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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810057/crowders-and-cosolvents-major-contributors-to-the-cellular-milieu-and-efficient-means-to-counteract-environmental-stresses
#1
Roland Hermann Alfons Winter, Mimi Gao, Christoph Held, Satyajit Patra, Loana Arns, Gabriele Sadowski
The free energy and conformational landscape of biomolecular systems as well as biochemical reactions depend not only on temperature and pressure, but also only the particular solution conditions. Such conditions include the effects of cosolvents (for example osmolytes) and macromolecular crowding, which are crucial components to understand the energetics and kinetics of biological processes in living system. Such conditions are also important for the understanding of many debilitating diseases, such as those where misfolding and amyloid formation of proteins are involved...
August 15, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806970/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-response-of-acropora-millepora-to-hypo-osmotic-stress-provides-insights-into-dmsp-biosynthesis-by-corals
#2
Catalina Aguilar, Jean-Baptiste Raina, Cherie A Motti, Sylvain Fôret, David C Hayward, Bruno Lapeyre, David G Bourne, David J Miller
BACKGROUND: Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is a small sulphur compound which is produced in prodigious amounts in the oceans and plays a pivotal role in the marine sulfur cycle. Until recently, DMSP was believed to be synthesized exclusively by photosynthetic organisms; however we now know that corals and specific bacteria can also produce this compound. Corals are major sources of DMSP, but the molecular basis for its biosynthesis is unknown in these organisms. RESULTS: Here we used salinity stress, which is known to trigger DMSP production in other organisms, in conjunction with transcriptomics to identify coral genes likely to be involved in DMSP biosynthesis...
August 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793212/intrinsically-disordered-stress-protein-cor15a-resides-at-the-membrane-surface-during-dehydration
#3
Anne Bremer, Ben Kent, Thomas Hauß, Anja Thalhammer, Nageshwar R Yepuri, Tamim A Darwish, Christopher J Garvey, Gary Bryant, Dirk K Hincha
Plants from temperate climate zones are able to increase their freezing tolerance during exposure to low, above-zero temperatures in a process termed cold acclimation. During this process, several cold-regulated (COR) proteins are accumulated in the cells. One of them is COR15A, a small, intrinsically disordered protein that contributes to leaf freezing tolerance by stabilizing cellular membranes. The isolated protein folds into amphipathic α-helices in response to increased crowding conditions, such as high concentrations of glycerol...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776104/heat-or-cold-priming-induced-cross-tolerance-to-abiotic-stresses-in-plants-key-regulators-and-possible-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Zhong-Guang Li, Tahsina Sharmin Hoque, David J Burritt, Masayuki Fujita, Sergi Munné-Bosch
Plants growing under field conditions are constantly exposed, either simultaneously or sequentially, to more than one abiotic stress factor. Plants have evolved sophisticated sensory systems to perceive a number of stress signals that allow them to activate the most adequate response to grow and survive in a given environment. Recently, cross-stress tolerance (i.e. tolerance to a second, strong stress after a different type of mild primary stress) has gained attention as a potential means of producing stress-resistant crops to aid with global food security...
August 4, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769881/genetic-diversity-of-nitrogen-fixing-and-plant-growth-promoting-pseudomonas-species-isolated-from-sugarcane-rhizosphere
#5
Hai-Bi Li, Rajesh K Singh, Pratiksha Singh, Qi-Qi Song, Yong-Xiu Xing, Li-Tao Yang, Yang-Rui Li
The study was designed to isolate and characterize Pseudomonas spp. from sugarcane rhizosphere, and to evaluate their plant- growth- promoting (PGP) traits and nitrogenase activity. A biological nitrogen-fixing microbe has great potential to replace chemical fertilizers and be used as a targeted biofertilizer in a plant. A total of 100 isolates from sugarcane rhizosphere, belonging to different species, were isolated; from these, 30 isolates were selected on the basis of preliminary screening, for in vitro antagonistic activities against sugarcane pathogens and for various PGP traits, as well as nitrogenase activity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767745/the-cold-hardiness-of-phrynocephalus-erythrurus-the-lizard-living-at-highest-altitude-in-the-world
#6
X T Li, Y Wang, S S Lu, M Li, S K Men, Y C Bai, X L Tang, Q Chen
BACKGROUND: Phrynocephalus erythrurus living at Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is believed to be the highest lizard in the world, but we know little about how these lizards cope with very low temperatures in winter. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to find the difference of the lizards before and after cold acclimatization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study the limit of supercooling and inoculative freezing, the concentration of four organic osmolytes, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the plasma were measured in samples shortly after capture and in other samples after 7~8 weeks of acclimatization at 2~4 degree C...
