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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872199/somatic-individuality-in-context-a-comparative-case-study
#1
Kelly Pender
Scholars have challenged the totalizing nature of the "geneticization thesis," arguing that its brushstrokes are too broad to capture the complicated nature of the new genetics. One such challenge has come from Nikolas Rose's argument that genetic medicine is governed by a new biopolitics in which patients understand themselves as "somatic individuals" who treat their bodies as an "ethical substance" to be worked on in order to secure a healthier future. I argue that Rose's argument, while compelling, paints the new genetics in equally broad brushstrokes and that in order for a concept like somatic individuality to become useful, we must study its manifestation across different communities of at-risk individuals...
November 21, 2016: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818537/the-biosocial-sociological-themes-and-issues
#2
Maurizio Meloni, Simon Williams, Paul Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Sociological Review Mongraph
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790271/tuberculosis-infection-and-latent-tuberculosis
#3
REVIEW
Seung Heon Lee
Active tuberculosis (TB) has a greater burden of TB bacilli than latent TB and acts as an infection source for contacts. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is the state in which humans are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis without any clinical symptoms, radiological abnormality, or microbiological evidence. TB is transmissible by respiratory droplet nucleus of 1-5 µm in diameter, containing 1-10 TB bacilli. TB transmission is affected by the strength of the infectious source, infectiousness of TB bacilli, immunoresistance of the host, environmental stresses, and biosocial factors...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781004/biosocial-approaches-to-the-2013-2016-ebola-pandemic
#4
Eugene T Richardson, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, J Daniel Kelly, Yusupha Dibba, Songor Koedoyoma, Paul E Farmer
Despite more than 25 documented outbreaks of Ebola since 1976, our understanding of the disease is limited, in particular the social, political, ecological, and economic forces that promote (or limit) its spread. In the following study, we seek to provide new ways of understanding the 2013-2016 Ebola pandemic. We use the term, 'pandemic,' instead of 'epidemic,' so as not to elide the global forces that shape every localized outbreak of infectious disease. By situating life histories via a biosocial approach, the forces promoting or retarding Ebola transmission come into sharper focus...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668969/the-grim-reaper-hounds-of-hell-and-dr-death-the-role-of-storytelling-for-palliative-care-in-competing-medical-meaning-systems
#5
Leah M Omilion-Hodges, Nathan M Swords
Palliative care (PC) is a medical specialty that strives to fulfill the physical, psychosocial, emotional, practical, and spiritual needs of individuals at end of life or in tandem with curative treatment. Although exponentially rising in use and beneficial to patient well-being at end of life, the purpose of PC is often misunderstood and those providing its services frequently report resistance from organizational members. Such resistance can be attributed to tensions between traditional biomedical models of medicine that privilege curative treatment and biosocial models of medicine that holistically care for patients...
September 26, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617497/you-are-what-you-eat-the-impact-of-nutrition-on-alcohol-and-drug-use
#6
Ryan D Schroeder, George E Higgins
BACKGROUND: Experimental research has shown that nutrition influences behavioral deviance. OBJECTIVES: The current project addresses the impact of nutrition on problem alcohol and drug use in a nationally representative sample of US adults. METHODS: The study relies on the daily dietary nutrition data and the substance use measures in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. RESULTS: The findings generally show that macronutrients increase the odds of substance use and micronutrients decrease the odds of substance use, especially among females...
September 12, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587770/biosocial-interventions-in-psychological-medicine
#7
EDITORIAL
Kamaldeep Bhui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491537/-social-psychiatry-and-neurobiology-a-long-overdue-convergence-exemplified-by-schizophrenia
#8
W Kawohl, C Wyss, P Roser, M Brüne, W Rössler, G Juckel
BACKGROUND: The proliferation of biological psychiatry has greatly increased over the last two decades. With the possibility to carry out brain research using modern technical methods, it seemed that social influencing factors would lose importance in the development of mental diseases; however, in actual fact this does not seem to be justified. It is necessary to overcome this separation, in that social factors are incorporated into a conceptual framework in the development of mental diseases, which simultaneously also takes the results of current neurobiological research into consideration...
