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visual impairment

Kavi Devraj, Sylvaine Guérit, Jakranka Macas, Yvonne Reiss
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specialized barrier that protects the brain microenvironment from toxins and pathogens in the circulation and maintains brain homeostasis. The principal sites of the barrier are endothelial cells of the brain capillaries whose barrier function results from tight intercellular junctions and efflux transporters expressed on the plasma membrane. This function is regulated by pericytes and astrocytes that together form the neurovascular unit (NVU). Several neurological diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease (AD), brain tumors are associated with an impaired BBB function...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Arantzazu Zabala, Monika Salgueiro, Oihane Sáez-Atxukarro, Javier Ballesteros, Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza, Rafael Segarra
OBJECTIVES: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease. Its most prevalent manifestation is neuropsychiatric SLE (NP-SLE), which is characterized by increased involvement of the nervous system, with relevant symptoms, such as marked cognitive deficits, which are directly involved in subsequent functional disability. The objective of this study is to identify and compare the profile of cognitive deficits in patients with NP-SLE and patients with non-neuropsychiatric SLE (nonNP-SLE) by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
M Sacchetti, I Abicca, A Bruscolini, C Cavaliere, M Nebbioso, A Lambiase
Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) includes a wide spectrum of clinical entities characterized by different incidence, age of onset, natural course, clinical outcome and response to treatment. Taken together, they represent one of the most frequent ocular surface diseases affecting more than 30% of the young-adult population and show an increasing incidence over the years. Moreover, comorbidities with other systemic atopic conditions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and rhinitis require a multidisciplinary approach...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Anna Mazanova, Ihor Shymanskyi, Olha Lisakovska, Lala Hajiyeva, Yulia Komisarenko, Mykola Veliky
Objectives: Recent prospective studies have found the associations between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and vitamin D deficiency. We investigated the role of vitamin D in the regulation of 25OHD-1 α -hydroxylase (CYP27B1) and VDR expression in different tissues of T1D rats. Design: T1D was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (55 mg/k b.w.). After 2 weeks of T1D, the animals were treated orally with or without vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol; 100 IU/rat, 30 days)...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Xuanxuan Wang, Yanjun Gu, Hai Liu, Liming Shi, Xiaonan Sun
Background: Radiotherapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy are currently considered as standard treatments employed for advanced cervical cancer (CC). However, patients with local recurrence or distant metastasis continue to have poor outcomes. EGFR overexpression correlated with chemo/radioresistance, and disease failure has been well proved in the previous studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic efficacy and underlying mechanism of the sensitization to radiation or cisplatin of icotinib hydrochloride (IH), a high-selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), in the Hela S3 human CC cell line...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Pierpaolo Cerullo, Paola Brancaccio, Serenella Anzilotti, Antonio Vinciguerra, Ornella Cuomo, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Paola Di Vaio, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato, Giuseppe Pignataro
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HI) accounts for the majority of developmental, motor and cognitive deficits in children, leading to life-long neurological impairments. Since the plasmamembrane sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) plays a fundamental role in maintaining ionic homeostasis during adult brain ischemia, in the present work we aimed to demonstrate (1)the involvement of NCX in the pathophysiology of neonatal HI and (2)a possible NCX-based pharmacological intervention. HI was induced in neonatal mice at postnatal day 7(P7) by unilateral cut of the right common carotid artery, followed by 60 min exposure to 8%O2 ...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Damiano Zanini, Diego Giraldo, Ben Warren, Radoslaw Katana, Marta Andrés, Suneel Reddy, Stephanie Pauls, Nicola Schwedhelm-Domeyer, Bart R H Geurten, Martin C Göpfert
Animals rely on mechanosensory feedback from proprioceptors to control locomotory body movements. Unexpectedly, we found that this movement control requires visual opsins. Disrupting the Drosophila opsins NINAE or Rh6 impaired larval locomotion and body contractions, independently of light and vision. Opsins were detected in chordotonal proprioceptors along the larval body, localizing to their ciliated dendrites. Loss of opsins impaired mechanically evoked proprioceptor spiking and cilium ultrastructure. Without NINAE or Rh6, NOMPC mechanotransduction channels leaked from proprioceptor cilia and ciliary Inactive (Iav) channels partly disappeared...