May 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763978/biochemical-and-histological-contributions-to-textural-changes-in-watermelon-fruit-modulated-by-grafting
#7
Georgios A Soteriou, Anastasios S Siomos, Dimitrios Gerasopoulos, Youssef Rouphael, Soteria Georgiadou, Marios C Kyriacou
Increased watermelon fruit flesh firmness is systematically incurred with grafting on Cucurbita hybrid rootstocks (heterografting). Possible differences in mesocarp cell wall constitution and histology between heterografted, homeografted (self-grafted) and non-grafted watermelon were examined, as well as their contributions to fruit texture. Firmness correlated positively (r=0.78, p<0.001) with cell density (cellsmm(-2)) which was higher in heterografts (5.83) than homeografts (4.64) and non-grafted controls (4...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763056/methanethiol-dependent-dimethylsulfide-production-in-soil-environments
#8
Ornella Carrión, Jennifer Pratscher, Andrew R J Curson, Beth T Williams, Wayne G Rostant, J Colin Murrell, Jonathan D Todd
Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is an environmentally important trace gas with roles in sulfur cycling, signalling to higher organisms and in atmospheric chemistry. DMS is believed to be predominantly produced in marine environments via microbial degradation of the osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). However, significant amounts of DMS are also generated from terrestrial environments, for example, peat bogs can emit ~6 μmol DMS m(-2) per day, likely via the methylation of methanethiol (MeSH). A methyltransferase enzyme termed 'MddA', which catalyses the methylation of MeSH, generating DMS, in a wide range of bacteria and some cyanobacteria, may mediate this process, as the mddA gene is abundant in terrestrial metagenomes...
August 1, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759610/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-tea-oil-camellia-camellia-oleifera-reveals-candidate-drought-stress-genes
#9
Bin Dong, Bin Wu, Wenhong Hong, Xiuping Li, Zhuo Li, Li Xue, Yongfang Huang
BACKGROUND: The tea-oil camellia (Camellia oleifera) is the most important oil plant in southern China, and has a strong resistance to drought and barren soil. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance would greatly promote its cultivation and molecular breeding. RESULTS: In total, we obtained 76,585 unigenes with an average length of 810 bp and an N50 of 1,092 bp. We mapped all the unigenes to the NCBI 'nr' (non-redundant), SwissProt, KEGG, and clusters of orthologous groups (COG) databases, where 52,531 (68...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759166/altered-metabolites-of-the-rat-hippocampus-after-mild-and-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-a-combined-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-1-h-mrs-study
#10
Kavita Singh, Richa Trivedi, Ajay Verma, Maria M D'souza, Sunil Koundal, Poonam Rana, Bikash Baishya, Subash Khushu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been shown to affect hippocampus-associated learning, memory and higher cognitive functions, which may be a consequence of metabolic alterations. Hippocampus-associated disorders may vary depending on the severity of injury [mild TBI (miTBI) and moderate TBI (moTBI)] and time since injury. The underlying hippocampal metabolic irregularities may provide an insight into the pathological process following TBI. In this study, in vivo and in vitro proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) data were acquired from the hippocampus region of controls and TBI groups (miTBI and moTBI) at D0 (pre-injury), 4 h, Day 1 and Day 5 post-injury (PI)...
