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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694958/current-mechanistic-concepts-in-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#1
Meng-Yu Wu, Giou-Teng Yiang, Wan-Ting Liao, Andy Po-Yi Tsai, Yeung-Leung Cheng, Pei-Wen Cheng, Chia-Ying Li, Chia-Jung Li
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with serious clinical manifestations, including myocardial hibernation, acute heart failure, cerebral dysfunction, gastrointestinal dysfunction, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a critical medical condition that poses an important therapeutic challenge for physicians. In this review article, we present recent advances focusing on the basic pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion injury, especially the involvement of reactive oxygen species and cell death pathways...
April 20, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694917/longitudinal-structural-and-functional-brain-network-alterations-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#2
Ainhoa Bilbao, Claudia Falfán-Melgoza, Sarah Leixner, Robert Becker, Sathish Kumar Singaravelu, Markus Sack, Alexander Sartorius, Rainer Spanagel, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr
Neuropathic pain affects multiple brain functions, including motivational processing. However, little is known about the structural and functional brain changes involved in the transition from an acute to a chronic pain state. Here we combined behavioral phenotyping of pain thresholds with multimodal neuroimaging to longitudinally monitor changes in brain metabolism, structure and connectivity using the spared nerve injury (SNI) mouse model of chronic neuropathic pain. We investigated stimulus-evoked pain responses prior to SNI surgery, and one and twelve weeks following surgery...
April 22, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694673/an-assessment-of-the-skeletal-fracture-patterns-resulting-from-fatal-high-%C3%AB-3-m-free-falls
#3
Samantha K Rowbotham, Soren Blau, Jacqueline Hislop-Jambrich, Victoria Francis
The injury patterns resulting from fatal high (˃3 m) free falls have previously been documented in clinical and medico-legal contexts; however, details relating specifically to the skeletal blunt force trauma (BFT) have been limited. This study aimed to augment what is known of the skeletal fracture patterns resulting from fatal high free falls. Skeletal trauma was analyzed from full-body postmortem computed tomography scans of 95 individuals who died following a high free fall. Fracture patterns were documented using the five general anatomical regions, axial and appendicular regions, and postcranial unilateral and bilateral regions...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693504/cylindrospermopsin-toxicity-in-mice-following-a-90-d-oral-exposure
#4
N Chernoff, D J Hill, I Chorus, D L Diggs, H Huang, D King, J R Lang, T-T Le, J E Schmid, G S Travlos, E M Whitley, R E Wilson, C R Wood
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxin associated with numerous species of freshwater cyanobacteria throughout the world. It is postulated to have caused an episode of serious illnesses in Australia through treated drinking water, as well as lethal effects in livestock exposed to water from farm ponds. Toxicity included effects indicative of both hepatic and renal dysfunction. In humans, symptoms progressed from initial hepatomegaly, vomiting, and malaise to acidosis and hypokalemia, bloody diarrhea, and hyperemia in mucous membranes...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693119/rp105-ameliorates-hypoxia%C3%AC-reoxygenation-injury-in-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-cells-by-suppressing-tlr4%C3%AC-mapks%C3%AC-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#5
Xin Guo, Hong Jiang, Jing Chen, Bo-Fang Zhang, Qi Hu, Shuo Yang, Jian Yang, Jing Zhang
The radioprotective 105 kDa protein (RP105) has been implicated in the pathological process of multiple cardiovascular diseases through its functional and physical interactions with Toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the effects of RP105 on cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) in response to hypoxia̸reoxygenation (H̸R) injury have not been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the potential roles of RP105 in the protection of CMECs against H̸R injury, and investigate the underlying mechanisms...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692699/a-control-scheme-that-uses-dynamic-postural-synergies-to-coordinate-a-hybrid-walking-neuroprosthesis-theory-and-experiments
#6
Naji A Alibeji, Vahidreza Molazadeh, Brad E Dicianno, Nitin Sharma
A hybrid walking neuroprosthesis that combines functional electrical stimulation (FES) with a powered lower limb exoskeleton can be used to restore walking in persons with paraplegia. It provides therapeutic benefits of FES and torque reliability of the powered exoskeleton. Moreover, by harnessing metabolic power of muscles via FES, the hybrid combination has a potential to lower power consumption and reduce actuator size in the powered exoskeleton. Its control design, however, must overcome the challenges of actuator redundancy due to the combined use of FES and electric motor...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691937/testing-associations-between-cannabis-use-and-subcortical-volumes-in-two-large-population-based-samples
#7
Nathan A Gillespie, Michael C Neale, Timothy C Bates, Lisa T Eyler, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Jasmin Vassileva, Michael J Lyons, Elizabeth C Prom-Wormley, Katie L McMahon, Paul M Thompson, Greig de Zubicaray, Ian B Hickie, John J McGrath, Lachlan T Strike, Miguel E Rentería, Matthew S Panizzon, Nicholas G Martin, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen, Margaret J Wright
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Disentangling the putative impact of cannabis on brain morphology from other comorbid substance use is critical. After controlling for the effects of nicotine, alcohol and multi-substance use, this study aimed to determine whether frequent cannabis use is associated with significantly smaller subcortical grey matter volumes. DESIGN: Exploratory analyses using mixed linear models, one per region of interest (ROI), were performed whereby individual differences in volume (outcome) at seven subcortical ROIs were regressed onto cannabis and comorbid substance use (predictors)...