March 8, 2018: Neuron
Matthias Stangl, Johannes Achtzehn, Karin Huber, Caroline Dietrich, Claus Tempelmann, Thomas Wolbers
A progressive loss of navigational abilities in old age has been observed in numerous studies, but we have only limited understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying this decline [1]. A central component of the brain's navigation circuit are grid cells in entorhinal cortex [2], largely thought to support intrinsic self-motion-related computations, such as path integration (i.e., keeping track of one's position by integrating self-motion cues) [3-6]. Given that entorhinal cortex is particularly vulnerable to neurodegenerative processes during aging and Alzheimer's disease [7-14], deficits in grid cell function could be a key mechanism to explain age-related navigational decline...
March 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Lisa G Sorensen, Katie Neighbors, Regina M Hardison, Kathleen M Loomes, James W Varni, Vicky L Ng, Robert H Squires, Estella M Alonso
OBJECTIVE: To determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and neurocognitive impairment in survivors of pediatric acute liver failure (PALF). STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective study was conducted. At 6 and 12 months after PALF presentation, surveys of HRQoL were completed for 2- to 19-year-olds and executive functioning for ages 2-16 years. At 12 months, patients 3-16 years of age completed neurocognitive testing. HRQoL scores were compared with a healthy, matched sample...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Sumit Malhotra, Praveen Vashist, Mani Kalaivani, Noopur Gupta, Suraj Singh Senjam, Ramashankar Rath, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, causes and associated factors for visual impairment (VI) in rural population of Jhajjar district, Haryana, north India. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in two blocks of Jhajjar district. A total of 34 villages were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling method. Adults aged 50 years and above were selected using compact segment cluster sampling approach. Presenting visual acuity using LogMAR E chart was measured along with collection of other demographic details as part of the house-to-house survey...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Nabeel Alshafai, Rodolfo Maduri, Mrigank Shail, Domenico Chirchiglia, David Meyronet, Francesco Signorelli
Hemangioblastomas (HBLs) are challenging vascular tumours with rare suprasellar location Surgery is recommended in patients with visual impairment, endocrine disorders or hydrocephalus. Surgical removal of pituitary stalk HBLs is challenging due to their location and high vascularity. Our narrative review was guided by the question: "what is the more suitable surgical approach to excise a suprasellar HBL?". Pertinent English literature was scrutinized from database inception to October 2016. Eighteen articles matched our selection criteria...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Karina R O'Malley, Allison M Waters
Exposure therapy is a key component of efficacious treatment for anxiety. Biases in the allocation of attention towards versus away from threat assessed prior to exposure-based treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy differentially predict treatment outcomes. However, it is unclear whether monitoring versus avoiding threat stimuli influences learning during exposure. Extinction paradigms are the experimental analogue of exposure therapy. Therefore, manipulating attention towards versus away from threat during extinction trials may shed light on the role of attention during exposure therapy...
March 6, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Penelope Hannant
A number of studies have evidenced marked difficulties in language in autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Studies have also shown that language and word knowledge are associated with the same area of brain that is also responsible for visual perception in typically developing (TD) individuals. However, in ASC, research suggests word meaning is mapped differently, on to situational sensorimotor components within the brain. Furthermore, motor coordination is associated with communication skills. The current study explores whether motor coordination and visual perception are impaired in children with ASC, and whether difficulties in coordination and visual perception correlate with receptive language levels...
