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Sanja Dacic, Liza C Villaruz, Shira Abberbock, Alyssa Mahaffey, Pimpin Incharoen, Marina N Nikiforova
Break-apart ALK FISH probe is the FDA approved approach for detection of ALK rearrangements in lung carcinoma patients who may benefit from ALK kinase inhibitors. The FISH assay can be technically challenging and difficult to interpret. ALK immunohistochemistry and next generation sequencing have been proposed as alternative approaches. In this study, we compared various ALK -FISH patterns to next -generation sequencing (NGS) for gene fusion detection, ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tumor responses to crizotinib...
October 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Michelle Gray, Anne Malott, Beth Murray Davis, Christine Sandor
BACKGROUND: contemporary knowledge related to the experiences of new midwifery practitioners is limited to countries that run hospital-based transition to practice programmes within an employment contract arrangement, such as the United Kingdom, and Australia. Less is known of the experiences of New Midwifery Practitioners (NMPs) who transition into autonomous private practice in New Zealand, Canada and the Netherlands. PURPOSE: the purpose of this paper is to report on a scoping review of the way NMPs are transitioned to practice in the first year of registered practice across the selected countries...
September 28, 2016: Midwifery
Ismael Apud, Oriol Romaní
Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage from the Amazon, traditionally used by indigenous and mestizo populations in the region. Widespread international use of the beverage began in the 1990s in both secular contexts and religious/spiritual networks. This article offers an analysis of these networks as health care systems in general and for the case of Spain and specifically Catalonia, describing the emergence and characteristics of their groups, and the therapeutic itineraries of some participants. The medical anthropology perspective we take enables us to reflect on the relationship between medicine and religion, and problematize the tensions between medicalization and medical pluralism...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Thomas J Lawton, Amy C Rosenzweig
Nature utilizes two groups of enzymes to catalyze methane conversions, methyl-coenzyme M reductases (MCRs) and methane monooxygenases (MMOs). These enzymes have been difficult to incorporate into industrial processes due to their complexity, poor stability, and lack of recombinant tractability. Despite these issues, new ways of preparing and stabilizing these enzymes have recently been discovered, and new mechanistic insight into how MCRs and MMOs break the C-H bond in nature's most inert hydrocarbon have been obtained...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Gavish Munbauhal, Thomas Seisen, Florie D Gomez, Benoit Peyronnet, Olivier Cussenot, Shahrokh F Shariat, Morgan Rouprêt
The sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) concept relies on the accurate detection of primary nodal landing sites and could represent a major advancement towards accurate, non-invasive pelvic staging in prostate cancer (PCa). Different iterations of the technique have now been validated and reproduced mostly in large-volume centres. The existing evidence denotes the feasibility and sensitivity of SLND, with encouraging pre- and intraoperative detection rates of 98% and 96%. Yet, current surgical practice mandates a backup template dissection due to a false negative rate, up to 7...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Vineetha Mandlik, Sohan Patil, Ramanamurthy Bopanna, Sudipta Basu, Shailza Singh
Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects nearly 0.7 to 1.3 million people annually. Treatment of this disease is difficult due to lack of appropriate medication and the growing problem of drug resistance. Natural compounds such as coumarins serve as complementary therapeutic agents in addition to the current treatment modalities. In this study, we have performed an in-silico screening of the coumarin derivatives and their anti-leishmanial properties has been explored both in-vitro and in-vivo. One of the compounds (compound 2) exhibited leishmanicidal activity and to further study its properties, nanoliposomal formulation of the compound was developed...
