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Natural killer cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150707/a-guard-killer-phage-cocktail-effectively-lyses-the-host-and-inhibits-the-development-of-phage-resistant-strains-of-escherichia-coli
#1
Ling Yu, Shuang Wang, Zhimin Guo, Hongtao Liu, Diangang Sun, Guangmou Yan, Dongliang Hu, Chongtao Du, Xin Feng, Wenyu Han, Jingmin Gu, Changjiang Sun, Liancheng Lei
In recent years, after the emergence of a large number of multidrug-resistant bacteria, phages and phage-associated products for the prevention and control of bacterial disease have revealed prominent advantages as compared with antibiotics. However, bacteria are susceptible to becoming phage-resistant, thus severely limiting the application of phage therapy. In this study, Escherichia coli cells were incubated with lytic bacteriophages to obtain mutants that were resistant to the lytic phages. Then, bacteriophages against the phage-resistant variants were isolated and subsequently mixed with the original lytic phage to prepare a novel phage cocktail for bactericidal use...
November 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150606/loss-of-hif-1%C3%AE-in-natural-killer-cells-inhibits-tumour-growth-by-stimulating-non-productive-angiogenesis
#2
Ewelina Krzywinska, Chahrazade Kantari-Mimoun, Yann Kerdiles, Michal Sobecki, Takayuki Isagawa, Dagmar Gotthardt, Magali Castells, Johannes Haubold, Corinne Millien, Thomas Viel, Bertrand Tavitian, Norihiko Takeda, Joachim Fandrey, Eric Vivier, Veronika Sexl, Christian Stockmann
Productive angiogenesis, a prerequisite for tumour growth, depends on the balanced release of angiogenic and angiostatic factors by different cell types within hypoxic tumours. Natural killer (NK) cells kill cancer cells and infiltrate hypoxic tumour areas. Cellular adaptation to low oxygen is mediated by Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). We found that deletion of HIF-1α in NK cells inhibited tumour growth despite impaired tumour cell killing. Tumours developing in these conditions were characterised by a high-density network of immature vessels, severe haemorrhage, increased hypoxia, and facilitated metastasis due to non-productive angiogenesis...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150280/nk-cell-recruitment-and-exercise-potential-immunotherapeutic-role-of-shear-stress-and-endothelial-health
#3
William Evans
Positive cancer patient outcomes, including increased time to recurrent events, have been associated with increased counts and function of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cell counts and function are elevated following acute exercise, and the generally accepted mechanism of increased recruitment suggests that binding of epinephrine releases NK cells from endothelial tissue via decreases in adhesion molecules following. I propose that blood flow-induced shear stress may also play a role in NK cell recruitment from the endothelium...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150278/a-hypothetical-role-for-notch-signaling-pathway-in-immunopathogenesis-of-leprosy
#4
Héctor Serrano-Coll, Liliana Acevedo-Saenz, Nora Cardona-Castro
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae mainly affecting skin and peripheral nerves. Leprosy has a broad range of clinical manifestations that range from mild (tuberculoid leprosy) to severe (lepromatous leprosy) forms, and are highly dependent on the host's immune response. Among the immune response elements involved in the pathogenesis of leprosy are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), vitamin D receptor (VDR), natural killer cells (NK), and T cells. These innate and adaptive immune response elements may be related to the Notch signaling pathway, which is involved in immune cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149822/olive-leaf-extracts-act-as-modulators-of-the-human-immune-response
#5
Thea Magrone, Anna Spagnoletta, Rosaria Salvatore, Manrico Magrone, Francesco Dentamaro, Matteo Antonio Russo, Graziana Difonzo, Carmine Summo, Francesco Caponio, Emilio Jirillo
BACKGROUND: Olive tree leaves have been used in the Mediterranean area as traditional medicine in virtue of their healthy effects. Olive leaf extracts (OLEs) contain higher amounts of polyphenols than those detected in the extra virgin olive oil and fruit. Several lines of evidence support the cardioprotective, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities exerted by OLEs. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from twenty-five healthy donors were cultured in the presence of 3 μg of two OLE extracts, extract A (resuspended in water) and extract B (resuspended in 70% ethanol)...
