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Gabriel Antonius, Diana Yuan Qiu, Steven G Louie
We show that the absorption spectra of single-layer GaSe and GaTe in the hexagonal phase feature exciton peaks with distinct polarization selectivity. We investigate these distinct features from first-principles calculations using the GW-BSE formalism. We show that, due to the symmetry of the bands under in-plane mirror symmetry, the bound exciton states selectively couple to either in-plane or out-of-plane polarization of the light. In particular, for a p-polarized light absorption experiment, the absorption peaks of the hydrogenic s-like excitons emerge at large angle of incidence, while the overall absorbance reduces over the rest of the spectrum...
February 21, 2018: Nano Letters
Richa Mitra, Bhakti Jariwala, Arnab Bhattacharya, Anindya Das
ReS2 , a layered two-dimensional material popular for its in-plane anisotropic properties, is emerging as one of the potential candidates for flexible electronics and ultrafast optical applications. It is an n-type semiconducting material having a layer independent bandgap of 1.55 eV. In this paper we have characterized the intrinsic electronic noise level of few-layer ReS2 for the first time. Few-layer ReS2 field effect transistor devices show a 1/f nature of noise for frequency ranging over three orders of magnitude...
February 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Masahiko Asami, Stefan Stortecky, Fabien Praz, Jonas Lanz, Lorenz Räber, Anna Franzone, Raffaele Piccolo, George C M Siontis, Dik Heg, Marco Valgimigli, Peter Wenaweser, Eva Roost, Stephan Windecker, Thomas Pilgrim
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) and cardiovascular death after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence on the effect of RVD on clinical outcomes after TAVR. METHODS: A total of 1,116 TAVR patients (age 82 ± 6 years; 51% female) who were consecutively enrolled into a prospective registry underwent detailed pre-operative assessment of right ventricular (RV) function and were dichotomized into 2 groups for the purposes of the present retrospective analysis...
February 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Erik E Swartz, W Steven Tucker, Matthew Nowak, Jason Roberto, Amy Hollingworth, Laura C Decoster, Thomas W Trimarco, Jason P Mihalik
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of two different spinal immobilization techniques on cervical spine movement in a simulated prehospital ground transport setting. METHODS: A counterbalanced crossover design was used to evaluate two different spinal immobilization techniques in a standardized environment. Twenty healthy male volunteers (age = 20.9 ± 2.2 yr) underwent ambulance transport from a simulated scene to a simulated emergency department setting in two separate conditions: utilizing traditional spinal immobilization (TSI) and spinal motion restriction (SMR)...
February 16, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Mathew J Cherukara, Daniel S Schulman, Kiran Sasikumar, Andrew Joseph Arnold, Henry Chan, Sridhar Sadasivam, Joerg Maser, Wonsuk Cha, Saptarshi Das, Subramanian K R S Sankaranarayanan, Ross J Harder
Emerging 2-D materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides show great promise as viable alternatives for semiconductor and optoelectronic devices that progress beyond silicon. Performance variability, reliability and stochasticity in the measured transport properties represent some of the major challenges in such devices. Native strain arising from interfacial effects due to the presence of a substrate is believed to be a major contributing factor. A full three-dimensional (3-D) mapping of such native nanoscopic strain over micron length scales is highly desirable to gain a fundamental understanding of interfacial effects but has largely remained elusive...
