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Leah M Omilion-Hodges, Nathan M Swords
Palliative care (PC) is a medical specialty that strives to fulfill the physical, psychosocial, emotional, practical, and spiritual needs of individuals at end of life or in tandem with curative treatment. Although exponentially rising in use and beneficial to patient well-being at end of life, the purpose of PC is often misunderstood and those providing its services frequently report resistance from organizational members. Such resistance can be attributed to tensions between traditional biomedical models of medicine that privilege curative treatment and biosocial models of medicine that holistically care for patients...
September 26, 2016: Health Communication
Ryan D Schroeder, George E Higgins
BACKGROUND: Experimental research has shown that nutrition influences behavioral deviance. OBJECTIVES: The current project addresses the impact of nutrition on problem alcohol and drug use in a nationally representative sample of US adults. METHODS: The study relies on the daily dietary nutrition data and the substance use measures in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. RESULTS: The findings generally show that macronutrients increase the odds of substance use and micronutrients decrease the odds of substance use, especially among females...
September 12, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Kamaldeep Bhui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
W Kawohl, C Wyss, P Roser, M Brüne, W Rössler, G Juckel
BACKGROUND: The proliferation of biological psychiatry has greatly increased over the last two decades. With the possibility to carry out brain research using modern technical methods, it seemed that social influencing factors would lose importance in the development of mental diseases; however, in actual fact this does not seem to be justified. It is necessary to overcome this separation, in that social factors are incorporated into a conceptual framework in the development of mental diseases, which simultaneously also takes the results of current neurobiological research into consideration...
August 4, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Kevin Louis Bardosh, Ikhlass El Berbri, Marie Ducrotoy, Mohammed Bouslikhane, Fassi Fihri Ouafaa, Susan C Welburn
This study traces the biosocial dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus - a zoonotic tapeworm spread between dogs, livestock and people - at slaughterhouses in Morocco. One of the most important parasitic zoonoses worldwide, this neglected cestode is responsible for a debilitating, potentially life-threatening, human disease and significant livestock production losses. Transmission can be interrupted, among other ways, by restricting dogs from eating cyst-infected livestock viscera. Recent epidemiological studies in Sidi Kacem province, northern Morocco, found that government-operated slaughterhouses were 'hotspots' for hydatid cysts in livestock and infection in dogs...
September 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Georgina Pearson
Mass drug administration has been less successful as a technique for controlling intestinal schistosomiasis (S. mansoni) than anticipated. In Uganda, the mass distribution of praziquantel has been provided to populations at risk of infection since the early 2000s, but prevalence mostly remains high. This is the case, for example, at locations in north-western and south-eastern Uganda. However, there is a remarkable exception. Among Madi fishing populations and their immediate neighbours, living close to the border with South Sudan, the rate of infection has dropped dramatically...
September 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
J R Stothard, A N Khamis, I S Khamis, C H E Neo, I Wei, D Rollinson
Endeavours to control urogenital schistosomiasis on Unguja Island (Zanzibar) have focused on school-aged children. To assess the impact of an associated health education campaign, the supervised use of the comic-strip medical booklet Juma na Kichocho by Class V pupils attending eighteen primary schools was investigated. A validated knowledge and attitudes questionnaire was completed at baseline and repeated one year later following the regular use of the booklet during the calendar year. A scoring system (ranging from 0...
September 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Julie Hastings
In 2008 in Morogoro region, Tanzania, mass drug administration (MDA) to school-aged children to treat two neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) - urinary schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths - was suspended by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare after riots broke out in schools where drugs were being administered. This article discusses why this biomedical intervention was so vehemently rejected, including an eyewitness account. As the protest spread to the village where I was conducting fieldwork, villagers accused me of bringing medicine into the village with which to 'poison' the children and it was necessary for me to leave immediately under the protection of the Tanzanian police...
September 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Melissa Parker, Katja Polman, Tim Allen
The term 'neglected tropical diseases' (NTDs) points to the need for a biosocial perspective. Although 'diseases' are widely understood as biological phenomena, 'neglect' is inherently social. Social priorities, social relations and social behaviour profoundly influence the design, implementation and evaluation of control programmes. Yet, these dimensions of neglect are, themselves, neglected. Instead, emphasis is being placed on preventive chemotherapy - a technical, context-free approach which relies almost entirely on the mass distribution of drugs, at regular intervals, to populations living in endemic areas...
September 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Ashish Premkumar, Elena Gates
Within the realm of bioethics, the construction of pregnancy classically has focused on principle-based ethics, essentially separating maternal and fetal interests. Respect for maternal autonomy becomes distinct from an obligation of fetal beneficence, placing practitioners in complicated ethical situations when the goals of pregnant women may be at odds with the best health interests of the fetus as defined by both professional groups and society in general. As a result, clinical care is framed by an ethical "maternal-fetal conflict," with important downstream legal and policy consequences for the well-being of pregnant women...