November 15, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149205/kir-content-genotypes-associate-with-carriage-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-e-antigen-and-hbv-viral-load-in-gambians
#6
Louis-Marie Yindom, Maimuna Mendy, Christopher Bodimeade, Caroline Chambion, Peter Aka, Hilton C Whittle, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Robert Walton
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) causes over 800,000 deaths worldwide annually, mainly in low income countries, and incidence is rising rapidly in the developed world with the spread of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses. Natural Killer (NK) cells protect against viral infections and tumours by killing abnormal cells recognised by Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR). Thus genes and haplotypes encoding these receptors may be important in determining both outcome of initial hepatitis infection and subsequent chronic liver disease and tumour formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147621/in-depth-immunophenotyping-of-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme-impact-of-steroid-treatment
#7
Guranda Chitadze, Charlotte Flüh, Elgar Susanne Quabius, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Christian Peters, Marcus Lettau, Jaydeep Bhat, Daniela Wesch, Hans-Heinrich Oberg, Stefanie Luecke, Ottmar Janssen, Michael Synowitz, Janka Held-Feindt, Dieter Kabelitz
Despite aggressive treatment regimens based on surgery and radiochemotherapy, the prognosis of patients with grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains extremely poor, calling for alternative options such as immunotherapy. Immunological mechanisms including the Natural Killer Group 2 member D (NKG2D) receptor-ligand system play an important role in tumor immune surveillance and targeting the NKG2D system might be beneficial. However, before considering any kind of immunotherapy, a precise characterization of the immune system is important, particularly in GBM patients where conventional therapies with impact on the immune system are frequently co-administered...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145439/impact-of-chronic-and-acute-academic-stress-on-lymphocyte-subsets-and-monocyte-function
#8
Viktoriya Maydych, Maren Claus, Nicole Dychus, Melanie Ebel, Jürgen Damaschke, Stefan Diestel, Oliver T Wolf, Thomas Kleinsorge, Carsten Watzl
This study investigated the effects of a temporally confined naturalistic stressor (academic stress) on immune functions. Furthermore, moderating influences of a number of psychological variables were assessed. Five blood samples were obtained from 20 students during an observation period of 8 weeks, starting 4.5 weeks before an exam period up to 1 week following the last exam. The analysis of 45 immune parameters revealed several time-dependent changes attributable to examination stress. We observed a reduction in the absolute numbers of natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes in peripheral blood and a shift towards more immature and naïve cells within NK and T cell populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142605/aviscumine-a-recombinant-ribosomal-inhibitor-increases-the-antitumor-activity-of-natural-killer-cells
#9
Gabriele Gamerith, Arno Amann, Bettina Schenk, Thomas Auer, Hans Lentzen, Dirk O Mügge, Katharina M Cima, Judith Löffler-Ragg, Wolfgang Hilbe, Heinz Zwierzina
Aviscumine, a recombinant lectin I, has been identified as an immunomodulatory agent within a new class of ribotoxic stress-inducing anticancer substances that have demonstrated efficacy in phase I/II trials. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the presumed effect of aviscumine on enhancing human natural killer (NK) cell antitumor cytotoxicity. To measure the effect of aviscumine on human NK cell cytotoxicity, chromium-51-release assays against K-562 cells were performed with isolated NK cells from the whole blood of 34 healthy volunteers...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142275/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-protects-nkt-cells-from-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-1-induced-death
#10