August 4, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428068/zoonotic-encounters-at-the-slaughterhouse-pathways-and-possibilities-for-the-control-of-cystic-echinococcosis-in-northern-morocco
#9
Kevin Louis Bardosh, Ikhlass El Berbri, Marie Ducrotoy, Mohammed Bouslikhane, Fassi Fihri Ouafaa, Susan C Welburn
This study traces the biosocial dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus - a zoonotic tapeworm spread between dogs, livestock and people - at slaughterhouses in Morocco. One of the most important parasitic zoonoses worldwide, this neglected cestode is responsible for a debilitating, potentially life-threatening, human disease and significant livestock production losses. Transmission can be interrupted, among other ways, by restricting dogs from eating cyst-infected livestock viscera. Recent epidemiological studies in Sidi Kacem province, northern Morocco, found that government-operated slaughterhouses were 'hotspots' for hydatid cysts in livestock and infection in dogs...
September 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428067/low-prevalence-of-intestinal-schistosomiasis-among-fisherfolk-living-along-the-river-nile-in-north-western-uganda-a-biosocial-investigation
#10
Georgina Pearson
Mass drug administration has been less successful as a technique for controlling intestinal schistosomiasis (S. mansoni) than anticipated. In Uganda, the mass distribution of praziquantel has been provided to populations at risk of infection since the early 2000s, but prevalence mostly remains high. This is the case, for example, at locations in north-western and south-eastern Uganda. However, there is a remarkable exception. Among Madi fishing populations and their immediate neighbours, living close to the border with South Sudan, the rate of infection has dropped dramatically...
September 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428065/health-education-and-the-control-of-urogenital-schistosomiasis-assessing-the-impact-of-the-juma-na-kichocho-comic-strip-medical-booklet-in-zanzibar
#11
J R Stothard, A N Khamis, I S Khamis, C H E Neo, I Wei, D Rollinson
Endeavours to control urogenital schistosomiasis on Unguja Island (Zanzibar) have focused on school-aged children. To assess the impact of an associated health education campaign, the supervised use of the comic-strip medical booklet Juma na Kichocho by Class V pupils attending eighteen primary schools was investigated. A validated knowledge and attitudes questionnaire was completed at baseline and repeated one year later following the regular use of the booklet during the calendar year. A scoring system (ranging from 0...
September 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428064/rumours-riots-and-the-rejection-of-mass-drug-administration-for-the-treatment-of-schistosomiasis-in-morogoro-tanzania
#12
Julie Hastings
In 2008 in Morogoro region, Tanzania, mass drug administration (MDA) to school-aged children to treat two neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) - urinary schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths - was suspended by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare after riots broke out in schools where drugs were being administered. This article discusses why this biomedical intervention was so vehemently rejected, including an eyewitness account. As the protest spread to the village where I was conducting fieldwork, villagers accused me of bringing medicine into the village with which to 'poison' the children and it was necessary for me to leave immediately under the protection of the Tanzanian police...
September 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428062/neglected-tropical-diseases-in-biosocial-perspective
#13
Melissa Parker, Katja Polman, Tim Allen
The term 'neglected tropical diseases' (NTDs) points to the need for a biosocial perspective. Although 'diseases' are widely understood as biological phenomena, 'neglect' is inherently social. Social priorities, social relations and social behaviour profoundly influence the design, implementation and evaluation of control programmes. Yet, these dimensions of neglect are, themselves, neglected. Instead, emphasis is being placed on preventive chemotherapy - a technical, context-free approach which relies almost entirely on the mass distribution of drugs, at regular intervals, to populations living in endemic areas...
September 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400011/rethinking-the-bioethics-of-pregnancy-time-for-a-new-perspective
#14
Ashish Premkumar, Elena Gates
Within the realm of bioethics, the construction of pregnancy classically has focused on principle-based ethics, essentially separating maternal and fetal interests. Respect for maternal autonomy becomes distinct from an obligation of fetal beneficence, placing practitioners in complicated ethical situations when the goals of pregnant women may be at odds with the best health interests of the fetus as defined by both professional groups and society in general. As a result, clinical care is framed by an ethical "maternal-fetal conflict," with important downstream legal and policy consequences for the well-being of pregnant women...