August 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Des Fitzgerald, Nikolas Rose, Ilina Singh
This paper is about the relationship between cities and brains: it charts the back-and-forth between the hectic, stressful lives of urban citizens, and a psychological and neurobiological literature that claims to make such stress both visible and knowable. But beyond such genealogical labour, the paper also asks: what can a sociology concerned with the effects of 'biosocial' agencies take from a scientific literature on the urban brain? What might sociology even contribute to that literature, in its turn? To investigate these possibilities, the paper centres on the emergence and description of what it calls 'the Neuropolis' - a term it deploys to hold together both an intellectual and scientific figure and a real, physical enclosure...
March 2016: Sociological Review Mongraph
Anjali Gopalan, Jennifer A Makelarski, Lori B Garibay, Veronica Escamilla, Raina M Merchant, Marcus B Wolfe, Rebecca Holbrook, Stacy Tessler Lindau
BACKGROUND: More than 35% of American adults are obese. For African American and Hispanic adults, as well as individuals residing in poorer or more racially segregated urban neighborhoods, the likelihood of obesity is even higher. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) may substitute for or complement community-based resources for weight management. However, little is currently known about health-specific ICT use among urban-dwelling people with obesity. OBJECTIVE: We describe health-specific ICT use and its relationship to measured obesity among adults in high-poverty urban communities...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Rebecca Meaney, Penelope Hasking, Andrea Reupert
Both Emotional Cascade Theory and Linehan's Biosocial Theory suggest dysregulated behaviors associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) emerge, in part, because of cycles of rumination, poor emotional recognition and poor emotion regulation. In this study we examined relationships between rumination, alexithymia, and emotion regulation in predicting dysregulated behaviors associated with BPD (e.g. self-harm, substance use, aggression), and explored both indirect and moderating effects among these variables...
2016: PloS One
Chris J Burman, Marota A Aphane
This article emphasises that when working with complex adaptive systems it is possible to stimulate new social practices and/or cognitive perspectives that contribute to risk reduction, associated with reducing aggregate community viral loads. The process of achieving this is highly participatory and is methodologically possible because evidence of 'attractors' that influence the social practices can be identified using qualitative research techniques. Using findings from Limpopo Province, South Africa, we argue that working with 'wellness attractors' and increasing their presence within the HIV/AIDS landscape could influence aggregate community viral loads...
June 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Michael Arribas-Ayllon
The concept of geneticization belongs to a style of thinking within the social sciences that refers to wide-ranging processes and consequences of genetic knowledge. Lippman's original use of the term was political, anticipating the onerous consequences of genetic reductionism and determinism, while more recent engagements emphasise the productivity and heterogeneity of genetic concepts, practices and technologies. This paper reconstructs the geneticization concept, tracing it back to early political critiques of medicine...
June 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Katarzyna Pisanski, Anna Oleszkiewicz, Agnieszka Sorokowska
Vocal tract resonances provide reliable information about a speaker's body size that human listeners use for biosocial judgements as well as speech recognition. Although humans can accurately assess men's relative body size from the voice alone, how this ability is acquired remains unknown. In this study, we test the prediction that accurate voice-based size estimation is possible without prior audiovisual experience linking low frequencies to large bodies. Ninety-one healthy congenitally or early blind, late blind and sighted adults (aged 20-65) participated in the study...
April 2016: Biology Letters
Daniel Navon, Gil Eyal
This article builds on Hacking's framework of "dynamic nominalism" to show how knowledge about biological etiology can interact with the "kinds of people" delineated by diagnostic categories in ways that "loop" or modify both over time. The authors use historical materials to show how "geneticization" played a crucial role in binding together autism as a biosocial community and how evidence from genetics research later made an important contribution to the diagnostic expansion of autism. In the second part of the article, the authors draw on quantitative and qualitative analyses of autism rates over time in several rare conditions that are delineated strictly according to genomic mutations in order to demonstrate that these changes in diagnostic practice helped to both increase autism's prevalence and create its enormous genetic heterogeneity...
March 2016: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Kyle M Lang, Todd D Little
We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations...
April 4, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Kristin Snopkowski, Mary C Towner, Mary K Shenk, Heidi Colleran
Women's education has emerged as a central predictor of fertility decline, but the many ways that education affects fertility have not been subject to detailed comparative investigation. Taking an evolutionary biosocial approach, we use structural equation modelling to examine potential pathways between education and fertility including: infant/child mortality, women's participation in the labour market, husband's education, social network influences, and contraceptive use or knowledge across three very different contexts: Matlab, Bangladesh; San Borja, Bolivia; and rural Poland...
April 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
M Brown, E Oldenhof, J S Allen, N A Dowling
The primary aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of personality disorders in problem gamblers, to explore the relationship between personality disorders and problem gambling severity, and to explore the degree to which the psychological symptoms highlighted in the biosocial developmental model of borderline personality disorder (impulsivity, distress tolerance, substance use, PTSD symptoms, psychological distress and work/social adjustment) are associated with problem gambling. A secondary aim was to explore the strength of the relationships between these symptoms and problem gambling severity in problem gamblers with and without personality disorder pathology...
March 26, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
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