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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643887/personality-dopamine-and-parkinson-s-disease-insights-from-subthalamic-stimulation
#1
Eugénie Lhommée, François Boyer, Maxime Wack, Pierre Pélissier, Hélène Klinger, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Amélie Bichon, Valérie Fraix, Stéphan Chabardès, Patrick Mertens, Anna Castrioto, Andrea Kistner, Emmanuel Broussolle, Stéphane Thobois, Paul Krack
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic stimulation improves the motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, the impact of this treatment on impulse control and personality is the subject of heavy debate. The objective of this study was to investigate personality changes after subthalamic stimulation. METHODS: Using Cloninger's biosocial model, we assessed personality in 73 Parkinson's disease patients before and 12 months after subthalamic stimulation accompanied by a drastic reduction in dopaminergic medication...
June 23, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638023/-the-development-of-ideas-about-the-organization-of-the-speech-system
#2
V A Karlov, V M Shklovskiy, V S Zolovkina
This work represents an insight into a problem of studying one of the higher mental functions of humans - speech, its primary role in the development of man as a biosocial being. Various concepts of speech and the problem of the dominance of cerebral hemispheres in language function are analyzed. It touched upon the ontogenesis of hemispheric asymmetry. The problem of 'codominance' of right and left hemispheres depending on the nature of the task solving by the subject and the functional level of information processing is discussed...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637363/-think-positively-parkinson-s-disease-biomedicine-and-hope-in-contemporary-germany
#3
Ingrid Metzler, Paul Just
Narratives of hope shape contemporary engagements with Parkinson's disease. On the one hand, a "biomedical narrative of hope" promises that biomedical research will help to transform this treatable but incurable disease into a curable one in the future. On the other hand, a more individual "illness narrative of hope" encourages patients to influence the course of Parkinson's disease by practicing self-care and positive thinking. This article asks how these two narratives of hope interact. It bases its argument on an analysis of data from 13 focus groups conducted in Germany in 2012 and 2014 with patients with Parkinson's disease and their relatives...
June 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546653/biosocial-conservation-integrating-biological-and-ethnographic-methods-to-study-human-primate-interactions
#4
Joanna M Setchell, Emilie Fairet, Kathryn Shutt, Siân Waters, Sandra Bell
Biodiversity conservation is one of the grand challenges facing society. Many people interested in biodiversity conservation have a background in wildlife biology. However, the diverse social, cultural, political, and historical factors that influence the lives of people and wildlife can be investigated fully only by incorporating social science methods, ideally within an interdisciplinary framework. Cultural hierarchies of knowledge and the hegemony of the natural sciences create a barrier to interdisciplinary understandings...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529494/sensation-seeking-and-online-gaming-addiction-in-adolescents-a-moderated-mediation-model-of-positive-affective-associations-and-impulsivity
#5
Jianping Hu, Shuangju Zhen, Chengfu Yu, Qiuyan Zhang, Wei Zhang
Based on the Dual Systems Model (Somerville et al., 2010; Steinberg, 2010a) and the biosocial-affect model (Romer and Hennessy, 2007) of adolescent sensation seeking and problem behaviors, the present study examined how (affective associations with online games as a mediator) and when (impulsivity as a moderator) did sensation seeking influence online gaming addiction in adolescence. A total of 375 Chinese male adolescents (mean age = 16.02 years, SD = 0.85) from southern China completed anonymous questionnaires regarding sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games, impulsivity, and online gaming addiction...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521624/early-life-socioeconomic-status-and-adult-physiological-functioning-a-life-course-examination-of-biosocial-mechanisms
#6
Yang Claire Yang, Karen Gerken, Kristen Schorpp, Courtney Boen, Kathleen Mullan Harris
A growing literature has demonstrated a link between early-life socioeconomic conditions and adult health at a singular point in life. No research exists, however, that specifies the life course patterns of socioeconomic status (SES) in relation to the underlying biological processes that determine health. Using an innovative life course research design consisting of four nationally representative longitudinal datasets that collectively cover the human life span from early adolescence to old age (Add Health, MIDUS, NSHAP, and HRS), we address this scientific gap and assess how SES pathways from childhood into adulthood are associated with biophysiological outcomes in different adult life stages...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482934/longevity-in-north-korea-and-south-korea-prevalence-of-centenarians-in-one-the-poorest-and-one-of-the-richest-nations
