predators and damaging ultraviolet radiation...
2016: BMC Genomics
Yuriko Doi, Kaneyoshi Ishihara, Makoto Uchiyama
Our current 24-h society and the weekday-weekend switch of our social clocks may affect young children's sleep and circadian rhythms. However, such evidence is scarce. We conducted a nationwide epidemiological study of sleep and health in preschool children aged 3-5 years attending kindergarten or childcare centers in Japan, using stratified one-stage cluster sampling. The target population was 2 969 627 individuals (as of 1 April 2013). The Children's ChronoType Questionnaire was used to measure chronotypes (morning (M)-type, neither (N)-type and evening (E)-type), and weekday and weekend sleep-wake parameters...
August 18, 2016: Chronobiology International
M Romerowicz-Misielak, A Tabecka-Lonczynska, K Koziol, P Gilun, S Stefanczyk-Krzymowska, W Och, M Koziorowski
Previous studies indicate that there are at least a few regulatory systems involved in photoperiodic synchronisation of reproductive activity, which starts with the retina and ends at the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator. Recently we have shown indicated that the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) released from the eye into the ophthalmic venous blood depends on the intensity of sunlight. The aim of this study was to test whether changes in the concentration of carbon monoxide in the ophthalmic venous blood may modulate reproductive activity, as measured by changes in GnRH and GnRH receptor gene expression...
June 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Richard Mahlberg
Sleep disturbances are common in the elderly. Endogen regulation mechanisms are often unstable. Light treatment and melatonin are proved chronobiological interventions. Cataract surgery is effective to enhance the sleep-wake-rhythm.Mandibular advancement devices are a reliable alternative to continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).
August 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
O A Poddubnaya
The elaboration of new technologies for the medical rehabilitation of the patients presenting with chronic cholecystitis in combination with chronic opisthorchiasis is a topical problem facing modern clinical gastroenterology. The application of up-to-date non-pharmacological therapeutic modalities, such as ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) therapy concomitantly with group chronophysiotherapy makes it possible to significantly improve the final outcome of the treatment. The results of clinical studies give evidence of the favourable influence of the combined chronorehabilitative treatment including UHF therapy on the characteristics of the functional state of the biliary-hepatic system and of the organism as a whole...
2016: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Agnieszka Karbownik, Agnieszka Bienert, Włodzimierz Płotek, Tomasz Grabowski, Magdalena Cerbin-Koczorowska, Anna Wolc, Edmund Grześkowiak
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Paracetamol is one of the most common analgesics and antipyretics applied in health care. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the time-of-day administration on the paracetamol pharmacokinetics and its penetration into aqueous humour (AH). METHODS: Rabbits were divided into three groups: I-receiving paracetamol at 08.00 h, II-receiving paracetamol at 16.00 h, and III-receiving paracetamol at 24.00 h. Paracetamol was administered intravenously at a single dose of 35 mg/kg...
August 2, 2016: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
S M van Belkum, F J Bosker, R Kortekaas, D G M Beersma, R A Schoevers
BACKGROUND: Mood disorders constitute a high burden for both patients and society. Notwithstanding the large arsenal of available treatment options, a considerable group of patients does not remit on current antidepressant treatment. There is an urgent need to develop alternative treatment strategies. Recently, low-strength transcranial pulsed electromagnetic field (tPEMF) stimulation has been purported as a promising strategy for such treatment-resistant depression (TRD). The mode of action of this new technique is however largely unknown...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Abe DeAnda, Eugene A Grossi, Leora B Balsam, Marc R Moon, Clifford W Barlow, Daniel O Navia, Patricia Ursomanno, Bulat A Ziganshin, Annette E Rabinovich, John A Elefteriades, Julian A Smith
BACKGROUND: Seasonal variations of Stanford Type A dissections (STADs) have been previously described in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). This study sought to determine if these variation are mirrored in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). METHODS: Data from patients treated surgically for STADs were retrospectively obtained from existing administrative and clinical databases from NH and SH sites. Data points of interest included age, sex, date of dissection, and 30-day mortality...
December 2015: Aorta (Stamford, Conn.)
Katharina Beer, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Stephan Härtel, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Chronobiological studies of individual activity rhythms in social insects can be constrained by the artificial isolation of individuals from their social context. We present a new experimental set-up that simultaneously measures the temperature rhythm in a queen-less but brood raising mini colony and the walking activity rhythms of singly kept honey bees that have indirect social contact with it. Our approach enables monitoring of individual bees in the social context of a mini colony under controlled laboratory conditions...
August 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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