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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625277/the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hemoptysis
#1
Harald Ittrich, Maximilian Bockhorn, Hans Klose, Marcel Simon
BACKGROUND: Hemoptysis, i.e., the expectoration of blood from the lower airways, has an annual incidence of approximately 0.1% in ambulatory patients and 0.2% in inpatients. It is a potentially life-threatening medical emergency and carries a high mortality. METHODS: This review article is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed. RESULTS: Hemoptysis can be a sign of many different diseases. Its cause remains unknown in about half of all cases...
June 5, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621971/universality-of-the-turbulent-velocity-profile
#2
Paolo Luchini
For nearly a century, the universal logarithmic law of the mean velocity profile has been a mainstay of turbulent fluid mechanics and its teaching. Yet many experiments and numerical simulations are not fit exceedingly well by it, and the question whether the logarithmic law is indeed universal keeps turning up in discussion and in writing. Large experiments have been set up in various parts of the world to confirm or deny the logarithmic law and accurately estimate von Kármán's constant, the coefficient that governs it...
June 2, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606708/hurwitz-stability-analysis-of-fractional-order-lti-systems-according-to-principal-characteristic-equations
#3
Baris Baykant Alagoz
With power mapping (conformal mapping), stability analyses of fractional order linear time invariant (LTI) systems are carried out by consideration of the root locus of expanded degree integer order polynomials in the principal Riemann sheet. However, it is essential to show the left half plane (LHP) stability analysis of fractional order characteristic polynomials in the s plane in order to close the gap emerging in stability analyses of fractional order and integer order systems. In this study, after briefly discussing the relation between the characteristic root orientations and the system stability, the author presents a methodology to establish principal characteristic polynomials to perform the LHP stability analysis of fractional order systems...
June 9, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605076/analysis-of-magnetic-anisotropy-and-the-role-of-magnetic-dilution-in-triggering-smm-behaviour-in-a-family-of-coii-yiii-dinuclear-complexes-with-easy-plane-anisotropy
#4
Maria A Palacios, Joscha Nehrkorn, Elizaveta A Suturina, Eliseo Ruiz, Silvia Gomez-Coca, Karsten Holldack, Alexander Schnegg, J Krzystek, Jose M Moreno, Enrique Colacio
Three new closely related CoIIYIII complexes of general formula [Co(-L)(-X)Y(NO3)2] (X- = NO3- 1, benzoate, 2 and 9-anthracenecarboxylato, 3) have been prepared with the compartmental ligand N,N',N"-trimethyl-N,N"-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylbenzyl)diethylenetriamine (H2L). In these complexes CoII and YIII are triply bridged by two phenoxide groups belonging to the dideprotonated ligand (L2-) and one ancillary anion X-. The change of the ancillary bridging group connecting CoII and YIII ions induces small differences in the trigonally distorted CoN3O3 coordination sphere with a concomitant tuning of the magnetic anisotropy and intermolecular interactions...
June 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600975/relationship-and-significance-of-gait-deviations-associated-with-limb-length-discrepancy-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Sam Khamis, Eli Carmeli
Controversy still exists as to the clinical significance of leg length discrepancy (LLD) in spite of the fact that further evidence has been emerging regarding the relationship between several clinical conditions and LLD. The objectives of our study were to review the available research with regard to LLD as a cause of clinically significant gait deviations, to determine if there is a relationship between the magnitude of LLD and the presence of gait deviations and to identify the most common gait deviations associated with LLD...
May 31, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600008/lumbar-radiculopathy-in-the-setting-of-degenerative-scoliosis-mis-decompression-and-limited-correction-are-better-options
#6
REVIEW
Ricardo B Fontes, Richard G Fessler
Surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) has emerged as an efficient treatment alternative, but it is fraught with potential perioperative morbidity, incompletely mitigated by emerging minimally invasive surgical techniques. In mild-to-moderate ASD balanced in the sagittal plane, there are situations in which the counterintuitive simple decompression through a foraminotomy or laminectomy, or even a short-segment fusion may be an attractive treatment. This article presents a case example and the authors' treatment rationale and reviews the limited available literature supporting it...