April 24, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691906/peri-mitral-ventriculoatrial-fistula-after-blunt-thoracic-trauma
#8
Mozhgan Parsaee, Sedigheh Saedi, Roghieh Porkia
Blunt trauma to the chest can damage any thoracic organ. Heart valve damage and particularly mitral apparatus occurs relatively rare, and the patients are expected to become acutely symptomatic. However, in patients with multiple traumas, other dominant severe damages tend to draw away the attention of the physicians resulting in neglect of less salient heart injuries. Here, we present a patient with history of blunt chest trauma and incidental finding of posttraumatic severe mitral regurgitation.
April 24, 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691410/control-of-mechanical-pain-hypersensitivity-in-mice-through-ligand-targeted-photoablation-of-trkb-positive-sensory-neurons
#9
Rahul Dhandapani, Cynthia Mary Arokiaraj, Francisco J Taberner, Paola Pacifico, Sruthi Raja, Linda Nocchi, Carla Portulano, Federica Franciosa, Mariano Maffei, Ahmad Fawzi Hussain, Fernanda de Castro Reis, Luc Reymond, Emerald Perlas, Simone Garcovich, Stefan Barth, Kai Johnsson, Stefan G Lechner, Paul A Heppenstall
Mechanical allodynia is a major symptom of neuropathic pain whereby innocuous touch evokes severe pain. Here we identify a population of peripheral sensory neurons expressing TrkB that are both necessary and sufficient for producing pain from light touch after nerve injury in mice. Mice in which TrkB-Cre-expressing neurons are ablated are less sensitive to the lightest touch under basal conditions, and fail to develop mechanical allodynia in a model of neuropathic pain. Moreover, selective optogenetic activation of these neurons after nerve injury evokes marked nociceptive behavior...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690950/safety-of-tracheal-intubation-in-the-presence-of-cardiac-disease-in-paediatric-icus
#10
Eleanor A Gradidge, Adnan Bakar, David Tellez, Michael Ruppe, Sarah Tallent, Geoffrey Bird, Natasha Lavin, Anthony Lee, Vinay Nadkarni, Michelle Adu-Darko, Jesse Bain, Katherine Biagas, Aline Branca, Ryan K Breuer, Calvin Brown, Kris Bysani, Guillaume Emeriaud, Sandeep Gangadharan, John S Giuliano, Joy D Howell, Conrad Krawiec, Jan Hau Lee, Simon Li, Keith Meyer, Michael Miksa, Natalie Napolitano, Sholeen Nett, Gabrielle Nuthall, Alberto Orioles, Erin B Owen, Margaret M Parker, Simon Parsons, Lee A Polikoff, Kyle Rehder, Osamu Saito, Ron C Sanders, Asha Shenoi, Dennis W Simon, Peter W Skippen, Keiko Tarquinio, Anne Thompson, Iris Toedt-Pingel, Karen Walson, Akira Nishisaki
IntroductionChildren with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.Materials and methodsWe sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry...
April 25, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690824/performance-evaluation-of-a-multiplex-assay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-four-clinically-relevant-tbi-biomarkers
#11
Frederick Kofi Korley, John K Yue, David Wilson, Kevin Hrusovsky, Ramon Diaz-Arrasta, Adam R Ferguson, Esther Lim Yuh, Pratik Mukherjee, Kevin K W Wang, Alex Valadka, Ava Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Geoffrey Manley
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in heterogeneous pathology affecting multiple cells and tissue types in the brain. It is likely that assessment of such complexity will require simultaneous measurement of multiple molecular biomarkers in a single sample of biological fluid. We measured glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), neurofilament light chain (NF-L) and total tau in plasma samples obtained from 107 subjects enrolled in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) Study using the Quanterix Simoa 4-Plex assay...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688062/effect-of-distance-caregiver-coaching-on-functional-skills-of-a-child-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Michelle R Witt, Trevor F Stokes, Barry S Parsonson, Carol C Dudding
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of distance caregiver coaching on skill acquisition of a child with traumatic brain injury. Interactions between caregivers and persons with brain injury may play a critical role in the rehabilitation process, and coaching caregivers is one method that may foster more positive functional outcomes for the individual as caregiver skills may generalize across domains. METHOD: This study utilised a single-subject, multiple baseline across behaviours design to examine the effects of caregiver behaviours on skill acquisition by a child with a traumatic brain injury...
