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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822963/%C3%AE-1a-subtype-adrenergic-agonist-therapy-for-failing-right-ventricle
#1
Patrick M Cowley, Guan-Ying Wang, Sunil K Joshi, Philip M Swigart, David H Lovett, Paul C Simpson, Anthony J Baker
Failure of the right ventricle (RV) is a serious disease with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Signaling by α1-adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs), in particular the α1A-subtype, mediate cardioprotective effects in multiple heart failure models. Recent studies show that chronic treatment with the α1A-subtype agonist A61603 improves function and survival in a model of LV failure. The goal of this study was to determine if chronic A61603 treatment is beneficial in a RV failure model. We used tracheal instillation of the fibrogenic antibiotic bleomycin in mice to induce pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and RV failure within 2 wk...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822061/co-ultramicronized-palmitoylethanolamide-luteolin-facilitates-the-development-of-differentiating-and-undifferentiated-rat-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells
#2
Stephen D Skaper, Massimo Barbierato, Laura Facci, Mila Borri, Gabriella Contarini, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-producing cells of the central nervous system (CNS), have limited capability to bring about repair in chronic CNS neuroinflammatory demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). MS lesions are characterized by a compromised pool of undifferentiated oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) unable to mature into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. An attractive strategy may be to replace lost OLs and/or promote their maturation. N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide signaling molecule with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821706/apigenin-ameliorates-post-stroke-cognitive-deficits-in-rats-through-histone-acetylation-mediated-neurochemical-alterations
#3
Fengxia Tu, Qiongyi Pang, Tingting Huang, Yun Zhao, Meixia Liu, Xiang Chen
BACKGROUND To identify the effect of apigenin on cognitive deficits of rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury, and to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS The rats were given sodium butyrate (NaB) or apigenin (20 or 40 mg/kg) for 28 days. Cognition was investigated by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. On day 28, the rats were euthanized and their hippocampal brain regions were used to identify biochemical and neurochemical alterations. The content of histone deacetylase (HDAC) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
August 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820966/reactive-oxygen-species-responsive-polymeric-nanoparticles-for-alleviating-sepsis-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice
#4
Gan Chen, Hongzhang Deng, Xiang Song, Mingzi Lu, Lian Zhao, Sha Xia, Guoxing You, Jingxiang Zhao, Yulong Zhang, Anjie Dong, Hong Zhou
Sepsis-associated acute liver injury contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and is associated with increased mortality. Currently, no specific therapeutics for sepsis-associated liver injury are available. With excess levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) being implicated as key players in sepsis-induced liver injury, we hypothesize that ROS-responsive nanoparticles (NPs) formed via the self-assembly of diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(propylene sulfide) (PPS) may function as an effective drug delivery system for alleviating sepsis-induced liver injury by preferentially releasing drug molecules at the disease site...
August 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820861/association-of-poultry-processing-industry-exposures-with-reports-of-occupational-finger-amputations-results-of-an-analysis-of-osha-severe-injury-report-sir-data
#5
Remington L Nevin, Jon Bernt, Michael Hodgson
OBJECTIVE: This analysis was conducted to identify industry exposures strongly associated with reports of finger amputation. METHODS: Reports of severe occupational injuries in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Severe Injury Report (SIR) database were analyzed in relation to U.S. Census Bureau industry employment data. Industries with significantly elevated reporting odds ratios (RORs) and relative reporting risks (RRRs) were identified. Multiple population association measures including population attributable fraction (PAF) were calculated by industry...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819000/hypoxia-induced-myocardial-regeneration
#6
Wataru Kimura, Yuji Nakada, Hesham A Sadek
The underlying cause of systolic heart failure is the inability of the adult mammalian heart to regenerate damaged myocardium. In contrast, some vertebrate species and immature mammals are capable of full cardiac regeneration following multiple types of injury through cardiomyocyte proliferation. Little is known about what distinguishes proliferative cardiomyocytes from terminally differentiated, non-proliferative cardiomyocytes. Recently, several reports have suggested that oxygen metabolism and oxidative stress play a pivotal role in regulating the proliferative capacity of mammalian cardiomyocytes...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818818/validation-of-a-smartphone-based-approach-to-in-situ-cognitive-fatigue-assessment
#7
Edward Price, George Moore, Leo Galway, Mark Linden
BACKGROUND: Acquired Brain Injuries (ABIs) can result in multiple detrimental cognitive effects, such as reduced memory capability, concentration, and planning. These effects can lead to cognitive fatigue, which can exacerbate the symptoms of ABIs and hinder management and recovery. Assessing cognitive fatigue is difficult due to the largely subjective nature of the condition and existing assessment approaches. Traditional methods of assessment use self-assessment questionnaires delivered in a medical setting, but recent work has attempted to employ more objective cognitive tests as a way of evaluating cognitive fatigue...