February 16, 2018: Nano Letters
Michael Everett Rule, Carlos E Vargas-Irwin, John P Donoghue, Wilson Truccolo
Previous studies on the origin and properties of spatial patterns in motor cortex beta local field potential (β-LFP) oscillations have focused on planar traveling waves. However, it is unclear (a) whether β-LFP waves are limited to plane waves, or even (b) whether they are propagating waves of excito-excitatory activity, i.e. primarily traveling waves in excitable media; they could reflect, instead, reorganization in the relative phases of transient oscillations at different spatial sites. We addressed these two problems in β-LFPs recorded via microelectrode arrays implanted in three adjacent motor-cortex areas of non-human primates during steady-state movement preparation...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Courtney A Bishop, Valeria Ricotti, Christopher D J Sinclair, Matthew R B Evans, Jordan W Butler, Jasper M Morrow, Michael G Hanna, Paul M Matthews, Tarek A Yousry, Francesco Muntoni, John S Thornton, Rexford D Newbould, Robert L Janiczek
Subjects with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) suffer from progressive muscle damage leading to diaphragmatic weakness that ultimately requires ventilation. Emerging treatments have generated interest in better characterizing the natural history of respiratory impairment in DMD and responses to therapy. Dynamic (cine) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may provide a more sensitive measure of diaphragm function in DMD than the commonly used spirometry. This study presents an analysis pipeline for measuring parameters of diaphragmatic motion from dynamic MRI and its application to investigate MRI measures of respiratory function in both healthy controls and non-ambulant DMD boys...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Divya Srinivasan, Eva Tengman, Charlotte K Häger
BACKGROUND: Recent studies highlight the need for understanding movement control of adjacent joints when evaluating knee function following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, while short-term adaptations to lower-extremity joint coupling have been studied, little is known about any potential long-term adaptations in neuromuscular control displayed by ACL-injured individuals. The aim of our study was to determine whether coordination variability of the hip-knee joint couplings during the one-leg hop is altered about 20 years after injury in two ACL-injured groups compared to healthy knee controls...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Sanjib Das Adhikary, Ashlee Pruett, Mauricio Forero, Venkatesan Thiruvenkatarajan
Post-operative pain after minimally invasive video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in adults is commonly managed with oral and parenteral opioids and invasive regional techniques such as thoracic epidural blockade. Emerging research has shown that the novel erector spinae plane (ESP) block, can be employed as a simple and safe alternative analgesic technique for acute post-surgical, post-traumatic and chronic neuropathic thoracic pain in adults. We illustrate this by presenting a paediatric case of VATS, in which an ESP block provided better analgesia, due to greater dermatomal coverage, as well as reduced side-effects when compared with a thoracic epidural that had previously been employed on the same patient for a similar procedure on the opposite side...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Ludvig Vavruch, Daniel Forsberg, Nils Dahlström, Hans Tropp
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate parameters of axial vertebral deformation in patients with scoliosis compared to a control group, and to determine whether these parameters correlated with the severity of spine curvature, measured as the Cobb angle. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common type of spinal deformity. Many studies have investigated vertebral deformation, in terms of wedging and pedicle deformations, but few studies have investigated actual structural changes within vertebrae...
March 2018: Spine Deformity
Debra J Audus, Francis W Starr, Jack F Douglas
Patchy particles have emerged as an attractive model to mimic phase separation and self-assembly of globular proteins solutions, colloidal patchy particles, and molecular fluids where directional interactions are operative. In our previous work, we extensively explored the coupling of directional and isotropic interactions on both the phase separation and self-assembly in a system of patchy particles with five spots. Here, we extend this work to consider different patch valences and isotropic interaction strengths with an emphasis on self-assembly...
February 7, 2018: Soft Matter
E García-Bordejé, S Víctor-Román, O Sanahuja-Parejo, A M Benito, W K Maser
Three-dimensional graphene aerogels of controlled pore size have emerged as an important platform for several applications such as energy storage or oil-water separation. The aerogels of reduced graphene oxide are mouldable and light weight, with a porosity up to 99.9%, consisting mainly of macropores. Graphene aerogel preparation by self-assembly in the liquid phase is a promising strategy due to its tunability and sustainability. For graphene aerogels prepared by a hydrothermal method, it is known that the pH value has an impact on their properties but it is unclear how pH affects the auto-assembly process leading to the final properties...
February 7, 2018: Nanoscale
Conner E Liddle, Richard E Harris
Background: Acupuncture has a long history of relieving many forms of pain. However, many of acupuncture's mechanisms are still unknown and/or misunderstood. Objective: This review looks at past research on many different methods and targets of study related to acupuncture. The main focus is upon the importance of connective-tissue planes in and around acupuncture points. Method: Relevant articles from journals as well as books on the topic were searched manually for information related to the topic. Results: Various studies offered different (and sometimes interrelated) mechanisms for how acupuncture needling results in analgesia among other effects...
February 1, 2018: Medical Acupuncture
Dongbin Xiong, Xifei Li, Zhimin Bai, Shigang Lu
Ti3 C2 Tx , a typical representative among the emerging family of 2D layered transition metal carbides and/or nitrides referred to as MXenes, has exhibited multiple advantages including metallic conductivity, a plastic layer structure, small band gaps, and the hydrophilic nature of its functionalized surface. As a result, this 2D material is intensively investigated for application in the energy storage field. The composition, morphology and texture, surface chemistry, and structural configuration of Ti3 C2 Tx directly influence its electrochemical performance, e...