March 14, 2018: Human Movement Science
Charmaine M Teo, Woei Bing Poon, Selina Ky Ho
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal care advances have resulted in improved survival but have raised concerns of increase in neurodevelopmental impairment. This study looked at long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes at ages 5 and 8 years of very low birthweight infants born in the 2000s as compared to the 1990s. Neurodevelopmental assessment at 2 years old was compared to that at 5 and 8 years to determine if assessment at 2 years was predictive of later outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive infants with birthweight less than 1250 grams admitted to a tertiary centre in Singapore between January 1994 to December 1995 (Epoch I) and January 2004 to December 2005 (Epoch II) were included...
February 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Haiyong He, Wensheng Li, Chaofeng Liang, Lun Luo, Bo Hou, Huasheng Yang, Ying Guo
BACKGROUND: A pterional-orbital or subfrontal-orbital approach is recommended as a surgical treatment in cranio-orbital lesions. We describe a less invasive approach through an eyebrow incision combined supraorbital minicraniotomy and orbital osteotomy for treating some selected cranio-orbital lesions. METHODS: Sixteen patients with different cranio-orbital lesions were treated using this less invasive approach. Postoperative outcomes were evaluated to shed light on specific parameters related to this approach...
March 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Cécile Delcourt, Mélanie Le Goff, Therese von Hanno, Alireza Mirshahi, Anthony P Khawaja, Virginie J M Verhoeven, Ruth E Hogg, Eleftherios Anastosopoulos, Maria Luz Cachulo, René Höhn, Christian Wolfram, Alain Bron, Stefania Miotto, Isabelle Carrière, Johanna M Colijn, Gabriëlle H S Buitendijk, Jennifer Evans, Dorothea Nitsch, Panayiota Founti, Jennifer L Y Yip, Norbert Pfeiffer, Catherine Creuzot-Garcher, Rufino Silva, Stefano Piermarocchi, Fotis Topouzis, Geir Bertelsen, Paul J Foster, Astrid Fletcher, Caroline C W Klaver, Jean-François Korobelnik
TOPIC: To estimate the prevalence of nonrefractive visual impairment and blindness in European persons 55 years of age and older. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Few visual impairment and blindness prevalence estimates are available for the European population. In addition, many of the data collected in European population-based studies currently are unpublished and have not been included in previous estimates. METHODS: Fourteen European population-based studies participating in the European Eye Epidemiology Consortium (n = 70 723) were included...
March 13, 2018: Ophthalmology
Johannes Stein, Stefan Latz, Jörg Ellinger, Guido Fechner, Maher Safi, Philipp Krausewitz, Simone Müller, Karin Weyer, Stefan C Müller
BACKGROUND: Renal fungal bezoars are remarkably rare and mostly occur in immunodeficient patients. Only a small number of cases with immunocompetent patients have been published so far. The published treatment approaches comprised systemic antimycotic therapy and surgical or minimal invasive removal of the fungal balls. In some cases irrigation of the renal duct system with amphotericin B was performed. By obstruction of the urinary tract bezoars can lead to infected hydronephrosis and severe urosepsis with high lethality...
March 16, 2018: BMC Urology
Stoyan Popkirov, Vera Flasbeck, Uwe Schlegel, Georg Juckel, Martin Brüne
Previous studies have suggested that alexithymia may be related to impairments in automatic emotion processing. While it is well established that alexithymia is highly prevalent in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), it is unknown whether this is reflected by an altered automatic processing of emotional stimuli. In the present study we investigated visually evoked event-related potentials using neutral and negative images from the International Affective Pictures System in 26 BPD patients and 26 healthy controls...
March 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Elisa Pelosin, Ambra Bisio, Thierry Pozzo, Giovanna Lagravinese, Oscar Crisafulli, Roberta Marchese, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Laura Avanzino
Postural reactions can be influenced by concomitant tasks or different contexts and are modulated by a higher order motor control. Recent studies investigated postural changes determined by motor contagion induced by action observation (chameleon effect) showing that observing a model in postural disequilibrium induces an increase in healthy subjects' body sway. Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with postural instability and impairments in cognitively controlled balance tasks. However, no studies investigated if viewing postural imbalance might influence postural stability in PD and if patients are able to inhibit a visual postural perturbation...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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