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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340317/opportunities-for-crash-and-injury-reduction-a-multi-harm-approach-for-crash-data-analysis
#1
Ann Mallory, Allison Kender, Kevin Moorhouse
OBJECTIVE: A multi-harm approach for analyzing crash and injury data was developed for the ultimate purpose of getting a richer picture of motor vehicle crash outcomes identifying research opportunities in crash safety. METHODS: Methods were illustrated using a retrospective analysis of 69,597 occupant cases from NASS CDS (National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System) from 2005 to 2015. Occupant cases were analyzed by frequency and severity of outcome: fatality, injury by AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale), number of cases, attributable fatality, disability, and injury costs...
March 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338519/incidence-of-sinusitis-in-burn-victims-and-association-with-inhalational-injury
#2
Nicole M Melchior, Eric M Melchior, Linwood R Haith
The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of sinusitis in mechanically ventilated burn victims and to examine if the presence of inhalational injury increases the likelihood of developing sinusitis. The authors hypothesize that the incidence of sinusitis will be increased in burn victims who have concomitant inhalational injury. A retrospective chart analysis was performed on all patients who were admitted to the Nathan Speare Regional Burn Treatment Center over a 24-month time frame. Patients who were mechanically ventilated for greater than 24 hours were then selected, resulting in a total of 137 patients for analysis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338417/a-3d-tissue-printing-approach-for-validation-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-skeletal-muscle
#3
David B Berry, Shangting You, John Warner, Lawrence R Frank, Shaochen Chen, Samuel R Ward
The ability to noninvasively assess skeletal muscle microstructure, which predicts function and disease, would be of significant clinical value. One method that holds this promise is diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI), which is sensitive to the microscopic diffusion of water within tissues and has become ubiquitous in neuroimaging as a way of assessing neuronal structure and damage. However, its application to the assessment of changes in muscle microstructure associated with injury, pathology, or age remains poorly defined, because it is difficult to precisely control muscle microstructural features in vivo...
March 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337851/low-prevalence-of-knee-chondrocalcinosis-and-its-catabolic-association-by-use-of-serum-matrix-metalloproteinase-3-a-rural-japanese-population-study
#4
Daisuke Chiba, Eiichi Tsuda, Eiji Sasaki, Ippei Takahashi, Shigeyuki Nakaji, Yasuyuki Ishibashi
AIM: This study aimed to elucidate the prevalence of radiographic knee chondrocalcinosis (CC) and to clarify whether CC is correlated with self-reported knee symptoms and a serum catabolic biomarker. METHODS: A total of 1278 volunteers participated. Plain radiographs of both knees were obtained. Identification of a linear calcification in the knee joint space was defined as CC. Patients with a Kellgren-Lawrence grade of 2 or more were considered to have knee osteoarthritis (OA)...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337127/nlrp3-inflammasome-in-neurological-diseases-from-functions-to-therapies
#5
REVIEW
Limin Song, Lei Pei, Shanglong Yao, Yan Wu, You Shang
Neuroinflammation has been identified as a causative factor of multiple neurological diseases. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-, leucine-rich repeat- and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a subcellular multiprotein complex that is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), can sense and be activated by a wide range of exogenous and endogenous stimuli such as microbes, aggregated and misfolded proteins, and adenosine triphosphate, which results in activation of caspase-1...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336721/tubule-derived-wnts-are-required-for-fibroblast-activation-and-kidney-fibrosis
#6
Dong Zhou, Haiyan Fu, Lu Zhang, Ke Zhang, Yali Min, Liangxiang Xiao, Lin Lin, Sheldon I Bastacky, Youhua Liu
Cell-cell communication via Wnt ligands is necessary in regulating embryonic development and has been implicated in CKD. Because Wnt ligands are ubiquitously expressed, the exact cellular source of the Wnts involved in CKD remains undefined. To address this issue, we generated two conditional knockout mouse lines in which Wntless (Wls), a dedicated cargo receptor that is obligatory for Wnt secretion, was selectively ablated in tubular epithelial cells or interstitial fibroblasts. Blockade of Wnt secretion by genetic deletion of Wls in renal tubules markedly inhibited myofibroblast activation and reduced renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336507/planking-or-the-lying-down-game-two-case-reports
#7
Stefania Barbieri, Paolo Feltracco, Luca Omizzolo, Rossella Snenghi, Rafi El Mazloum, Gianna Vettore, Mauro Bergamini, Armando Stefanati, Daniele Donato, Cecilia Ferronato, Francesco Maria Avato, Alberto Tredese, Rosa Maria Gaudio
BACKGROUND: The monitoring and management of risks regarding children and young people admitted to the emergency department as a result of dangerous behaviors distributed via the Internet should be based on clinical reasoning and knowledge about these social media-related phenomena. Here we examine 2 cases of teenagers who reported severe injuries while performing the "planking" craze, a challenge that consists in lying face-down stiffly like a board on any kind of surface. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to examine and describe the Internet craze called planking, also known as the "lying-down game," through 2 case reports from our experience, enriching this study with information gained through discussions with secondary school teenagers...