August 17, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818770/hereditary-multiple-exostoses-as-a-novel-cause-of-bilateral-popliteal-artery-aneurysms-in-the-elderly
#8
Eliza J Ferrari, Rory K Crotty, Katharina Eikermann-Haerter, James R Stone
Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is a genetic condition characterized by the development of multiple osteochondromas during childhood and adolescence. On rare occasions, these bony tumors can be associated with vascular injury, most commonly involving the popliteal artery. Such patients typically present with vascular complications in adolescence and young adulthood. We report an autopsy study of an elderly man who presented with bilateral popliteal artery pseudoaneurysms in the setting of HME at age 81...
July 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818179/multiple-trauma-and-emergency-room-management
#9
Michael Frink, Philipp Lechler, Florian Debus, Steffen Ruchholtz
BACKGROUND: The care of severely injured patients remains a challenge. Their initial treatment in the emergency room is the essential link between first aid in the field and definitive in-hospital treatment. METHODS: We present important elements of the initial in-hospital care of severely injured patients on the basis of pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and the current German S3 guideline on the care of severely and multiply traumatized patients, which was last updated in 2016...
July 24, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817980/pathways-to-pulmonary-hypertension-in-sickle-cell-disease-the-search-for-prevention-and-early-intervention
#10
Natalie R Shilo, Claudia R Morris
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) develops in a significant number of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. This review focuses on PH pathophysiology, risk stratification, and new recommendations for screening and treatment for patients with SCD. Areas covered: An extensive PubMed literature search was performed. While the pathophysiology of PH in SCD is yet to be fully deciphered, it is known that the etiology is multifactorial; hemolysis, hypercoagulability, hypoxemia, ischemic-reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, and genetic susceptibility all contribute in varying degrees to endothelial dysfunction...
August 18, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817212/fingolimod-against-endotoxin-induced-fetal-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model
#11
And Yavuz, Mekin Sezik, Ozlem Ozmen, Halil Asci
AIM: Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator used for multiple sclerosis treatment and acts on cellular processes such as apoptosis, endothelial permeability, and inflammation. We hypothesized that fingolimod has a positive effect on alleviating preterm fetal brain injury. METHODS: Sixteen pregnant rats were divided into four groups of four rats each. On gestational day 17, i.p. endotoxin was injected to induce fetal brain injury, followed by i...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817120/the-erythropoietin-derived-peptide-mk-x-and-erythropoietin-have-neuroprotective-effects-against-ischemic-brain-damage
#12
Seung-Jun Yoo, Bongki Cho, Deokho Lee, Gowoon Son, Yeong-Bae Lee, Hyung Soo Han, Eunjoo Kim, Chanil Moon, Cheil Moon
Erythropoietin (EPO) has been well known as a hematopoietic cytokine over the past decades. However, recent reports have demonstrated that EPO plays a neuroprotective role in the central nervous system, and EPO has been considered as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases such as ischemic stroke. Despite the neuroprotective effect of EPO, clinical trials have shown its unexpected side effects, including undesirable proliferative effects such as erythropoiesis and tumor growth. Therefore, the development of EPO analogs that would confer neuroprotection without adverse effects has been attempted...
August 17, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817064/attenuation-of-multiple-organ-damage-by-continuous-low-dose-solvent-free-infusions-of-resveratrol-after-severe-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#13
Tobias Müller, Michael Kirsch, Frank Petrat
Therapeutic effects of continuous intravenous infusions of solvent-free low doses of resveratrol on organ injury and systemic consequences resulting from severe hemorrhagic shock in rats were studied. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing arterial blood until a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 25-30 mmHg was reached. Following a shock phase of 60 min, rats were resuscitated with the withdrawn blood plus lactated Ringer's. Resveratrol (20 or 60 μg/kg × h) was continuously infused intravenously starting with the resuscitation phase (30 min) and continued until the end of the experiment (total treatment time 180 min)...