2016: PloS One
Christoph Nowak, Samira Salihovic, Andrea Ganna, Stefan Brandmaier, Taru Tukiainen, Corey D Broeckling, Patrik K Magnusson, Jessica E Prenni, Rui Wang-Sattler, Annette Peters, Konstantin Strauch, Thomas Meitinger, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Johan Ärnlöv, Christian Berne, Christian Gieger, Samuli Ripatti, Lars Lind, Nancy L Pedersen, Johan Sundström, Erik Ingelsson, Tove Fall
Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired insulin secretion contribute to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Both are associated with changes in the circulating metabolome, but causal directions have been difficult to disentangle. We combined untargeted plasma metabolomics by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in three non-diabetic cohorts with Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis to obtain new insights into early metabolic alterations in IR and impaired insulin secretion. In up to 910 elderly men we found associations of 52 metabolites with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp-measured IR and/or β-cell responsiveness (disposition index) during an oral glucose tolerance test...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Jennifer Kurowicki, Enesi Momoh, Jonathan C Levy
Periprosthetic humerus fractures are relatively uncommon occurrence that can be difficult to manage nonoperatively. Locking plate technology has enhanced the surgical management of these fractures. However, adequate fixation around the stem remains of some concern. We describe an osteosynthesis technique using a locking plate utilizing eccentrically placed screw holes to place "skive screws" in the proximal end of the plate to achieve fixation around the stem of the implant. A clinical series of 5 consecutive patients treated with this technique is presented with an average follow-up of 29 months (range, 12-48)...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Kayoung Kim, Sung-Hwan Choi, Eun-Hee Choi, Yoon-Jeong Choi, Chung-Ju Hwang, Jung-Yul Cha
OBJECTIVE: To compare soft and hard tissue responses based on the degree of maxillary incisor retraction using maximum anchorage in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study sample was divided into moderate retraction (<8.0 mm; n = 28) and maximum retraction (≥8.0 mm; n = 29) groups based on the amount of maxillary incisor retraction after extraction of the maxillary and mandibular first premolars for camouflage treatment...
September 19, 2016: Angle Orthodontist
Subhadip Goswami, Lin Ma, Alex B F Martinson, Michael R Wasielewski, Omar K Farha, Joseph T Hupp
Owing to their ability to act as light-harvesting scaffolds, porphyrin-containing metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are in the forefront of research on the application of highly ordered molecular materials to problems in solar-energy conversion. In this work, solvent assisted linker exchange (SALE) is performed on a pillared paddlewheel porphyrin containing MOF thin film to collapse a 3D-framework to a 2D-framework. The change in dimensionality of the framework is confirmed by a decrease in the film thickness, the magnitude of which is in agreement with crystallographic parameters for related bulk materials...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Purva P Bhojane, Michael R Duff, Khushboo Bafna, Gabriella P Rimmer, Pratul K Agarwal, Elizabeth E Howell
Folate, or vitamin B9, is an important compound in one carbon metabolism. Previous studies have found weaker binding of dihydrofolate to dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of osmolytes. In other words, osmolytes are more difficult to remove from the dihydrofolate solvation shell than water; this shifts the equilibrium towards the free ligand and protein species. This study uses vapor pressure osmometry to explore the interaction of folate with the model osmolyte, glycine betaine. This method yields a preferential interaction potential (μ23/RT value)...
October 21, 2016: Biochemistry
Michelle R Robinson, Jennifer S Brodbelt
Tyrosine sulfation is an important post-translational modification but remains difficult to detect in biological samples owing to its low stoichiometric abundance and the lack of effective enrichment methods. In the present study, weak anion exchange (WAX) is evaluated for the enrichment of sulfopeptides that have been modified via carbamylation to convert all primary amines to less basic carbamates. The decrease in basicity enhanced the binding of carbamylated sulfopeptides to WAX resin relative to non-sulfated peptides...