#7
Daniel Schwekendiek
Over recent decades, economic living conditions have dramatically improved in South Korea, which now represents one of the most developed nations. At the same time, its twin in the North remains one of the poorest countries on earth. Thus, the Korean peninsula represents a unique historical experiment that allows for study of the effects of environment on human development under a variety of ceteris paribus cultural, genetic and climatic conditions. Previous studies comparing the biosocial performances of the two Koreas have focused on indicators such as weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference and age at menarche...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455183/the-effects-of-competition-and-implicit-power-motive-on-men-s-testosterone-emotion-recognition-and-aggression
#8
John G Vongas, Raghid Al Hajj
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. We investigated the effects of competition on men's testosterone levels and assessed whether androgen reactivity was associated with subsequent emotion recognition and reactive and proactive aggression. We also explored whether personalized power (p Power) moderated these relationships. In Study 1, 84 males competed on a number tracing task and interpreted emotions from facial expressions. In Study 2, 72 males competed on the same task and were assessed on proactive and reactive aggression...
May 2, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328093/race-in-an-epigenetic-time-thinking-biology-in-the-plural
#9
Maurizio Meloni
The notion that biological memories of environmental experiences can be embedded in the human genome and even transmitted transgenerationally is increasingly relevant in the postgenomic world, particularly in molecular epigenetics, where the genome is conceptualized as porous to environmental signals. In this article I discuss the current rethinking of race in epigenetic rather than genetic terms, emphasizing some of its paradoxical implications, especially for public policy. I claim in particular that: (i) if sociologists want to investigate race in a postgenomic world they should pay more attention to this novel plastic and biosocial view of race; and (ii) there are no reasons to believe that an epigenetic view will extinguish race, or that soft-inheritance claims will produce a less exclusionary discourse than genetics (hard heredity)...
March 22, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286370/interaction-between-prenatal-maternal-stress-and-autonomic-arousal-in-predicting-conduct-problems-and-psychopathic-traits-in-children
#10
Yu Gao, Yonglin Huang, Xiaobo Li
BACKGROUND: Evidence has suggested that neurobiological deficits combine with psychosocial risk factors to impact on the development of antisocial behavior. The current study concentrated on the interplay of prenatal maternal stress and autonomic arousal in predicting antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits. METHODS: Prenatal maternal stress was assessed by caregiver's retrospective report, and resting heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured in 295 8- to 10-year-old children...
March 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271845/syndemics-and-the-biosocial-conception-of-health
#11
REVIEW
Merrill Singer, Nicola Bulled, Bayla Ostrach, Emily Mendenhall
The syndemics model of health focuses on the biosocial complex, which consists of interacting, co-present, or sequential diseases and the social and environmental factors that promote and enhance the negative effects of disease interaction. This emergent approach to health conception and clinical practice reconfigures conventional historical understanding of diseases as distinct entities in nature, separate from other diseases and independent of the social contexts in which they are found. Rather, all of these factors tend to interact synergistically in various and consequential ways, having a substantial impact on the health of individuals and whole populations...
March 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145946/emergency-medical-technician-training-during-medical-school-benefits-for-the-hidden-curriculum
#12
Rebecca Russ-Sellers, Thomas H Blackwell
PROBLEM: Medical schools are encouraged to introduce students to clinical experiences early, to integrate biomedical and clinical sciences, and to expose students to interprofessional health providers and teams. One important goal is for students to gain a better understanding of the patients they will care for in the future and how their social and behavioral characteristics may affect care delivery. APPROACH: To promote early clinical exposure and biomedical integration, in 2012 the University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville incorporated emergency medical technician (EMT) training into the curriculum...