March 23, 2017: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336415/sncam-as-a-specific-marker-of-peripheral-demyelination
#8
Adam Niezgoda, Sławomir Michalak, Jacek Losy, Alicja Kalinowska-Łyszczarz, Wojciech Kozubski
Adhesion molecules are involved in nerve growth, synaptic plasticity and myelin formation and maintenance process. Neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56 or NCAM) seems to play a crucial role in all the above-mentioned events. Having found poly-sialylated NCAM increased re-expression on demyelinated axons within multiple sclerosis plaques we assessed soluble NCAM (sNCAM) in sera of patients with various types of peripheral nerve affections - demyelinating, axonal "inflammatory", axonal metabolic polyneuropathies and healthy controls...
March 20, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336372/doxorubicin-targets-multiple-players-a-new-view-of-an-old-problem
#9
REVIEW
Donato Cappetta, Francesca Rossi, Elena Piegari, Federico Quaini, Liberato Berrino, Konrad Urbanek, Antonella De Angelis
Anthracycline cardiotoxicity remains a serious problem in paediatric and adult cancer survivors, and the advancement of cardio-oncology is a necessary step for an effective care of the patients that experience adverse cardiovascular effects. In this review, we discuss the multiple instruments used by clinicians that constitute the current strategies for primary and secondary prevention aiming at contrasting the onset of early and late doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxic events. The importance of early detection of cardiotoxicity and the following pharmacological therapy has been acknowledged with the emphasis put on impaired diastolic function, an increasingly recognized precocious sign of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity with an emerging scientific and clinical interest...
March 20, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336227/aqueous-calyxes-extract-of-roselle-or-hibiscus-sabdariffa-linn-supplementation-improves-liver-morphology-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#10
Akhtar Husin Nazratun Nafizah, Siti Balkis Budin, Abd Hamid Zaryantey, Abd Rahman Mariati, Raj Louis Santhana, Mohamad Osman, Md Idris Muhd Hanis, Mohamed Jamaludin
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The complex series of deleterious events among diabetes patients leads to multiple organ failure. Therefore, a holistic approach of treatment is urgently required to prevent worsening of complications. The present investigation was carried out to study the possible protective effects of Roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (HSL) calyxes aqueous extract, as an antidiabetic and antioxidant agent against oxidative liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
March 20, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334392/validation-of-the-nih-toolbox-in-individuals-with-neurologic-disorders
#11
N E Carlozzi, S Goodnight, K B Casaletto, A Goldsmith, R K Heaton, A W K Wong, C M Baum, R Gershon, A W Heinemann, D S Tulsky
Objective: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and stroke experience a variety of neurologically related deficits across multiple domains of function. The NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIHTB) examines motor, sensation, cognition, and emotional functioning. The purpose of this paper is to establish the validity of the NIHTB in individuals with neurologic conditions. Methods: Community-dwelling individuals with SCI (n = 209), TBI (n = 184), or stroke (n = 211) completed the NIHTB...
March 18, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334334/p53-and-its-mutants-on-the-slippery-road-from-stemness-to-carcinogenesis
#12
Alina Molchadsky, Varda Rotter
Normal development, tissue homeostasis and regeneration following injury rely on the proper functions of wide repertoire of stem cells (SCs) persisting during embryonic period and throughout the adult life. Therefore, SCs employ robust mechanisms to preserve their genomic integrity and avoid heritage of mutations to their daughter cells. Importantly, propagation of SCs with faulty DNA as well as dedifferentiation of genomically altered somatic cells may result in derivation of cancer SCs, which are considered to be the driving force of the tumorigenic process...
March 15, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333829/acute-traumatic-coagulopathy-the-elephant-in-a-room-of-blind-scientists
#13
Michael A Meledeo, Maryanne C Herzig, James A Bynum, Xiaowu Wu, Anand K Ramasubramanian, Daniel N Darlington, Kristin M Reddoch, Andrew P Cap
Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) is the failure of coagulation homeostasis that can rapidly arise following traumatic injury, hemorrhage, and shock; it is associated with higher injury severity, coagulation abnormalities, and increased blood transfusions. ATC has historically been defined by a prolonged prothrombin time (PT), although newer, more informative measurements of hemostatic function have been employed to improve diagnosis and support clinical decision making. The underlying biochemical mechanisms of and best practice therapeutics for ATC remain under active investigation because of its significant correlation to poor outcomes...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333704/massive-transfusion-in-cardiac-surgery-the-impact-of-blood-component-ratios-on-clinical-outcomes-and-survival
#14
Meghan Delaney, Paul C Stark, Minhyung Suh, Darrell J Triulzi, John R Hess, Marie E Steiner, Christopher P Stowell, Steven R Sloan
BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery is the most common setting for massive transfusion in medically advanced countries. Studies of massive transfusion after injury suggest that the ratios of administered plasma and platelets (PLT) to red blood cells (RBCs) affect mortality. Data from the Red Cell Storage Duration Study (RECESS), a large randomized trial of the effect of RBC storage duration in patients undergoing complex cardiac, were analyzed retrospectively to investigate the association between blood component ratios used in massively transfused patients and subsequent clinical outcomes...
