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l carnitine fat loss

Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Xiang Li, Joseph A DiDonato, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
OBJECTIVE: Alterations in gut microbiota have been linked to host insulin resistance, diabetes and impaired amino acid metabolism. We investigated whether changes in gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and its nutrient precursors (choline and L-carnitine) were associated with improvements in glucose metabolism and diabetes-related amino acids in a weight-loss diet intervention. DESIGN: We included 504 overweight and obese adults who were randomly assigned to one of four energy-reduced diets varying in macronutrient intake...
June 2, 2018: Gut
Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Steven R Smith, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
OBJECTIVE: Adiposity and the gut microbiota are both related to the risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to comprehensively examine how changes induced by a weight-loss diet intervention in gut microbiota-related metabolites, such as trimethylamine N -oxide (TMAO) and its precursors (choline and l-carnitine), were associated with improvements in adiposity and regional fat deposition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 510 overweight and obese individuals who were randomly assigned one of four diets varying in macronutrient intake...
March 2018: Diabetes Care
Grant M Tinsley, Stacie Urbina, Jacy Mullins, Jordan Outlaw, Sara Hayward, Matt Stone, Cliffa Foster, Colin Wilborn, Lem Taylor
Dietary supplementation is commonly employed by individuals seeking to improve body composition and exercise performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of a commercially available dietary supplement designed to promote thermogenesis and fat loss. In a randomized double-blind trial, participants were assigned to consume placebo or a multi-ingredient supplement containing caffeine, green tea extract, l-carnitine, evodiamine and other ingredients that purportedly enhance thermogenesis...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Jieun Lee, Joseph Choi, Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Liang Zhao, Thomas Hartung, Susanna Scafidi, Ryan C Riddle, Michael J Wolfgang
The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD), we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2L-/- mice). Paradoxically, Cpt2L-/- mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
Elsie Gonzalez-Hurtado, Jieun Lee, Joseph Choi, Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Samuel L Collins, Maureen R Horton, Michael J Wolfgang
Fatty acid oxidation in macrophages has been suggested to play a causative role in high-fat diet-induced metabolic dysfunction, particularly in the etiology of adipose-driven insulin resistance. To understand the contribution of macrophage fatty acid oxidation directly to metabolic dysfunction in high-fat diet-induced obesity, we generated mice with a myeloid-specific knockout of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2 Mϕ-KO), an obligate step in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation. While fatty acid oxidation was clearly induced upon IL-4 stimulation, fatty acid oxidation-deficient CPT2 Mϕ-KO bone marrow-derived macrophages displayed canonical markers of M2 polarization following IL-4 stimulation in vitro...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kathrina L Marcelo, Thomas Ribar, Christopher R Means, Anna Tsimelzon, Robert D Stevens, Olga Ilkayeva, James R Bain, Susan G Hilsenbeck, Christopher B Newgard, Anthony R Means, Brian York
A number of epidemiological studies have implicated calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling as a major factor in obesity that contributes to aberrant systems metabolism. Somewhat paradoxically, obesity correlates with decreased circulating Ca(2+) levels, leading to increased release of intracellular Ca(2+) stores from the endoplasmic reticulum. These findings suggest that insulin resistance associated with the obese state is linked to activation of canonical Ca(2+) signaling pathways. Mechanistically, increased intracellular Ca(2+) binds calmodulin (CaM) to activate a set of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinases...
May 2016: Molecular Endocrinology
K Doudney, J A Harley, J F Pearson, A Miller, A Aitchison, M A Kennedy, R J Porter, J L Elmslie, P R Joyce
BACKGROUND: The protein product of INSIG2 is involved in cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism and homeostasis. Variation at rs7566605 near the gene INSIG2 has been associated with increased BMI. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of rs7566605/INSIG2 genotype on the ability of valproate-treated bipolar patients (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) to lose weight using carnitine supplementation during a 26-week lifestyle intervention study. DESIGN: Forty-eight bipolar patients with clinically significant treatment emergent weight gain were genotyped at the rs7566605 SNP...
