keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

"Essential gene"

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822598/next-generation-insect-resistant-plants-rnai-mediated-crop-protection
#1
REVIEW
Jiang Zhang, Sher Afzal Khan, David G Heckel, Ralph Bock
Plant-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) shows great potential in crop protection. It relies on plants stably expressing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that target essential genes in pest insects. Practical application of this strategy is challenging because producing sufficient amounts of stable dsRNA in plants has proven to be difficult to achieve with conventional transgenesis. In addition, many insects do not respond to exogenously applied dsRNAs, either degrading them or failing to import them into the cytoplasm...
May 20, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822479/next-generation-insect-resistant-plants-rnai-mediated-crop-protection
#2
REVIEW
Jiang Zhang, Sher Afzal Khan, David G Heckel, Ralph Bock
Plant-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) shows great potential in crop protection. It relies on plants stably expressing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that target essential genes in pest insects. Practical application of this strategy is challenging because producing sufficient amounts of stable dsRNA in plants has proven to be difficult to achieve with conventional transgenesis. In addition, many insects do not respond to exogenously applied dsRNAs, either degrading them or failing to import them into the cytoplasm...
September 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817787/evaluation-of-the-electron-transfer-flavoprotein-etf-as-an-antibacterial-target-in-burkholderia-cenocepacia
#3
Maria S Stietz, Christina Lopez, Osasumwen Osifo, Marcelo Tolmasky, Silvia T Cardona
There are hundreds of essential genes in multidrug resistant bacterial genomes, but only a few of their products are exploited as antibacterial targets. An example is the electron flavoprotein (ETF) which is required for growth and viability in <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i>. Here, we evaluated ETF as an antibiotic target for <i>Burkholderia cepacia</i> complex (Bcc). Depletion of the bacterial ETF during infection of <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> significantly extended survival of the nematodes, proving that ETF is essential for survival of <i>B...
August 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806924/essential-genome-of-campylobacter-jejuni
#4
Rabindra K Mandal, Tieshan Jiang, Young Min Kwon
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide. Despite the global efforts to curb them, Campylobacter infections have increased continuously in both developed and developing countries. The development of effective strategies to control the infection by this pathogen is warranted. The essential genes of bacteria are the most prominent targets for this purpose. In this study, we used transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) of a genome-saturating library of Tn5 insertion mutants to define the essential genome of C...
August 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806730/a-systems-approach-reveals-distinct-metabolic-strategies-among-the-nci-60-cancer-cell-lines
#5
Maike K Aurich, Ronan M T Fleming, Ines Thiele
The metabolic phenotype of cancer cells is reflected by the metabolites they consume and by the byproducts they release. Here, we use quantitative, extracellular metabolomic data of the NCI-60 panel and a novel computational method to generate 120 condition-specific cancer cell line metabolic models. These condition-specific cancer models used distinct metabolic strategies to generate energy and cofactors. The analysis of the models' capability to deal with environmental perturbations revealed three oxotypes, differing in the range of allowable oxygen uptake rates...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801037/genome-modularity-and-synthetic-biology-engineering-systems
#6
REVIEW
Milsee Mol, Ritika Kabra, Shailza Singh
Whole genome sequencing projects running in various laboratories around the world has generated immense data. A systematic phylogenetic analysis of this data shows that genome complexity goes on decreasing as it evolves, due to its modular nature. This modularity can be harnessed to minimize the genome further to reduce it with the bare minimum essential genes. A reduced modular genome, can fuel progress in the area of synthetic biology by providing a ready to use plug and play chassis. Advances in gene editing technology such as the use of tailor made synthetic transcription factors will further enhance the availability of synthetic devices to be applied in the fields of environment, agriculture and health...