April 24, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687909/breath-hold-diving
#13
John R Fitz-Clarke
Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686900/are-unnecessary-serial-radiographs-being-ordered-in-children-with-distal-radius-buckle-fractures
#14
Shi-Neng James Ling, Aidan J Cleary
Background. Torus or buckle distal radius fractures are common injuries in the pediatric population. By definition, they are stable and can be treated conservatively with a wrist splint or soft crepe bandage. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of serial radiographs in the clinical outcome of children with stable distal radius buckle fractures. Materials and Methods. A one-month retrospective analysis was undertaken at two major hospitals in Queensland-Logan and Redlands Hospital...
2018: Radiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686256/passive-limb-movement-intervals-results-in-repeated-hyperemic-responses-in-those-with-paraplegia
#15
Keith J Burns, Brandon S Pollock, Jon Stavres, Martin Kilbane, Amber Brochetti, John McDaniel
STUDY DESIGN: Repeated measures. OBJECTIVES: Reports suggest passive limb movement (PLM) could be used as a therapy to increase blood flow and tissue perfusion in the paralyzed lower limbs of those with spinal cord injuries. However, the hyperemic response to PLM appears to be transient, lasting only 30-45 s despite continued limb movement. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the hyperemic response is repeatable across multiple short bouts of passive limb movement...
April 23, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686016/neurofilament-as-neuronal-injury-blood-marker-in-preeclampsia
#16
Katrina Suzanne Evers, Andrew Atkinson, Christian Barro, Urs Fisch, Marc Pfister, Evelyn A Huhn, Olav Lapaire, Jens Kuhle, Sven Wellmann
Preeclampsia has been shown to be associated with changes in cerebral structure and cognitive function later in life. Nf (neurofilaments) are specific scaffolding proteins of neurons, and their quantification in serum has been proposed as a biomarker for neuroaxonal injury. We performed a prospective, longitudinal, single-center study at the University Hospital of Basel to determine serum Nf concentrations in pregnant women with singleton pregnancies and with high risk of preeclampsia or with early signs of preeclampsia...
April 23, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684856/cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-in-pursuit-of-liver-protection-against-doxorubicin-induced-injury-in-rats
#17
Heba G Ibrahim, Noha Attia, Fatma El Zahraa A Hashem, Moushira A R El Heneidy
Doxorubicin (DOX) is considered as a backbone in several chemotherapeutic regimens. Nevertheless, the reported systemic toxicity usually hampers its broad application. Interestingly, Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeONPs) depicted promising regenerative antioxidant and hepatoprotective potentials against multiple oxidative stress-induced pathologies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine either CeONPs would display hepatoprotective properties once concomitantly administered with DOX or not. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n = 10) in a two weeks study: Control (received saline, IP injection thrice a week), CeO (0...
April 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684380/sustained-or-higher-levels-of-growth-factors-in-platelet-rich-plasma-during-7-day-storage
#18
Ying-Hao Wen, Wan-Ying Lin, Chi-Jui Lin, Yu-Chen Sun, Pi-Yueh Chang, Hsin-Yao Wang, Jang-Jih Lu, Wen-Lin Yeh, Tzong-Shi Chiueh
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for treating soft tissue injuries is still controversial. Most of PRPs were prepared simply by concentrating in volume and were injected right after preparation in physician offices. Neither platelet count nor growth factors were quantitated in advance. We prepared and stored leukocyte and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) by regular separation protocols for blood components in the blood bank. And we investigated the dynamic change of growth factors in the L-PRPs over the period of storage...
April 20, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682554/differential-expression-patterns-of-eph-receptors-and-ephrin-ligands-in-human-cancers
#19
REVIEW
Chung-Ting Jimmy Kou, Raj P Kandpal
Eph receptors constitute the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which are activated by ephrin ligands that either are anchored to the membrane or contain a transmembrane domain. These molecules play important roles in the development of multicellular organisms, and the physiological functions of these receptor-ligand pairs have been extensively documented in axon guidance, neuronal development, vascular patterning, and inflammation during tissue injury. The recognition that aberrant regulation and expression of these molecules lead to alterations in proliferative, migratory, and invasive potential of a variety of human cancers has made them potential targets for cancer therapeutics...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682123/a-case-of-traumatic-retrograde-type-a-aortic-dissection-accompanied-by-multiorgan-injuries
#20
Katsuaki Tsukioka, Tetsuya Kono, Kohei Takahashi, Hiromu Kehara, Shuichi Urashita, Kazunori Komatsu
A 75-year-old woman was involved in a traffic accident and suffered retrograde type A aortic dissection, multiple rib fractures, and grade II hepatic injury accompanied by intraperitoneal bleeding. We performed total arch replacement using an open stent graft with cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest. This procedure requires anticoagulation and hypothermia, which are principally contraindicated in severe trauma patients. However, this situation was resolved by managing the patient non-operatively for 7 days, confirming the stabilization of other injured organs, and then performing the surgery...
March 25, 2018: Annals of Vascular Diseases
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