July 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599883/uterine-sparing-laparoscopic-resection-of-accessory-cavitated-uterine-masses
#7
Ann Peters, Noah B Rindos, Richard S Guido, Nicole M Donnellan
To demonstrate surgical techniques utilized during uterine-sparing laparoscopic resections of accessory cavitated uterine masses (ACUM) BACKGROUND: ACUM represent a rare uterine entity observed in premenopausal women suffering from dysmenorrhea and recurrent pelvic pain. The diagnosis is made when an isolated extra-cavitated uterine mass is resected from an otherwise normal appearing uterus with unremarkable endometrial lumen and adnexal structures. Pathologic confirmation requires an accessory cavity lined with endometrial epithelium (and corresponding glands and stroma) filled with chocolate-brown fluid...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598623/a-poh-jump-driven-by-n%C3%A2-n-out-of-plane-motion-in-the-photoisomerization-of-water-solvated-triazabutadiene
#8
Hongmei Xiao, Lishuang Ma, Weihai Fang, Xuebo Chen
Utilization of photoinitiated isomerization reaction has recently emerged as a very promising platform to modulate the basicity of compounds; however, theoretical insight into its regulatory mechanism remains largely unknown and needs to be addressed. For the first time, an unexpected trans-cis photoisomerization via the N═N out of plane (NOOP) motion triggered by an in-plane inversion of N-N═N moiety was computationally demonstrated to regulate the pOH jump of water-solvated triazabutadiene by using the multiconfigurational perturbation theory together with the calculation of rate constants of protonation-deprotonation reactions...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598171/exotic-physics-and-chemistry-of-two-dimensional-phosphorus-phosphorene
#9
Chandra Chowdhury, Ayan Datta
Phosphorene, the monolayer form of black phosphorus, is the most recent addition to graphene-like van der Waals two-dimensional (2D) systems. Due to its several interesting properties, namely its tunable direct band gap, high carrier mobility, and unique in-plane anisotropy, it has emerged as a promising candidate for electronic and optoelectronic devices. Phosphorene (Pn) reveals a much richer phase diagram than graphene, and it comprises the two forms namely the stapler-clip like (black Pn, α form) and chairlike (blue Pn, β form) structures...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594463/ultralarge-bending-strain-and-fracture-resistance-investigation-of-tungsten-carbide-nanowires
#10
Yong Sun, Yanmao Chen, Hao Cui, Jing Wang, Chengxin Wang
Hard tungsten carbide (WC) with brittle behavior is frequently applied for mechanical purposes. Here, ultralarge elastic bending deformation is reported in defect-rare WC [0001] nanowires; the tested bending strain reaches a maximum of 20% ± 3.33%, which challenges the traditional understanding of this material. The lattice analysis indicates that the dislocations are confined to the inner part of the WC nanowires. First, the high Peierls-Nabarro barrier hinders the movement of the locally formed dislocations, which causes rapid dislocation aggregation and hinders long-range glide, resulting in a dense distribution of the dislocation network...
June 8, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594005/the-effect-of-stw-defects-on-the-mechanical-properties-and-fracture-toughness-of-pristine-and-hydrogenated-graphene
#11
Akarsh Verma, Avinash Parashar
Graphene is emerging as a versatile material with a diverse field of applications. Synthesis techniques for graphene introduce several topological defects such as vacancies, dislocations and Stone-Thrower-Wales (STW) defects. Among them STW defects are generated without deleting any atom from the lattice position, but are introduced by rotating single C-C bonds. In this article, molecular dynamics based simulations have been performed to study the effect of STW defects on the fracture toughness of pristine graphene as well as graphene with crack edges passivated with hydrogen atoms...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593478/which-mr-sequences-should-we-use-for-the-reliable-detection-and-localization-of-bone-marrow-edema-in-spondyloarthritis
#12
Chiara Giraudo, Michael Weber, Antonia Puchner, Johannes Grisar, Franz Kainberger, Claudia Schueller-Weidekamm
OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic confidence in detecting and localizing areas of bone marrow edema in the sacroiliac joint of patients with suspected spondyloarthritis using a single-plane method and comparing it with multiplanar unenhanced and enhanced methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with clinical suspicion of spondyloarthritis undergoing an MRI of the sacroiliac joint were included in this retrospective study. To assess sacroiliitis, three methods were applied: single-plane (i...
June 7, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590293/pediatric-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-on-the-eve-of-growing-up
#13
Johannes M Douwes, Rolf M F Berger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) during childhood are expert opinion based, because of lacking pediatric data. In recent years, however, important pediatric data have emerged on PAH. RECENT FINDINGS: PAH in children shows similarities as well as differences compared to adults. Neonates and children know specific clinical presentations and a hemodynamic profile that differs from adults with PAH...
June 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585828/computational-dissection-of-two-dimensional-rectangular-titanium-mononitride-tin-auxetics-and-promises-for-photocatalysis
#14
Liujiang Zhou, Zhiwen Zhuo, Liangzhi Kou, Aijun Du, Sergei Tretiak
Recently, two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal nitrides have triggered an enormous interest for their tunable mechanical, optoelectronic and magnetic properties, significantly enriching the family of 2D materials. Here, by using a broad range of first-principles calculations, we report a systematic study of 2D rectangular materials of titanium mononitride (TiN), exhibiting high energetic and thermal stability due to in-plane d-p orbital hybridization and synergetic out-of-plane electronic delocalization. The rectangular TiN monolayer also possesses enhanced auxeticity and ferroelasticity with an alternating order of Possion's Ratios, stemming from the competitive interactions of intra- and inter- Ti-N chains...