August 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397945/living-well-in-the-neuropolis
#15
Des Fitzgerald, Nikolas Rose, Ilina Singh
This paper is about the relationship between cities and brains: it charts the back-and-forth between the hectic, stressful lives of urban citizens, and a psychological and neurobiological literature that claims to make such stress both visible and knowable. But beyond such genealogical labour, the paper also asks: what can a sociology concerned with the effects of 'biosocial' agencies take from a scientific literature on the urban brain? What might sociology even contribute to that literature, in its turn? To investigate these possibilities, the paper centres on the emergence and description of what it calls 'the Neuropolis' - a term it deploys to hold together both an intellectual and scientific figure and a real, physical enclosure...
March 2016: Sociological Review Mongraph
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352770/health-specific-information-and-communication-technology-use-and-its-relationship-to-obesity-in-high-poverty-urban-communities-analysis-of-a-population-based-biosocial-survey
#16
Anjali Gopalan, Jennifer A Makelarski, Lori B Garibay, Veronica Escamilla, Raina M Merchant, Marcus B Wolfe, Rebecca Holbrook, Stacy Tessler Lindau
BACKGROUND: More than 35% of American adults are obese. For African American and Hispanic adults, as well as individuals residing in poorer or more racially segregated urban neighborhoods, the likelihood of obesity is even higher. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) may substitute for or complement community-based resources for weight management. However, little is currently known about health-specific ICT use among urban-dwelling people with obesity. OBJECTIVE: We describe health-specific ICT use and its relationship to measured obesity among adults in high-poverty urban communities...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348858/borderline-personality-disorder-symptoms-in-college-students-the-complex-interplay-between-alexithymia-emotional-dysregulation-and-rumination
#17
Rebecca Meaney, Penelope Hasking, Andrea Reupert
Both Emotional Cascade Theory and Linehan's Biosocial Theory suggest dysregulated behaviors associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) emerge, in part, because of cycles of rumination, poor emotional recognition and poor emotion regulation. In this study we examined relationships between rumination, alexithymia, and emotion regulation in predicting dysregulated behaviors associated with BPD (e.g. self-harm, substance use, aggression), and explored both indirect and moderating effects among these variables...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245719/complex-adaptive-hiv-aids-risk-reduction-plausible-implications-from-findings-in-limpopo-province-south-africa
#18
Chris J Burman, Marota A Aphane
This article emphasises that when working with complex adaptive systems it is possible to stimulate new social practices and/or cognitive perspectives that contribute to risk reduction, associated with reducing aggregate community viral loads. The process of achieving this is highly participatory and is methodologically possible because evidence of 'attractors' that influence the social practices can be identified using qualitative research techniques. Using findings from Limpopo Province, South Africa, we argue that working with 'wellness attractors' and increasing their presence within the HIV/AIDS landscape could influence aggregate community viral loads...
June 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27191974/after-geneticization
#19
REVIEW
Michael Arribas-Ayllon
The concept of geneticization belongs to a style of thinking within the social sciences that refers to wide-ranging processes and consequences of genetic knowledge. Lippman's original use of the term was political, anticipating the onerous consequences of genetic reductionism and determinism, while more recent engagements emphasise the productivity and heterogeneity of genetic concepts, practices and technologies. This paper reconstructs the geneticization concept, tracing it back to early political critiques of medicine...
June 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27095264/can-blind-persons-accurately-assess-body-size-from-the-voice
#20
Katarzyna Pisanski, Anna Oleszkiewicz, Agnieszka Sorokowska
Vocal tract resonances provide reliable information about a speaker's body size that human listeners use for biosocial judgements as well as speech recognition. Although humans can accurately assess men's relative body size from the voice alone, how this ability is acquired remains unknown. In this study, we test the prediction that accurate voice-based size estimation is possible without prior audiovisual experience linking low frequencies to large bodies. Ninety-one healthy congenitally or early blind, late blind and sighted adults (aged 20-65) participated in the study...
April 2016: Biology Letters
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