July 31, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753027/-1-h-nmr-metabolic-profiling-of-earthworm-eisenia-fetida-coelomic-fluid-coelomocytes-and-tissue-identification-of-a-new-metabolite-malylglutamate
#11
Corey M Griffith, Preston B Williams, Luzineide W Tinoco, Meredith M Dinges, Yinsheng Wang, Cynthia K Larive
Earthworm metabolism is recognized as a useful tool for monitoring environmental insults and measuring ecotoxicity, yet extensive earthworm metabolic profiling using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been limited in scope. This study aims to expand the embedded metabolic material in earthworm coelomic fluid, coelomocytes, and tissue to aid systems toxicology research. Fifty-nine metabolites within Eisenia fetida were identified, with 47 detected in coelomic fluid, 41 in coelomocytes, and 54 in whole-worm samples and tissue extracts...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749490/evidence-for-cooperative-na-and-cl-binding-by-strongly-hydrated-l-proline
#12
Olga A Dmitrieva, Marina V Fedotova, Richard Buchner
In nature the amino acid l-proline (Pro) is a ubiquitous and highly effective osmolyte protecting cells against osmotic stress. To understand this effect knowledge of the hydration of Pro and its interactions with dissolved salts is essential. We studied these properties by combining statistical mechanics and broadband dielectric spectroscopy and found that Pro remains strongly hydrated up to high amino-acid concentrations. This is also the case upon NaCl addition to a 0.6 M Pro solution. Here, additionally a Pro·NaCl aggregate is formed with a stability constant of K° ≈ 0...
August 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747709/trimethylamine-n-oxide-abolishes-the-chaperone-activity-of-%C3%AE-casein-an-intrinsically-disordered-protein
#13
Mohd Younus Bhat, Laishram Rajendrakumar Singh, Tanveer Ali Dar
Osmolytes (small molecules that help in circumventing stresses) are known to promote protein folding and prevent aggregation in the case of globular proteins. However, the effect of such osmolytes on the structure and function of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) has not been clearly understood. Here we have investigated the effect of methylamine osmolytes on α-casein (an IDP present in mammalian milk) and discovered that TMAO (Trimethylamine-N-oxide) but not other methylamines renders α-casein functionless...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744296/metabolomic-analysis-of-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-l-root-symbiotic-rhizobia-responses-under-alkali-stress
#14
Tingting Song, Huihui Xu, Na Sun, Liu Jiang, Pu Tian, Yueyuan Yong, Weiwei Yang, Hua Cai, Guowen Cui
Alkaline salts (e.g., NaHCO3 and Na2CO3) causes more severe morphological and physiological damage to plants than neutral salts (e.g., NaCl and Na2SO4) due to differences in pH. The mechanism by which plants respond to alkali stress is not fully understood, especially in plants having symbotic relationships such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Therefore, a study was designed to evaluate the metabolic response of the root-nodule symbiosis in alfalfa under alkali stress using comparative metabolomics. Rhizobium-nodulized (RI group) and non-nodulized (NI group) alfalfa roots were treated with 200 mmol/L NaHCO3 and, roots samples were analyzed for malondialdehydyde (MDA), proline, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) content...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743037/exogenous-applications-of-polyamines-modulate-drought-responses-in-wheat-through-osmolytes-accumulation-increasing-free-polyamine-levels-and-regulation-of-polyamine-biosynthetic-genes
#15
Heba Talat Ebeed, Nemat Mohamed Hassan, Alshafei Mohammed Aljarani
Polyamines (PAs) can improve drought stress tolerance in plants; however, very limited information is available on the mechanism of action of exogenous application by different methods under drought stress in wheat. The present study investigates the mechanism through which seed priming and foliar spraying with PAs protect wheat plants from drought stress. 10 days old wheat seedlings were exposed to drought stress by withholding water alone or with 100 μM PAs solutions (putrescine, Put; spermine, Spm; and mixture of Put and Spm for 10 h seed-priming or three foliar sprays during withholding water...