July 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979628/parenting-stressors-and-young-adolescents-depressive-symptoms-does-high-vagal-suppression-offer-protection
#13
Anne C Fletcher, Cheryl Buehler, Christy M Buchanan, Bridget B Weymouth
Grounded in a dual-risk, biosocial perspective of developmental psychopathology, this study examined the role of higher vagal suppression in providing young adolescents protection from four parenting stressors. It was expected that lower vagal suppression would increase youth vulnerability to the deleterious effects of these parenting stressors. Depressive symptoms were examined as a central marker of socioemotional difficulties during early adolescence. The four parenting stressors examined were interparental hostility, maternal use of harsh discipline, maternal inconsistent discipline, and maternal psychological control...
March 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872199/somatic-individuality-in-context-a-comparative-case-study
#14
Kelly Pender
Scholars have challenged the totalizing nature of the "geneticization thesis," arguing that its brushstrokes are too broad to capture the complicated nature of the new genetics. One such challenge has come from Nikolas Rose's argument that genetic medicine is governed by a new biopolitics in which patients understand themselves as "somatic individuals" who treat their bodies as an "ethical substance" to be worked on in order to secure a healthier future. I argue that Rose's argument, while compelling, paints the new genetics in equally broad brushstrokes and that in order for a concept like somatic individuality to become useful, we must study its manifestation across different communities of at-risk individuals...
November 21, 2016: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818537/the-biosocial-sociological-themes-and-issues
#15
Maurizio Meloni, Simon Williams, Paul Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Sociological Review Mongraph
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790271/tuberculosis-infection-and-latent-tuberculosis
#16
REVIEW
Seung Heon Lee
Active tuberculosis (TB) has a greater burden of TB bacilli than latent TB and acts as an infection source for contacts. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is the state in which humans are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis without any clinical symptoms, radiological abnormality, or microbiological evidence. TB is transmissible by respiratory droplet nucleus of 1-5 µm in diameter, containing 1-10 TB bacilli. TB transmission is affected by the strength of the infectious source, infectiousness of TB bacilli, immunoresistance of the host, environmental stresses, and biosocial factors...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781004/biosocial-approaches-to-the-2013-2016-ebola-pandemic
#17
Eugene T Richardson, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, J Daniel Kelly, Yusupha Dibba, Songor Koedoyoma, Paul E Farmer
Despite more than 25 documented outbreaks of Ebola since 1976, our understanding of the disease is limited, in particular the social, political, ecological, and economic forces that promote (or limit) its spread. In the following study, we seek to provide new ways of understanding the 2013-2016 Ebola pandemic. We use the term, 'pandemic,' instead of 'epidemic,' so as not to elide the global forces that shape every localized outbreak of infectious disease. By situating life histories via a biosocial approach, the forces promoting or retarding Ebola transmission come into sharper focus...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668969/the-grim-reaper-hounds-of-hell-and-dr-death-the-role-of-storytelling-for-palliative-care-in-competing-medical-meaning-systems
#18
Leah M Omilion-Hodges, Nathan M Swords
Palliative care (PC) is a medical specialty that strives to fulfill the physical, psychosocial, emotional, practical, and spiritual needs of individuals at end of life or in tandem with curative treatment. Although exponentially rising in use and beneficial to patient well-being at end of life, the purpose of PC is often misunderstood and those providing its services frequently report resistance from organizational members. Such resistance can be attributed to tensions between traditional biomedical models of medicine that privilege curative treatment and biosocial models of medicine that holistically care for patients...
September 26, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617497/you-are-what-you-eat-the-impact-of-nutrition-on-alcohol-and-drug-use
#19
Ryan D Schroeder, George E Higgins
BACKGROUND: Experimental research has shown that nutrition influences behavioral deviance. OBJECTIVES: The current project addresses the impact of nutrition on problem alcohol and drug use in a nationally representative sample of US adults. METHODS: The study relies on the daily dietary nutrition data and the substance use measures in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. RESULTS: The findings generally show that macronutrients increase the odds of substance use and micronutrients decrease the odds of substance use, especially among females...
September 12, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587770/biosocial-interventions-in-psychological-medicine
#20
EDITORIAL
Kamaldeep Bhui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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