August 8, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796034/the-association-between-xpg-polymorphisms-and-cancer-susceptibility-evidence-from-observational-studies
#7
Cuihong Han, Xiaoyi Huang, Ruixi Hua, Shujie Song, Lihua Lyu, Na Ta, Jinhong Zhu, Peixi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental carcinogens can cause damages to DNA. If not properly repaired, the DNA damages may increase the risk of carcinogenesis. Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) gene is an essential gene in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. The association between XPG polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility has been the focus of attention in the molecular epidemiology of cancer. However, the conclusions have been divergent. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to precisely evaluate the association of 3 frequently investigated XPG polymorphisms (rs751402, rs873601, and rs2296147) with cancer risk...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793222/thermodynamic-constraints-improve-metabolic-networks
#8
Elias W Krumholz, Igor G L Libourel
In pursuit of establishing a realistic metabolic phenotypic space, the reversibility of reactions is thermodynamically constrained in modern metabolic networks. The reversibility constraints follow from heuristic thermodynamic poise approximations that take anticipated cellular metabolite concentration ranges into account. Because constraints reduce the feasible space, draft metabolic network reconstructions may need more extensive reconciliation, and a larger number of genes may become essential. Notwithstanding ubiquitous application, the effect of reversibility constraints on the predictive capabilities of metabolic networks has not been investigated in detail...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783722/identification-of-essential-genes-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#9
Shashank J Patel, Neville E Sanjana, Rigel J Kishton, Arash Eidizadeh, Suman K Vodnala, Maggie Cam, Jared J Gartner, Li Jia, Seth M Steinberg, Tori N Yamamoto, Anand S Merchant, Gautam U Mehta, Anna Chichura, Ophir Shalem, Eric Tran, Robert Eil, Madhusudhanan Sukumar, Eva Perez Guijarro, Chi-Ping Day, Paul Robbins, Steve Feldman, Glenn Merlino, Feng Zhang, Nicholas P Restifo
Somatic gene mutations can alter the vulnerability of cancer cells to T-cell-based immunotherapies. Here we perturbed genes in human melanoma cells to mimic loss-of-function mutations involved in resistance to these therapies, by using a genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 library that consisted of around 123,000 single-guide RNAs, and profiled genes whose loss in tumour cells impaired the effector function of CD8(+) T cells. The genes that were most enriched in the screen have key roles in antigen presentation and interferon-γ signalling, and correlate with cytolytic activity in patient tumours from The Cancer Genome Atlas...
August 7, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775151/the-requirement-of-ire1-xbp1-in-resolving-physiological-stress-during-drosophila-development
#10
Huai-Wei Huang, Xiaomei Zeng, Taiyoun Rhim, David Ron, Hyung Don Ryoo
IRE1 mediates the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) in part by regulating XBP1 mRNA splicing in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In cultured metazoan cells, IRE1 also exhibits XBP1-independent biochemical activities. IRE1 and XBP1 are developmentally essential genes in Drosophila and mammals, but the source of the physiological ER stress and the relative contributions of XBP1 activation versus other IRE1 functions to development remain unknown. Here, employed Drosophila to address this question...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770008/overexpression-of-serine-protease-htra-enhances-disruption-of-adherens-junctions-paracellular-transmigration-and-type-iv-secretion-of-caga-by-helicobacter-pylori
#11
Aileen Harrer, Manja Boehm, Steffen Backert, Nicole Tegtmeyer
BACKGROUND: The serine protease HtrA is an important factor for regulating stress responses and protein quality control in bacteria. In recent studies, we have demonstrated that the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori can secrete HtrA into the extracellular environment, where it cleaves-off the ectodomain of the tumor suppressor and adherens junction protein E-cadherin on gastric epithelial cells. RESULTS: E-cadherin cleavage opens cell-to-cell junctions, allowing paracellular transmigration of the bacteria across polarized monolayers of MKN-28 and Caco-2 epithelial cells...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755265/an-in-silico-strategy-for-identification-of-novel-drug-targets-against-plasmodium-falciparum
#12
Subhashree Rout, Namrata Priyadarshini Patra, Rajani Kanta Mahapatra
The apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for global malaria burden. With the reported resistance to artemisinin chemotherapy, there is an urgent need to maintain early phase drug discovery and identify novel drug targets for successful eradication of the pathogen from the host. In our previous work on comparative genomics study for identification of putative essential genes and therapeutic candidates in P. falciparum, we predicted 11 proteins as anti-malarial drug targets from PlasmoDB database...
July 28, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753559/mir-19b-promotes-breast-cancer-metastasis-through-targeting-mylip-and-its-related-cell-adhesion-molecules
#13
Luqing Zhao, Yuelong Zhao, Yanong He, Yitao Mao
miR-19b is a key molecule for cancer development, however its crucial roles in breast cancer metastasis are rarely studied right now. In this study, using several bioinformatics databases to predict the downstream targets for miR-19b, we verified that a novel target gene, myosin regulatory light chain interacting protein (MYLIP), could be directly down-regulated by miR-19b through its 3'-UTR region. MYLIP belongs to the cytoskeletal protein clusters and is involved in the regulation of cell movement and migration...