October 21, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Abdolbaset Ghorbani, Barbara Gravendeel, Sugirthini Selliah, Shahin Zarré, Hugo de Boer
Tubers of terrestrial orchids are harvested and traded from the eastern Mediterranean to the Caspian Sea for the traditional product Salep. Over-exploitation of wild populations and increased middle-class prosperity have escalated prices for Salep, causing overharvesting, depletion of native populations and providing an incentive to expand harvesting to untapped areas in Iran. Limited morphological distinctiveness among traded Salep tubers renders species identification impossible, making it difficult to establish which species are targeted and affected the most...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Jingquan Liu, Hongjing Ma, Huihui Zhu, Zhen Liu, Degang Jiang, Jizhen Zhang, Wenrong Yang
The determination of oxygeneous groups, conjugated area ratio and reduction efficiency of graphene oxide (GO) is a difficult task because of its heterogeneous structure. Herein, we describe a novel approach for the detailed understanding of the surface chemistry of GO using pyrene as a fluorescent probe via π-π stacking interaction.
October 21, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Iulia Bădescu, M Anne Katzenberg, David P Watts, Daniel W Sellen
OBJECTIVES: Determining nutritional development in wild primates is difficult through observations because confirming dietary intake is challenging. Physiological measures are needed to determine the relative contributions of maternal milk and other foods at different ages, and time of weaning. We used fecal stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) and fecal nitrogen concentrations (%N) from wild chimpanzees at Ngogo, Uganda, to derive physiological dietary indicators during the transition from total reliance on maternal milk to adult foods after weaning...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Liu-Zhu Yu, Yin Wei, Min Shi
Copper-catalyzed cascade cyclization of 1,5-enynes with two types of hypervalent reagents was developed via consecutive trifluoromethylazidation/diazidation and intramolecular click reaction (CUAAC), providing one-pot self-assembly of triazole fused isoindolines bearing a trifluoromethyl or an azide moiety. Moreover, the construction of a trifluoromethylcyclopropyl unit, which has been considered as a metabolically stable replacement for a tert-butyl moiety and was difficult to access, was also achieved under trifluoromethylazidation conditions...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Carolina Rodriguez-Tirado, Takanori Kitamura, Yu Kato, Jeffery W Pollard, John S Condeelis, David Entenberg
Metastasis to secondary sites such as the lung, liver and bone is a traumatic event with a mortality rate of approximately 90% (1). Of these sites, the lung is the most difficult to assess using intravital optical imaging due to its enclosed position within the body, delicate nature and vital role in sustaining proper physiology. While clinical modalities (positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT)) are capable of providing noninvasive images of this tissue, they lack the resolution necessary to visualize the earliest seeding events, with a single pixel consisting of nearly a thousand cells...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Helena Jahncke, Patrik Björkeholm, John E Marsh, Johan Odelius, Patrik Sörqvist
BACKGROUND: Background speech is one of the most disturbing noise sources at shared workplaces in terms of both annoyance and performance-related disruption. Therefore, it is important to identify techniques that can efficiently protect performance against distraction. It is also important that the techniques are perceived as satisfactory and are subjectively evaluated as effective in their capacity to reduce distraction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to compare three methods of attenuating distraction from background speech: masking a background voice with nature sound through headphones, masking a background voice with other voices through headphones and merely wearing headphones (without masking) as a way to attenuate the background sound...
October 17, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Donald J Viglione, Gregory J Meyer, Ana Cristina Resende, Claudia Pignolo
Learning to code the imagery, communication, and behavior associated with Rorschach responding is challenging. Although there is some survey research on graduate students' impressions of their Rorschach training, research has not identified which coding decisions students find to be the most problematic and time-consuming. We surveyed students to identify what they struggled with most when learning coding and to quantify how difficult it is to learn how to code. Participants (n = 191) from the United States, Brazil, Denmark, Israel, and Italy rated 57 aspects of coding using a 4-point scale that encompassed both the time required to code and the subjective difficulty of doing so...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
Eva Germovsek, Charlotte Barker, Mike Sharland, Joseph F Standing
AIM(S): When different models for weight and age are used in paediatric pharmacokinetic studies it is difficult to compare parameters between studies or perform model-based meta-analysis. This study aimed to compare published models with the proposed standard (allometric weight(0.75) and sigmoidal maturation function). METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify published clearance (CL) reports for gentamicin and midazolam and all published models for scaling clearance in children...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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