Amrendra Kumar, Laura E Gordy, Jelena S Bezbradica, Aleksandar K Stanic, Timothy M Hill, Mark R Boothby, Luc Van Kaer, Sebastian Joyce
Semi-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes with immunoregulatory properties. NKT cell survival during development requires signal processing by activated RelA/NF-κB. Nonetheless, the upstream signal(s) integrated by NF-κB in developing NKT cells remains incompletely defined. We show that the introgression of Bcl-xL-coding Bcl2l1 transgene into NF-κB signalling-deficient IκBΔN transgenic mouse rescues NKT cell development and differentiation in this mouse model. We reasoned that NF-κB activation was protecting developing NKT cells from death signals emanating either from high affinity agonist recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) or from a death receptor, such as tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) or Fas...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141868/geographic-clonal-tracking-in-macaques-provides-insights-into-hspc-migration-and-differentiation
#11
Chuanfeng Wu, Diego A Espinoza, Samson J Koelle, E Lake Potter, Rong Lu, Brian Li, Di Yang, Xing Fan, Robert E Donahue, Mario Roederer, Cynthia E Dunbar
The geographic distribution of hematopoiesis at a clonal level is of interest in understanding how hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and their progeny interact with bone marrow (BM) niches during regeneration. We tagged rhesus macaque autologous HSPCs with genetic barcodes, allowing clonal tracking over time and space after transplantation. We found marked geographic segregation of CD34(+) HSPCs for at least 6 mo posttransplantation, followed by very gradual clonal mixing at different BM sites over subsequent months to years...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141817/lymphocytes-in-the-treatment-with-interferon-beta-1-b
#12
Zbyšek Pavelek, Oldřich Vyšata, Blanka Klímová, Ctirad Andrýs, Doris Vokurková, Martin Vališ
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. One of the basic medications for the treatment of a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or relapsing-remitting MS is interferon beta (INFβ). Although the exact mechanism of its effects is unknown, the medication has an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect. The goal of this study was to determine the characters which are affected in patients treated with INFβ...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141759/cell-type-specific-immunomodulation-induced-by-helminthes-effect-on-metainflammation-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#13
Vivekanandhan Aravindhan, Gowrishankar Anand
Recent epidemiological studies have documented an inverse relationship between the decreasing prevalence of helminth infections and the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases ("metabolic hygiene hypothesis"). Chronic inflammation leading to insulin resistance (IR) has now been identified as a major etiological factor for a variety of metabolic diseases other than obesity and Type-2 diabetes (metainflammation). One way by which helminth infections such as filariasis can modulate IR is by inducing a chronic, nonspecific, low-grade, immune suppression mediated by modified T-helper 2 (Th2) response (induction of both Th2 and regulatory T cells) which can in turn suppress the proinflammatory responses and promote insulin sensitivity (IS)...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140757/new-insights-into-lymphoma-pathogenesis
#14
Kojo S J Elenitoba-Johnson, Megan S Lim
Lymphomas represent clonal proliferations of lymphocytes that are broadly classified based upon their maturity (peripheral or mature versus precursor) and lineage (B cell, T cell, and natural killer cell). Insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in lymphoma impact the classification of lymphoma and have significant implications for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients. Serial scientific and technologic advances over the last 30 years in immunology, cytogenetics, molecular biology, gene expression profiling, mass spectrometry-based proteomics, and, more recently, next-generation sequencing have contributed to greatly enhance our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms in lymphoma...