July 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751711/evidence-linking-microrna-suppression-of-essential-prosurvival-genes-with-hippocampal-cell-death-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Deborah Kennedy Boone, Harris A Weisz, Min Bi, Michael T Falduto, Karen E O Torres, Hannah E Willey, Christina M Volsko, Anjali M Kumar, Maria-Adelaide Micci, Douglas S Dewitt, Donald S Prough, Helen L Hellmich
The underlying molecular mechanisms of how dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) cause neurodegeneration after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remain elusive. Here we analyzed the biological roles of approximately 600 genes - we previously found these dysregulated in dying and surviving rat hippocampal neurons - that are targeted by ten TBI-altered miRNAs. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that neurodegeneration results from a global miRNA-mediated suppression of genes essential for maintaining proteostasis; many are hub genes - involved in RNA processing, cytoskeletal metabolism, intracellular trafficking, cell cycle progression, repair/maintenance, bioenergetics and cell-cell signaling - whose disrupted expression is linked to human disease...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743818/aid-ing-signaling-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#15
Kami Kim
The cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) of apicomplexan parasites is essential for secretion of micronemes and host cell invasion and egress. Both kinase specificity and localization can determine which substrates are phosphorylated. The functions of plasma membrane and cytosolic PKG isoforms of Toxoplasma gondii were unknown because of difficulties precisely manipulating expression of essential genes. Brown et al. (K. M. Brown, S. Long, and L. D. Sibley, mBio 8:e00375-17, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio...
July 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735739/genome-wide-bisulfite-sensitivity-profiling-of-yeast-suggests-bisulfite-inhibits-transcription
#16
Romulo Segovia, Veena Mathew, Annie S Tam, Peter C Stirling
Bisulfite, in the form of sodium bisulfite or metabisulfite, is used commercially as a food preservative. Bisulfite is used in the laboratory as a single-stranded DNA mutagen in epigenomic analyses of DNA methylation. Recently it has also been used on whole yeast cells to induce mutations in exposed single-stranded regions in vivo. To understand the effects of bisulfite on live cells we conducted a genome-wide screen for bisulfite sensitive mutants in yeast. Screening the deletion mutant array, and collections of essential gene mutants we define a genetic network of bisulfite sensitive mutants...
September 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732479/an-integrated-computational-experimental-approach-reveals-yersinia-pestis-genes-essential-across-a-narrow-or-a-broad-range-of-environmental-conditions
#17
Nicola J Senior, Kalesh Sasidharan, Richard J Saint, Andrew E Scott, Mitali Sarkar-Tyson, Philip M Ireland, Helen L Bullifent, Z Rong Yang, Karen Moore, Petra C F Oyston, Timothy P Atkins, Helen S Atkins, Orkun S Soyer, Richard W Titball
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has categorized plague as a re-emerging disease and the potential for Yersinia pestis to also be used as a bioweapon makes the identification of new drug targets against this pathogen a priority. Environmental temperature is a key signal which regulates virulence of the bacterium. The bacterium normally grows outside the human host at 28 °C. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that the bacterium used to adapt to a mammalian host at 37 °C is central to the development of vaccines or drugs for the prevention or treatment of human disease...
July 21, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730479/analysis-of-drug-resistance-using-kinome-wide-functional-screens
#18
Katherine R Singleton, Keith T Earley, Lynn E Heasley
The clinical success of tyrosine kinase inhibitors specific for BCR-ABL-, EGFR-, ALK-, and ROS1-driven cancers continues to spur the quest to match specific oncogene-defined tumor types with an appropriate molecularly targeted therapy. Unfortunately, responses to these agents are not durable with intrinsic or acquired resistance limiting benefit. Additionally, efforts to identify the appropriate targets of new drugs have focused on nonfunctional assays such as large-scale sequencing for somatic mutations or analysis of gene copy number...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718810/dna2-an-important-player-in-dna-damage-response-or-just-another-dna-maintenance-protein
#19
REVIEW
Elzbieta Pawłowska, Joanna Szczepanska, Janusz Blasiak
The human DNA2 (DNA replication helicase/nuclease 2) protein is expressed in both the nucleus and mitochondria, where it displays ATPase-dependent nuclease and helicase activities. DNA2 plays an important role in the removing of long flaps in DNA replication and long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER), interacting with the replication protein A (RPA) and the flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1). DNA2 can promote the restart of arrested replication fork along with Werner syndrome ATP-dependent helicase (WRN) and Bloom syndrome protein (BLM)...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717159/the-essential-genomic-landscape-of-the-commensal-bifidobacterium-breve-ucc2003
#20
Lorena Ruiz, Francesca Bottacini, Christine J Boinett, Amy K Cain, Mary O'Connell-Motherway, Trevor D Lawley, Douwe van Sinderen
Bifidobacteria are common gut commensals with purported health-promoting effects. This has encouraged scientific research into bifidobacteria, though recalcitrance to genetic manipulation and scarcity of molecular tools has hampered our knowledge on the precise molecular determinants of their health-promoting attributes and gut adaptation. To overcome this problem and facilitate functional genomic analyses in bifidobacteria, we created a large Tn5 transposon mutant library of the commensal Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 that was further characterized by means of a Transposon Directed Insertion Sequencing (TraDIS) approach...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
keyword
keyword
103388
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"