June 6, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584259/complex-beam-shaping-based-on-an-equivalent-q-plate-system-and-analysis-of-its-properties-using-digital-holography-polarization-imaging
#15
Ching-Han Yang, Andy Ying-Guey Fuh
In this study, we generate various complex beams carrying angular momentum (AM) by using a programmable beam shaping system to mimic typical q-plates. When a circularly polarized wave is incident onto the system, the emerging beam reverses its spin handedness and obtains a spatial phase factor. This phase factor can be engineered by designing a computer-generated hologram (CGH) and applying it to a spatial light modulator (SLM) to produce a beam with controllable spatially distributed orbital angular momentum (OAM) density...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574718/calibration-of-1-2-4-triazole-3-thione-an-original-zn-binding-group-of-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-validation-of-a-polarizable-mm-md-potential-by-quantum-chemistry
#16
Karolina Kwapien, Mirna Damergi, Serge Nader, Lea El Khoury, Zeina Hobaika, Richard G Maroun, Jean-Philip Piquemal, Laurent Gavara, Dorothée Berthomieu, Jean-François Hernandez, Nohad Gresh
In the context of the SIBFA polarizable molecular mechanics/dynamics (PMM/PMD) procedure, we report the calibration and a series of validation tests for the 1,2,4-triazole-3-thione (TZT) heterocycle. TZT acts as the chelating group of inhibitors of di-zinc metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL), an emerging class of Zn-dependent bacterial enzymes, which by cleaving the beta-lactam bond of most beta-lactam antibiotics are responsible for the acquired resistance of bacteria to these drugs. Such a study is indispensable prior to performing PMD simulations of complexes of TZT-based inhibitors with MBL's, on account of the anchoring role of TZT in the dizinc MBL recognition site...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574080/electro-elastocapillary-rayleigh-plateau-instability-in-dielectric-elastomer-films
#17
Saman Seifi, Harold S Park
We demonstrate, using both finite element simulations and a linear stability analysis, the emergence of an electro-elastocapillary Rayleigh-plateau instability in dielectric elastomer (DE) films under 2D, plane strain conditions. When subject to an electric field, the DEs exhibit a buckling instability for small elastocapillary numbers. For larger elastocapillary numbers, the DEs instead exhibit the Rayleigh-plateau instability. The stability analysis demonstrates the critical effect of the electric field in causing the Rayleigh-plateau instability, which cannot be induced solely by surface tension in DE films...
June 14, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569367/resonance-modulation-annihilation-and-generation-of-anti-resonance-and-anti-phasonance-in-3d-neuronal-systems-interplay-of-resonant-and-amplifying-currents-with-slow-dynamics
#18
Horacio G Rotstein
Subthreshold (membrane potential) resonance and phasonance (preferred amplitude and zero-phase responses to oscillatory inputs) in single neurons arise from the interaction between positive and negative feedback effects provided by relatively fast amplifying currents and slower resonant currents. In 2D neuronal systems, amplifying currents are required to be slave to voltage (instantaneously fast) for these phenomena to occur. In higher dimensional systems, additional currents operating at various effective time scales may modulate and annihilate existing resonances and generate antiresonance (minimum amplitude response) and antiphasonance (zero-phase response with phase monotonic properties opposite to phasonance)...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561826/microfluidic-based-high-throughput-optical-trapping-of-nanoparticles
#19
Abhay Kotnala, Yi Zheng, Jianping Fu, Wei Cheng
Optical tweezers have emerged as a powerful tool for multiparametric analysis of individual nanoparticles with single-molecule sensitivity. However, its inherent low-throughput characteristic remains a major obstacle to its applications within and beyond the laboratory. This limitation is further exacerbated when working with low concentration nanoparticle samples. Here, we present a microfluidic-based optical tweezers system that can 'actively' deliver nanoparticles to a designated microfluidic region for optical trapping and analysis...
June 13, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553524/high-temperature-ferromagnetism-in-%C3%AF-conjugated-two-dimensional-metal-organic-frameworks
#20
Wenbin Li, Lei Sun, Jingshan Qi, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Mircea Dincă, Ju Li
We use first-principles calculations to show that the square symmetry of two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) made from octaamino-substituted phthalocyanines and square planar Ni(2+) ions, which enable strong conjugation of π electrons, has a critical impact on the magnetic properties of the lattice. In particular, we predict the unexpected emergence of a rare high-temperature ferromagnetic half-metallic ground state in one case. Among charge neutral MOFs made from (2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24)-octaiminophthalocyanine (OIPc) metallated with divalent first-row transition metal ions (M-OIPc; M = Cr(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+)) and connected through square planar Ni-bisphenylenediimine moieties, NiMn-OIPc exhibits a half-metallic and ferromagnetic ground state with a large exchange energy resulting from the unique strong hybridization between the d/π orbitals of Mn, the Pc ring, and the Ni-bisphenylenediimine nodes...
April 1, 2017: Chemical Science
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