August 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816879/atlas-fractures-and-atlas-osteosynthesis-a-comprehensive-narrative-review
#14
Frank Kandziora, Jens R Chapman, Alexander R Vaccaro, Gregory D Schroeder, Matti Scholz
Most atlas fractures are the result of compression forces. They are often combined with fractures of the axis and especially with the odontoid process. Multiple classification systems for atlas fractures have been described. For an adequate diagnosis, a computed tomography is mandatory. To distinguish between stable and unstable atlas injury, it is necessary to evaluate the integrity of the transverse atlantal ligament (TAL) by magnetic resonance imaging and to classify the TAL lesion. Studies comparing conservative and operative management of unstable atlas fractures are unfortunately not available in the literature; neither are studies comparing different operative treatment strategies...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816278/-analysis-of-development-safety-and-efficacy-of-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-for-management-of-upper-urinary-tract-calculi-in-pediatric-patients
#15
L P Yu, T Xu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the development, safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy(PNL) for management of upper urinary tract calculi in pediatric patients. METHODS: In the study, 77 pediatric patients undergoing 87 PNLs through mini or standard tract for upper urinary tract calculi between January 2005 and December 2016 in Peking University People's hospital were reviewed, including 69 renal calculi, 6 upper ureteral calculi, 12 renal and upper ureteral calculi, 35 single calculi, 43 multiple calculi and 9 staghorn calculi...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816089/medusa-s-head-the-complement-system-in-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Francesco Roselli, Ebru Karasu, Clara Volpe, Markus Huber-Lang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Spinal cord injury (SCI) are critical medical conditions and public health problem for which limited therapeutic options are available. Complement cascade is activated after TBI and SCI and the resulting effects have been investigated in gene-knockout and pharmacological models. Multiple experimental studies support a net detrimental role of C3 and C5 activation in the early stages of TBI and SCI. Less firm experimental evidence suggests that, downstream of C3/C5, effector mechanisms including the generation of MAC and direct damage to membranes and neutrophils infiltration may bring about the direct damage of CNS tissue and the enhancement of neuroinflammation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815180/assessing-cognitive-estimation-and-its-effects-on-community-integration-in-people-with-acquired-brain-injury-undergoing-rehabilitation
#17
Dónal G Fortune, Helen L Richards
The purpose of the present study was to examine the convergent and divergent validity of the Biber Cognitive Estimation Test (BCET) in individuals with ABI undergoing postacute rehabilitation and to assess the measure's ability to account for unique variance in community integration following rehabilitation. Participants with ABI referred for postacute rehabilitation (N = 201) were assessed on the BCET and a number of other neuropsychological tests that have been demonstrated to rely on aspects of executive processing (Trail-Making Test, Modified Six Elements Test, and verbal fluency measures) and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815160/the-burden-of-spine-fractures-in-india-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#18
Ilyas S Aleem, Dylan DeMarco, Brian Drew, Parag Sancheti, Vijay Shetty, Mandeep Dhillon, Clary J Foote, Mohit Bhandari
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the characteristics of patients sustaining spinal trauma in India and (2) to explore the association between patient or injury characteristics and outcomes after spinal trauma. METHODS: In affiliation with the ongoing INternational ORthopaedic MUlticentre Study (INORMUS), 192 patients with spinal injuries were recruited during an 8-week period (November 2011 to June 2012) from 14 hospitals in India and followed for 30-days...
June 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814872/microrna-expression-profiles-in-chronic-epilepsy-rats-and-neuroprotection-from-seizures-by-targeting-mir-344a
#19
Xixia Liu, Yuhan Liao, Xiuxiu Wang, Donghua Zou, Chun Luo, Chongdong Jian, Yuan Wu
MicroRNA (miRNA) is believed to play a crucial role in the cause and treatment of epilepsy by controlling gene expression. However, it is still unclear how miRNA profiles change after multiple prolonged seizures and aggravation of brain injury in chronic epilepsy (CE). To investigate the role of miRNA in epilepsy, we utilized the CE rat models with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and miRNA profiles in the hippocampus. miRNA profiles were characterized using miRNA microarray analysis and were compared with the rats in the sham group, which received 0...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814670/mtg16-is-a-tumor-suppressor-in-colitis-associated-carcinoma
#20
Elizabeth M McDonough, Caitlyn W Barrett, Bobak Parang, Mukul K Mittal, J Joshua Smith, Amber M Bradley, Yash A Choksi, Lori A Coburn, Sarah P Short, Joshua J Thompson, Baolin Zhang, Shenika V Poindexter, Melissa A Fischer, Xi Chen, Jiang Li, Frank L Revetta, Rishi Naik, M Kay Washington, Michael J Rosen, Scott W Hiebert, Keith T Wilson, Christopher S Williams
MTG16 is a member of the myeloid translocation gene (MTG) family of transcriptional corepressors. While MTGs were originally identified in chromosomal translocations in acute myeloid leukemia, recent studies have uncovered a role in intestinal biology. For example, Mtg16-/- mice have increased intestinal proliferation and are more sensitive to intestinal injury in colitis models. MTG16 is also underexpressed in patients with moderate/severe ulcerative colitis. Based on these findings, we postulated that MTG16 might protect against colitis-associated carcinogenesis...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
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