March 22, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333700/intimate-partner-violence-a-rare-case-of-reciprocal-homicide
#15
Aurélie Cauchois, François Paraire, Geoffroy Lorin de la Grandmaison
We present the case of a reciprocal homicide by stabbing that occurred within an unmarried couple without known history of spousal violence. Each partner killed the other one at the same time and at the same place using kitchen knives. They were both found dead at home lying on the floor after the neighbors heard an argument and screams coming from the couple's apartment, so they called the police and the fire department. The door was locked from the inside, and the fire department was forced to break the door...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333137/the-mtor-signal-regulates-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-differentiation-and-immunosuppressive-function-in-acute-kidney-injury
#16
Chao Zhang, Shuo Wang, Jiawei Li, Weitao Zhang, Long Zheng, Cheng Yang, Tongyu Zhu, Ruiming Rong
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal controls innate and adaptive immune response in multiple immunoregulatory contexts. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells of potent immunosuppressive capacity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of MDSCs in the protection of acute kidney injury (AKI) and the regulation of mTOR signal on MDSC's protective role in this context. In mice AKI model, rapamycin administration was associated with improved renal function, restored histological damage and decreased CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell infiltration in kidney tissue...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332867/age-related-changes-in-thoracic-skeletal-geometry-of-elderly-females
#17
Sven A Holcombe, Stewart C Wang, James B Grotberg
OBJECTIVE: Both females and the elderly have been identified as vulnerable populations with increased injury and mortality risk in multiple crash scenarios. Particularly in frontal impacts, older females show higher risk to the chest and thorax than their younger or male counterparts. Thoracic geometry plays a role in this increase, and this study aims to quantify key parts of that geometry in a way that can directly inform human body models that incorporate the concept of person age...
March 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332093/pathogenic-implications-of-distinct-patterns-of-iron-and-zinc-in-chronic-ms-lesions
#18
Bogdan F Popescu, Josa M Frischer, Samuel M Webb, Mylyne Tham, Reginald C Adiele, Christopher A Robinson, Patrick D Fitz-Gibbon, Stephen D Weigand, Imke Metz, Susan Nehzati, Graham N George, Ingrid J Pickering, Wolfgang Brück, Simon Hametner, Hans Lassmann, Joseph E Parisi, Guo Yong, Claudia F Lucchinetti
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which oligodendrocytes, the CNS cells that stain most robustly for iron and myelin are the targets of injury. Metals are essential for normal CNS functioning, and metal imbalances have been linked to demyelination and neurodegeneration. Using a multidisciplinary approach involving synchrotron techniques, iron histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, we compared the distribution and quantification of iron and zinc in MS lesions to the surrounding normal appearing and periplaque white matter, and assessed the involvement of these metals in MS lesion pathogenesis...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331459/heterotopic-ossification-of-the-calvarium-following-bilateral-craniectomies-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Rafael A Vega, Leslie Hutchins
BACKGROUND: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is defined as ectopic bone formation following traumatic brain injury. Patients typically develop lesions in the hips, knees, and elbows that cause pain, restricted range of motion, nerve impingement, and pressure ulcers. CASE REPORT: We report an unusual presentation of HO in an 18-year-old male who was involved in a motor vehicle accident and subsequently developed malignant intracranial pressure. His HO developed following bilateral craniectomies in which 2 different dural substitutes were used...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331300/dementia-and-delirium-the-outcomes-in-elderly-hip-fracture-patients
#20
Christina A Mosk, Marnix Mus, Jos Pam Vroemen, Tjeerd van der Ploeg, Dagmar I Vos, Leon Hgj Elmans, Lijckle van der Laan
BACKGROUND: Delirium in hip fractured patients is a frequent complication. Dementia is an important risk factor for delirium and is common in frail elderly. This study aimed to extend the previous knowledge on risk factors for delirium and the consequences. Special attention was given to patients with dementia and delirium. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study performed in the Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Netherlands. A full electronic patient file system (Hyperspace Version IU4: Epic, Inc...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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