November 15, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138853/role-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease-review
#15
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
The immune system has previously been demonstrated to be associated with the pathophysiological development of metabolic abnormalities. However, the mechanisms linking immunity to metabolic disease remain to be fully elucidated. It has previously been suggested that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) may be involved in the progression of numerous types of metabolic diseases as these cells act as suppressors and promoters for obesity and associated conditions, and are particularly involved in adipose tissue inflammation, which is a major feature of metabolic imbalance...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137359/granulysin-expressed-in-a-humanized-mouse-model-induces-apoptotic-cell-death-and-suppresses-tumorigenicity
#16
Ya-Wen Hsiao, Tsung-Ching Lai, Yu-Hsiang Lin, Chia-Yi Su, Jih-Jong Lee, Albert Taiching Liao, Yuan-Feng Lin, Shu-Chen Hsieh, Alexander T H Wu, Michael Hsiao
Granulysin (GNLY) is a cytolytic and proinflammatory protein expressed in activated human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. Conventional mouse models cannot adequately address the triggering mechanism and immunopathological pathways in GNLY-associated diseases due to lack of the GNLY gene in the mouse genome. Therefore, we generated a humanized immune system (HIS) mouse model by transplanting human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells into NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Wjl) /SzJ (NSG) mice after sublethally irradiation...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137237/cryoablation-combined-with-allogenic-natural-killer-cell-immunotherapy-improves-the-curative-effect-in-patients-with-advanced-hepatocellular-cancer
#17
Mao Lin, Shuzhen Liang, Xiaohua Wang, Yinqing Liang, Mingjie Zhang, Jibing Chen, Lizhi Niu, Kecheng Xu
In this study, the clinical efficacy of cryosurgery combined with allogenic natural killer cell immunotherapy for advanced hepatocellular cancer was evaluated. From October 2015 to March 2017, we enrolled 61 patients who met the enrollment criteria and divided them into two groups: 1) the simple cryoablation group (Cryo group, n = 26); and 2) the cryoablation combined with allogenic natural killer cells group (Cryo-NK group, n = 35), the safety and short-term effects were evaluated firstly, then the median progression-free survival, response rate and disease control rate were assessed...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137183/lactobacillus-plantarum-enhanced-il-22-production-in-natural-killer-nk-cells-that-protect-the-integrity-of-intestinal-epithelial-cell-barrier-damaged-by-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#18
Yueqin Qiu, Zongyong Jiang, Shenglan Hu, Li Wang, Xianyong Ma, Xuefen Yang
Interleukin (IL)-22-producing Natural Killer (NK) cells protect the gut epithelial cell barrier from pathogens. A strain of probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum, LP), was previously found by our laboratory to significantly improve the mucosal barrier integrity and function of the small intestine in pigs. However, it was unclear whether LP benefited the intestinal mucosal barrier via interactions with the intestinal NK cells. The present study, therefore, was focused on the therapeutic effect of NK cells that were stimulated by LP on attenuating enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-induced the damage to the integrity of the epithelial cell barrier...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136142/the-forkhead-transcription-factor-foxo3-negatively-regulates-natural-killer-cell-function-and-viral-clearance-in-myocarditis
#19
Madlen Loebel, Luise Holzhauser, Jelka A Hartwig, Praphulla C Shukla, Konstantinos Savvatis, Alexander Jenke, Martina Gast, Felicitas Escher, Sonya C Becker, Sandra Bauer, Andrea Stroux, Antje Beling, Meike Kespohl, Sandra Pinkert, Henry Fechner, Uwe Kuehl, Dirk Lassner, Wolfgang Poller, Heinz-Peter Schultheiss, Tanja Zeller, Stefan Blankenberg, Anna-Pia Papageorgiou, Stephane Heymans, Ulf Landmesser, Carmen Scheibenbogen, Carsten Skurk
Aims: Foxo3 is a transcription factor involved in cell metabolism, survival, and inflammatory disease. However, mechanistic insight in Foxo3 effects is still limited. Here, we investigated the role of Foxo3 on natural killer (NK) cell responses and its effects in viral myocarditis. Methods and results: Effects of Foxo3 on viral load and immune responses were investigated in a model of coxsackie virus B3 myocarditis in wild-type (WT) and Foxo3 deficient mice. Reduced immune cell infiltration, viral titres, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in cardiac tissue were observed in Foxo3-/- mice 7 days post-infection (p...
November 9, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135830/tissue-resident-lymphocytes-in-solid-organ-transplantation-innocent-passengers-or-the-key-to-organ-transplant-survival
#20
Amy C Prosser, Axel Kallies, Michaela Lucas
Short-term outcomes of solid organ transplantation have improved dramatically over the past several decades; however, long-term survival has remained static over the same time period, and chronic rejection remains a major cause of graft failure. The importance of donor, or 'passenger', lymphocytes to the induction of tolerance to allografts was recognized in the 1990s; however, their precise contribution to graft acceptance or rejection has not been elucidated. Recently, specialized populations of tissue-resident lymphocytes in nonlymphoid organs have been described...
November 14, 2017: Transplantation
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