February 5, 2018: Small
Fabio Galbusera, Tito Bassani, Elena Stucovitz, Carlotta Martini, Maryem-Fama Ismael Aguirre, Pedro L Berjano, C Lamartina
PURPOSE: Most patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit alterations in the posture, which can in several cases give rise to spine deformities, both in the sagittal and the coronal plane. In addition, degenerative disorders of the spine frequently associated to PD, such as spinal stenosis and sagittal instability, can further impact the quality of life of the patient. In recent years, spine surgery has been increasingly performed, with mixed results. The aim of this narrative review is to analyze the spinal disorders associated to PD, and the current evidence about their surgical treatment...
February 3, 2018: European Spine Journal
Bandan Chakrabortty, Ikram Blilou, Ben Scheres, Bela M Mulder
Plant morphogenesis is strongly dependent on the directional growth and the subsequent oriented division of individual cells. It has been shown that the plant cortical microtubule array plays a key role in controlling both these processes. This ordered structure emerges as the collective result of stochastic interactions between large numbers of dynamic microtubules. To elucidate this complex self-organization process a number of analytical and computational approaches to study the dynamics of cortical microtubules have been proposed...
February 2, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Jianyang Wu, Pinqiang Cao, Zhisen Zhang, Fulong Ning, Songsheng Zheng, Jianying He, Zhiliang Zhang
Pristine monocrystalline molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) possesses high mechanical strength comparable to that of stainless steel. Large-area chemical-vapor-deposited monolayer MoS2 tends to be polycrystalline with intrinsic grain boundaries (GBs). Topological defects and grain size skillfully alter its physical properties in a variety of materials; however, the polycrystallinity and its role played in the mechanical performance of the emerging single-layer MoS2 remain largely unknown. Here, using large-scale atomistic simulations, GB structures and mechanical characteristics of realistic single-layered polycrystalline MoS2 of varying grain size prepared by confinement-quenched method are investigated...
February 1, 2018: Nano Letters
Fernando Martinez-Pedrero, Eloy Navarro-Argemí, Antonio Ortiz-Ambriz, Ignacio Pagonabarraga, Pietro Tierno
Hydrodynamic interactions (HIs), namely, solvent-mediated long-range interactions between dispersed particles, play a crucial role in the assembly and dynamics of many active systems, from swimming bacteria to swarms of propelling microrobots. We experimentally demonstrate the emergence of long-living hydrodynamic bound states between model microswimmers at low Reynolds numbers. A rotating magnetic field forces colloidal hematite microparticles to translate at a constant and frequency-tunable speed close to a bounding plane in a viscous fluid...
January 2018: Science Advances
Justin Z Lee, See-Wei Low, Ahmed K Pasha, Carol L Howe, Kwan S Lee, Prakash G Suryanarayana
Background: Accurate determination of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) is challenging because of the unique geometry of the right ventricle. Tricuspidannular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and fractional area change (FAC) are commonly used echocardiographic quantitative estimates of RV function. Cardiac MRI (CMRI) has emerged as the gold standard for assessment of RVEF. We sought to summarise the available data on correlation of TAPSE and FAC with CMRI-derived RVEF and to compare their accuracy...
2018: Open Heart
Junwen Zeng, Erfu Liu, Yajun Fu, Zhuoyu Chen, Chen Pan, Chenyu Wang, Miao Wang, Yaojia Wang, Kang Xu, Songhua Cai, Xingxu Yan, Yu Wang, Xiaowei Liu, Peng Wang, Shi-Jun Liang, Yi Cui, Harold Y Hwang, Hongtao Yuan, Feng Miao
Layered metal chalcogenide materials provide a versatile platform to investigate emergent phenomena and two-dimensional (2D) superconductivity at/near the atomically thin limit. In particular, gate-induced interfacial superconductivity realized by the use of an electric-double-layer transistor (EDLT) has greatly extended the capability to electrically induce superconductivity in oxides, nitrides and transition metal chalcogenides and enable one to explore new physics, such as the Ising pairing mechanism. Exploiting gate-induced superconductivity in various materials can provide us with additional platforms to understand emergent interfacial superconductivity...
January 31, 2018: Nano Letters
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