June 2009: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Amanda M Floerchinger, Matthew I Jackson, Dennis E Jewell, Jennifer M MacLeay, Inke Paetau-Robinson, Kevin A Hahn
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. ANIMALS: 50 overweight dogs. PROCEDURES: The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3 groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1...
August 15, 2015: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Amanda M Floerchinger, Matthew I Jackson, Dennis E Jewell, Jennifer M MacLeay, Kevin A Hahn, Inke Paetau-Robinson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental L-carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in cats. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. ANIMALS: 50 overweight cats. PROCEDURES: The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 cats were allocated to 3 groups (10 cats/group) to be fed a dry maintenance cat food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1...
August 15, 2015: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Shawna E Wicks, Bolormaa Vandanmagsar, Kimberly R Haynie, Scott E Fuller, Jaycob D Warfel, Jacqueline M Stephens, Miao Wang, Xianlin Han, Jingying Zhang, Robert C Noland, Randall L Mynatt
The correlations between intramyocellular lipid (IMCL), decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and insulin resistance have led to the hypothesis that impaired FAO causes accumulation of lipotoxic intermediates that inhibit muscle insulin signaling. Using a skeletal muscle-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 KO model, we show that prolonged and severe mitochondrial FAO inhibition results in increased carbohydrate utilization, along with reduced physical activity; increased circulating nonesterified fatty acids; and increased IMCLs, diacylglycerols, and ceramides...
June 23, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zhuyun Li, Cory M Dungan, Bradley Carrier, Todd C Rideout, David L Williamson
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is hyperactive in liver, adipose and skeletal muscle tissues of obese rodents. Alpha-lipoic acid (αLA) has been well accepted as a weight-loss treatment, though there are limited studies on its effect on mTOR signaling in high-fat fed, obese rodents. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine mTOR signaling and oxidative protein alterations in skeletal muscle of high-fat fed, obese rats after αLA supplementation. Phosphorylation of the mTOR substrate, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and eIF4B were significantly reduced (p < 0...
December 2014: Lipids
Mi-Young Park, Mi-Kyung Sung
BACKGROUND: Carnosic acid (CA), a major bioactive component of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves, is known to possess antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. In this study it was hypothesized that CA would ameliorate obesity-induced glucose intolerence and hepatic fat accumulation, and possible mechanisms are suggested. RESULTS: It was observed that a 0.02% (w/w) CA diet effectively decreased body weight, liver weight and blood triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol levels (P < 0...
March 15, 2015: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Min Jung Kim, Jong-Heum Park, Dae Young Kwon, Hye Jeong Yang, Da Sol Kim, Suna Kang, Bae Keun Shin, Na Rang Moon, Beom-Seok Song, Jae-Hun Kim, Sunmin Park
Since Korean mistletoe (Viscum album) has been used for alleviating metabolic diseases, it may also prevent the impairment of energy, glucose, lipid, and bone metabolisms in an estrogen-deficient animal model. We determined that long-term consumption of Korean mistletoe water extract (KME) can alleviate menopausal symptoms such as hot flush, increased abdominal fat mass, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and decreased bone mineral density in ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed a high-fat diet, and explored the mechanisms of the effects...
April 2015: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Sun Qiong, Yan Xishuang
Pu'er Tea is a kind of traditional historical famous tea which gains its name for native government jurisdiction in Pu'er (now Xishuangbanna in Yunnan, Pu'er city etc), and takes Pu'er (now Ninger county of Pu'er city) city as its collecting and distributing center .It is famous all over the world because of its good benefits for reducing blood lipid, slimming weight, antibacterial, aid digestion, detoxification and other functions, it is even known as the health care beverage with "the fine quality goods for preserving people's health", "a health drink demanded everyday"...
