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mild dehydration

G Cosentino, R Gargano, G Bonura, S Realmuto, E Tocco, P Ragonese, M Gangitano, E Alfonsi, B Fierro, F Brighina, G Salemi
Swallowing difficulties are a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). The early detection and treatment of dysphagia is critical to prevent complications, including poor nutrition, dehydration, and lung infections. Recently, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been proven to be effective in ameliorating swallowing problems in stroke patients. In this pilot study, we aimed to assess safety and efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the treatment of dysphagia in MS patients...
May 13, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Ji Liu, Romain J Miotto, Julien Segard, Ashley M Erb, Aaron Aponick
A convenient strategy for the synthesis of phthalides and γ-butyrolactones is reported. The method utilizes readily prepared allylic alcohols in formal Au(I)- and Pd(II)-catalyzed SN 2' reactions. Using these catalysts, exclusive formation of the desired five-membered lactones is observed, completely avoiding the competing direct lactonization pathway that forms the undesired seven-membered ring with protic acids and alternative metal salts. This mild and operationally simple method notably tolerates exomethylene groups and should find use in both phthalide and terpene syntheses...
May 8, 2018: Organic Letters
Mariana B Oliveira, Henrique X S Bastos, João F Mano
Hydrogels have captivated the attention of several research and industry segments, including bioengineering, tissue engineering, implantable/wearable sensors and actuators, bioactive agent delivery, food processing, and industrial processes optimization. A common limitation of these systems is their fixed shape. The concept of hydrogel moldability is often assigned to the injectability potential of liquid precursors, and this feature is often lost right after hydrogel formation. Hydrogel modulation is a recent trend that advocates the importance of designing materials with shape fitting ability targeting on-demand responses or defect filling purposes...
April 26, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Allison Mustonen, Olga Gonzalez, Elda Mendoza, Shyamesh Kumar, Edward J Dick
BACKGROUND: Uremic encephalopathy is uncommon yet is one of the most severe complications of renal failure. We present a case of acute renal failure and associated cerebral and vascular lesions consistent with uremic encephalopathy in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). METHODS: A 14-year-old, female, specific-pathogen-free rhesus macaque presented in lateral recumbency, obtunded, severely dehydrated, and hypothermic, with severe azotemia, mild hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, increased anion gap, and hypercholesterolemia...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Alaaeldin Bashier, Azza Abdulaziz Khalifa, Elamin Ibrahim Abdelgadir, Maryam Ahmad Al Saeed, Amina Adil Al Qaysi, Murad Burhan Ali Bayati, Budoor Alemadi, Fawzi Bachet, Fatheya Alawadi, Mohammed Hassanein
Objectives: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-I) are a new class of antidiabetic drugs that might increase the risk of dehydration and hypoglycemia, particularly during the month of Ramadan in which Muslims abstain from eating and drinking for 14-16 hours daily. We aimed to provide real-life evidence about the safety of SGLT2-I during Ramadan. Methods: All patients over the age of 18 years on SGLT2-I before Ramadan 2016 who would be fasting during Ramadan were included...
March 2018: Oman Medical Journal
Rui Lu, Fang Lu, Xiaoqin Si, Huifang Jiang, Qianqian Huang, Weiqiang Yu, Xiangtao Kong, Jie Xu
Direct transformation of bio-based platform chemicals into aromatic dicarboxylic acids and their derivatives, which are widely used for the manufacture of polymers, is of significant importance for the sustainable development of plastic industry. However, limited successful chemical processes have been achieved. Here, we report a sustainable route for the production of phthalate and its hydrogenated derivative from bio-based malic acid and erythritol. The key Diels-Alder reaction is applied to build a substituted cyclohexene structure...
April 6, 2018: ChemSusChem
Álvaro López-Samanes, Jesús G Pallarés, Alberto Pérez-López, Ricardo Mora-Rodríguez, Juan F Ortega
We sought to measure the response of cortisol concentrations around a professional tennis match and its association with hydration status and neuromuscular performance. Nine professional male tennis players were tested in a rest day, and 2-week after, during the first match of a professional tournament played in a clay-court. Salivary concentrations of cortisol (SalCC) were measured in a resting day (9:00 am and 8:00 pm), at the match day (9:00 am and 8:00 pm) and immediately before and after the match. Hydration status was assessed before the match (urine specific gravity; USG) while fluid turnover was tracked during the match...
2018: PloS One
Peizhong Xie, Jinyu Wang, Yanan Liu, Jing Fan, Xiangyang Wo, Weishan Fu, Zuolian Sun, Teck-Peng Loh
Allylic sulfones, owning to their widespread distributions in biologically active molecules, received increasing attention in the past few years. However, the synthetic method under mild conditions is still a challenging task. In this paper, we report a sulfinic acids ligation with allylic alcohols via metal-free dehydrative cross-coupling. Both aliphatic and aromatic sulfinic acids react with various allylic alcohols to deliver the desired allylic sulfones in high yields with excellent selectivity. This carbon-sulfur bond formation reaction is highly efficient and practical since it works under metal-free, neutral, aqueous media and at room temperature in which the products even can be obtained by simple filtration without the need for organic extraction or column chromatography...