July 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736568/bdcipk31-a-calcineurin-b-like-protein-interacting-protein-kinase-regulates-plant-response-to-drought-and-salt-stress
#16
Qingchen Luo, Qiuhui Wei, Ruibin Wang, Yang Zhang, Fan Zhang, Yuan He, Shiyi Zhou, Jialu Feng, Guangxiao Yang, Guangyuan He
Calcineurin B-like protein interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) are vital elements in plant abiotic stress signaling pathways. However, the functional mechanism of CIPKs has not been understood clearly, especially in Brachypodium distachyon, a new monocot model plant. In this study, BdCIPK31, a CIPK gene from B. distachyon was characterized. BdCIPK31 was downregulated by polyethylene glycol, NaCl, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing BdCIPK31 presented improved drought and salt tolerance, and displayed hypersensitive response to exogenous ABA...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735404/porous-graphitic-carbon-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-drought-stress-responsive-raffinose-family-oligosaccharides-in-plant-tissues
#17
Tiago F Jorge, Maria H Florêncio, Carla António
Drought is a major limiting factor in agriculture and responsible for dramatic crop yield losses worldwide. The adjustment of the metabolic status via accumulation of drought stress-responsive osmolytes is one of the many strategies that some plants have developed to cope with water deficit conditions. Osmolytes are highly polar compounds, analysis of whcih is difficult with typical reversed-phase chromatography. Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) has shown to be a suitable alternative to reversed-phase stationary phases for the analysis of highly polar compounds typically found in the plant metabolome...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735008/trehalose-induced-structural-modulation-of-bovine-serum-albumin-at-ambient-temperature
#18
Ahana Das, Pijush Basak, Rudradip Pattanayak, Turban Kar, Rajib Majumder, Debadrita Pal, Anindita Bhattacharya, Maitree Bhattacharyya, Samudra Prosad Banik
Trehalose is a well-known protein stabilizing osmolyte. The present study has been designed to understand the interaction of trehalose with BSA at ambient temperature. Steady state fluorescence and life-time analysis along with CD, DLS and ITC have been employed to show that trehalose causes surface-associated structural perturbation of BSA to promote its compaction. Trehalose at 0.1M concentration resulted in increased solvent exposure of one of the two tryptophans of BSA with a 5nm redshift in emission and enhanced susceptibility to acrylamide quenching with an increase in KSV from 2...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733762/reconsidering-betaine-as-a-natural-anti-heat-stress-agent-in-poultry-industry-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Muhammad Saeed, Daryoush Babazadeh, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Asif Arain, Faiz Ul Hassan, Sun Chao
Betaine is found ubiquitously in plants, animals, microorganisms, and rich dietary sources including seafood, spinach, and wheat bran. The chief physiological role of betaine is to function as a methyl donor and an osmolyte. Betaine also acts as an osmolyte, to maintain the avian's cellular water and ion balance to improve the avian's capacity against heat stress via preventing dehydration and osmotic inactivation. It helps in maintaining the protective osmolytic activity, especially in heat-stressed birds...
July 21, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729736/the-relationship-between-folding-and-activity-in-ureg-an-intrinsically-disordered-enzyme
#20
Marta Palombo, Alessio Bonucci, Emilien Etienne, Stefano Ciurli, Vladimir N Uversky, Bruno Guigliarelli, Valérie Belle, Elisabetta Mileo, Barbara Zambelli
A growing body of literature on intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) led scientists to rethink the structure-function paradigm of protein folding. Enzymes are often considered an exception to the rule of intrinsic disorder (ID), believed to require a unique structure for catalysis. However, recent studies revealed the presence of disorder in several functional native enzymes. In the present work, we address the importance of dynamics for catalysis, by investigating the relationship between folding and activity in Sporosarcina pasteurii UreG (SpUreG), a P-loop GTPase and the first discovered native ID enzyme, involved in the maturation of the nickel-containing urease...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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