July 2014: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Carmem P Valgas da Silva, Julio A Rojas-Moscoso, Edson Antunes, Angelina Zanesco, Fernanda B M Priviero
L-Carnitine (L-Car) is taken as fat burner. The risks of L-Car supplementation for the cardiovascular system are unclear. We evaluated the relaxing responses of the mesenteric and aorta rings from rats after four weeks of L-Car supplementation and/or physical training. Concentration response curves to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), as well as cyclic GMP levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated. Physical training decreased body weight gain that was potentiated by L-Car...
July 2014: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Giuseppe Derosa, Celina Preciado Limas, Pilar Ceballos Macías, Aceves Estrella, Pamela Maffioli
Nutritional medical treatment is the first step to achieve adequate glycemic control and prevent diabetic complications. Lifestyle changes include moderate weight loss (7%) and regular physical activity (150 min/week). The appropriate diet composition is < 30% total fat, < 10% saturated fats, > 15 g/1000 kcal fiber, half soluble, 45-60% of carbohydrates with amoderate intake of sugar (50 g/day) and protein intake of 15-20% of the total calories a day. Patients need to limit the intake of saturated fats to < 7% of the daily calorie intake...
May 12, 2014: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Ulrikke Voss, Elin Sand, Björn Olde, Eva Ekblad
OBJECTIVE: Obese and/or diabetic patients have elevated levels of free fatty acids and increased susceptibility to gastrointestinal symptoms. Since the enteric nervous system is pivotal in regulating gastrointestinal functions alterations or neuropathy in the enteric neurons are suspected to occur in these conditions. Lipid induced intestinal changes, in particular on enteric neurons, were investigated in vitro and in vivo using primary cell culture and a high fat diet (HFD) mouse model...
2013: PloS One
W Ying, M D Tokach, J M DeRouchey, T E Houser, S S Dritz, R D Goodband, J L Nelssen
A total of 1104 barrows and gilts (PIC 337 × 1050, Pig Improvement Company, Hendersonville, TN), weighing 36 ± 1 kg were used in a 109-d study to evaluate effects of dietary L-carnitine and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth, carcass traits, and loin and fat quality. Pigs were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments, with 7 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial, with main effects of DDGS (30% in Phases 1, 2, and 3, and 20% in Phase 4) and L-carnitine (0, 50, or 100 mg/kg)...
July 2013: Journal of Animal Science
Avery L McIntosh, Barbara P Atshaves, Danilo Landrock, Kerstin K Landrock, Gregory G Martin, Stephen M Storey, Ann B Kier, Friedhelm Schroeder
Loss of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) decreases long chain fatty acid uptake and oxidation in primary hepatocytes and in vivo. On this basis, L-FABP gene ablation would potentiate high-fat diet-induced weight gain and weight gain/energy intake. While this was indeed the case when L-FABP null (-/-) mice on the C57BL/6NCr background were pair-fed a high-fat diet, whether this would also be observed under high-fat diet fed ad libitum was not known. Therefore, this possibility was examined in female L-FABP (-/-) mice on the same background...
May 2013: Lipids
Pengxiang She, Kristine C Olson, Yoshihiro Kadota, Ayami Inukai, Yoshiharu Shimomura, Charles L Hoppel, Sean H Adams, Yasuko Kawamata, Hideki Matsumoto, Ryosei Sakai, Charles H Lang, Christopher J Lynch
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are circulating nutrient signals for protein accretion, however, they increase in obesity and elevations appear to be prognostic of diabetes. To understand the mechanisms whereby obesity affects BCAAs and protein metabolism, we employed metabolomics and measured rates of [1-(14)C]-leucine metabolism, tissue-specific protein synthesis and branched-chain keto-acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) activities. Male obese Zucker rats (11-weeks old) had increased body weight (BW, 53%), liver (107%) and fat (∼300%), but lower plantaris and gastrocnemius masses (-21-24%)...
2013: PloS One
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