April 3, 2018: Nature Communications
Cécile H Kicken, Marisa Ninivaggi, Joke Konings, Martijn Moorlag, Dana Huskens, Jasper A Remijn, Saartje Bloemen, Marcus D Lancé, Bas De Laat
INTRODUCTION:  Epidemiological studies suggest that hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude poses a risk for developing venous thromboembolism. The cause of this observed hypercoagulability remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of hypobaric hypoxia at 3,883 m above sea level on thrombin generation and platelet activation. METHODS:  After complying with medical ethical procedures, 18 participants were recruited, of whom 1 had to leave the study prematurely due to mild acute mountain sickness...
April 3, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Pengxian Yin, Feng Meng, Qing Liu, Rui An, Jing Cai, Guangyuan Du
A vulnerability curve (VC) describes the extent of xylem cavitation resistance. Centrifuges have been used to generate VCs for decades via static- and flow-centrifuge methods. Recently, the validity of the centrifuge techniques has been questioned. Researchers have hypothesized that the centrifuge techniques might yield unreliable VCs due to the open-vessel artifact. However, other researchers reject this hypothesis. The focus of the dispute is centred on whether exponential VCs are more reliable when the static-centrifuge method is used than with the flow-centrifuge method...
March 30, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Hengli Zhao, Yuye Wang, Linyu Chen, Jia Shi, Kang Ma, Longhuang Tang, Degang Xu, Jianquan Yao, Hua Feng, Tunan Chen
We demonstrated that different degrees of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be differentiated clearly in fresh slices of rat brain tissues using transmission-type terahertz (THz) imaging system. The high absorption region in THz images corresponded well with the injured area in visible images and magnetic resonance imaging results. The THz image and absorption characteristics of dehydrated paraffin-embedded brain slices and the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained microscopic images were investigated to account for the intrinsic differences in the THz images for the brain tissues suffered from different degrees of TBI and normal tissue aside from water...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Gang Chen, Allison S Volmer, Kristen J Wilkinson, Yangmei Deng, Lisa C Jones, Dongfang Yu, Ximena M Bustamante-Marin, Kimberlie A Burns, Barbara R Grubb, Wanda K O'Neal, Alessandra Livraghi-Butrico, Richard C Boucher
Understanding how airway secretory mucins MUC5B and MUC5AC expression is regulated in health and disease is important to elucidate the pathogenesis of muco-obstructive respiratory diseases. The transcription factor SPDEF is a key regulator of MUC5AC, but its role in regulating MUC5B in health and in muco-obstructive lung diseases is unknown. Characterization of Spdef-deficient mice upper and lower airways demonstrated region-specific, Spdef-dependent regulation of basal Muc5b expression. Neonatal Spdef-deficient mice exhibited reductions in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) Muc5ac and Muc5b...
March 26, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Shang Ma, Stuart Cahalan, Gregory LaMonte, Nathan D Grubaugh, Weizheng Zeng, Swetha E Murthy, Emma Paytas, Ramya Gamini, Viktor Lukacs, Tess Whitwam, Meaghan Loud, Rakhee Lohia, Laurence Berry, Shahid M Khan, Chris J Janse, Michael Bandell, Christian Schmedt, Kai Wengelnik, Andrew I Su, Eric Honore, Elizabeth A Winzeler, Kristian G Andersen, Ardem Patapoutian
Hereditary xerocytosis is thought to be a rare genetic condition characterized by red blood cell (RBC) dehydration with mild hemolysis. RBC dehydration is linked to reduced Plasmodium infection in vitro; however, the role of RBC dehydration in protection against malaria in vivo is unknown. Most cases of hereditary xerocytosis are associated with gain-of-function mutations in PIEZO1, a mechanically activated ion channel. We engineered a mouse model of hereditary xerocytosis and show that Plasmodium infection fails to cause experimental cerebral malaria in these mice due to the action of Piezo1 in RBCs and in T cells...
March 8, 2018: Cell
Andrew J Neel, Ralph Zhao
1,1'-Carbonyldiimidazole was found to induce the formation of a variety of 3,4-disubstituted 1,2,5-oxadiazoles (furazans) from the corresponding bisoximes at ambient temperature. This method enables these inherently energetic compounds to be prepared at temperatures well below their decomposition points and with improved functional group compatibility relative to prior methods. Conditions were developed that allowed for the first high-yielding synthesis of chlorofurazans from their amino counterparts, enabling the mild synthetic manipulation of these heterocycles...
March 19, 2018: Organic Letters
Sushovan Paladhi, In-Soo Hwang, Eun Jeong Yoo, Do Hyun Ryu, Choong Eui Song
A practical and highly enantioselective nonenzymatic kinetic resolution of racemic β-hydroxy carbonyl (aldol) compounds through enantioselective dehydration process was developed using a cation-binding Song's oligoethylene glycol (oligoEG) catalyst with potassium fluoride (KF) as base. A wide range of racemic aldols was resolved with extremely high selectivity factors ( s = up to 2393) under mild reaction conditions. This protocol is easily scalable. It provides an alternative approach for the syntheses of diverse biologically and pharmaceutically relevant chiral aldols in enantiomerically pure form...
March 14, 2018: Organic Letters
Emmanuel Ademola Anigilaje
The survival of a child with severe volume depletion at the emergency department depends on the competency of the first responder to recognize and promptly treat hypovolemic shock. Although the basic principles on fluid and electrolytes therapy have been investigated for decades, the topic remains a challenge, as consensus on clinical management protocol is difficult to reach, and more adverse events are reported from fluid administration than for any other drug. While the old principles proposed by Holliday and Segar, and Finberg have stood the test of time, recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have highlighted the risk of hyponatraemia, and hyponatraemic encephalopathy in some children treated with hypotonic fluids...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Stefano Guarino, Mario Diplomatico, Rosaria Marotta, Anna Pecoraro, Daniela Furlan, Lorenzo Cerrone, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Cesare Polito, Angela La Manna, Pierluigi Marzuillo
Patients affected by nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) can present with hypernatremic dehydration, and first-line rehydration schemes are completely different from those largely applied in usual conditions determining a mild to severe hypovolemic dehydration/shock. In reporting the case of a patient affected by NDI and presenting with severe dehydration triggered by acute pharyngotonsillitis and vomiting, we want to underline the difficulties in managing this condition. Restoring the free-water plasma amount in patients affected by NDI may not be easy, but some key points can help in the first line management of these patients: (1) hypernatremic dehydration should always be suspected; (2) even in presence of severe dehydration, skin turgor may be normal and therefore the skinfold recoll should not be considered in the dehydration assessment; (3) decreased thirst is an important red flag for dehydration; (4) if an incontinent patient with NDI appears to be dehydrated, it is important to place the urethral catheter to accurately measure urine output and to be guided in parenteral fluid administration; (5) if the intravenous route is necessary, the more appropriate fluid replenishment is 5% dextrose in water with an infusion rate that should slightly exceed the urine output; (6) the 0...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Riccardo Caccialanza, Thierry Constans, Paolo Cotogni, Gary P Zaloga, Alessandro Pontes-Arruda
Subcutaneous infusion, or hypodermoclysis, is a technique whereby fluids are infused into the subcutaneous space via small-gauge needles that are typically inserted into the thighs, abdomen, back, or arms. In this review, we provide an overview of the technique, summarize findings from studies that have examined the use of subcutaneous infusion of fluids for hydration or nutrition, and describe the indications, advantages, and disadvantages of subcutaneous infusion. Taken together, the available evidence suggests that, when indicated, subcutaneous infusion can be effective for administering fluids for hydration or nutrition, with minimal complications, and has similar effectiveness and safety to the intravenous route...
February 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Panagiotis Aristotelous, George Aphamis, Giorgos K Sakkas, Eleni Andreou, Marios Pantzaris, Theodoros Kyprianou, Georgios M Hadjigeorgiou, Mauro Manconi, Christoforos D Giannaki
Dehydration is associated with several alternations in body homeostasis involving both physiological and mental aspects. In addition some studies have reported a negative effect of dehydration on subjectively assessed sleep-related parameters. The aim of the current study was to examine for the first time the effect of controlled dehydration on sleep quality and quantity using the gold-standard method of polysomnography. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in this study (23.4 ± 0.8 years). Participants performed an in-house full polysomnographic assessment in two different occasions taking place in random order: (i) in a dehydrated state; and (ii) in a euhydrated state...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
KeriAnne Brady, Kathryn H Pade
Although most cases of acute gastroenteritis require minimal medical intervention, severe dehydration and hypoglycemia may develop in cases of prolonged vomiting and diarrhea. The mainstay of treatment for mild-to-moderately dehydrated patients with acute gastroenteritis should be oral rehydration solution. Antiemetics allow for improved tolerance of oral rehydration solution, and, when used appropriately, can decrease the need for intravenous fluids and hospitalization. This issue reviews the common etiologies of acute gastroenteritis, discusses more-severe conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis, and provides evidence-based recommendations for management of acute gastroenteritis in patients with mild-to-moderate dehydration, severe dehydration, and hypoglycemia...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
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