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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729736/the-relationship-between-folding-and-activity-in-ureg-an-intrinsically-disordered-enzyme
#1
Marta Palombo, Alessio Bonucci, Emilien Etienne, Stefano Ciurli, Vladimir N Uversky, Bruno Guigliarelli, Valérie Belle, Elisabetta Mileo, Barbara Zambelli
A growing body of literature on intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) led scientists to rethink the structure-function paradigm of protein folding. Enzymes are often considered an exception to the rule of intrinsic disorder (ID), believed to require a unique structure for catalysis. However, recent studies revealed the presence of disorder in several functional native enzymes. In the present work, we address the importance of dynamics for catalysis, by investigating the relationship between folding and activity in Sporosarcina pasteurii UreG (SpUreG), a P-loop GTPase and the first discovered native ID enzyme, involved in the maturation of the nickel-containing urease...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727090/effect-of-natural-betaine-and-ractopamine-hcl-on-whole-body-and-carcass-growth-in-pigs-housed-under-high-ambient-temperatures
#2
S M Mendoza, R D Boyd, C E Zier-Rush, P R Ferket, K D Haydon, E van Heugten
Betaine is an osmolyte that helps to maintain water homeostasis and cell integrity, which is essential during heat stress. We hypothesized that supplemental betaine can improve growth during heat stress and may further improve the response to ractopamine. Two studies were conducted to determine: 1) the effects of betaine in combination with ractopamine; and 2) the optimum betaine level for late finishing pigs during heat stress. Heat stress was imposed by gradually increasing temperatures over 10 d to the target high temperature of 32°C...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721857/stress-adaptation
#3
Alistair J P Brown, Leah E Cowen, Antonio di Pietro, Janet Quinn
Fungal species display an extraordinarily diverse range of lifestyles. Nevertheless, the survival of each species depends on its ability to sense and respond to changes in its natural environment. Environmental changes such as fluctuations in temperature, water balance or pH, or exposure to chemical insults such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species exert stresses that perturb cellular homeostasis and cause molecular damage to the fungal cell. Consequently, fungi have evolved mechanisms to repair this damage, detoxify chemical insults, and restore cellular homeostasis...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715746/pfoa-induced-metabolism-disturbance-and-multi-generational-reproductive-toxicity-in-oryzias-latipes
#4
Jin Wuk Lee, Jae-Woo Lee, Kyungtae Kim, Yu-Jin Shin, Jieun Kim, Suhkmann Kim, Heejung Kim, Pilje Kim, Kyunghwa Park
The aims of this study were to examine multi-generational reproductive toxicity and metabolism disturbances in Oryzias latipes exposed to 0.3, 3, and 30mg/L PFOA for 259-day. The highest concentration of PFOA suppressed fecundity over three generations from F0 to F2 and sac-fry survival rate in F2 generation, indicating that PFOA resulted in multi-generational reproductive toxicity (p<0.05). Histologically, in F1 and F2 generations, O. latipes exposed to 30mg/L PFOA revealed accelerated gonad development, and the atrophy and degeneration of thyroid follicular cell...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713411/physiological-biochemical-epigenetic-and-molecular-analyses-of-wheat-triticum-aestivum-genotypes-with-contrasting-salt-tolerance
#5
Suresh Kumar, A S Beena, Monika Awana, Archana Singh
Abiotic stress exerts significant impact on plant's growth, development, and productivity. Productivity of crop plants under salt stress is lagging behind because of our limited knowledge about physiological, biochemical, epigenetic, and molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants. This study aimed to investigate physio-biochemical, molecular indices and defense responses of selected wheat cultivars to identify the most contrasting salt-responsive genotypes and the mechanisms associated with their differential responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712076/nickel-stressed-responses-of-rice-in-ni-subcellular-distribution-antioxidant-production-and-osmolyte-accumulation
#6
Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Imtiaz, Zhihua Dai, Sajid Mehmood, Muhammad Adeel, Jinchang Liu, Shuxin Tu
Nickel has been found a key pollutant in farmlands of central and south China, and understanding of Ni toxicity in rice is of great significance in safety production of rice and remediation of Ni polluted paddy soils. The present study aimed to investigate the uptake and subcellular distribution of Ni, antioxidant production, and osmolyte accumulation of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. yangliangyou 6) plants exposed to excessive Ni concentrations to gain an insight into Ni-induced phytotoxicity. Results revealed that exposure of rice seedlings to high Ni concentrations resulted a decline in root and shoot lengths and fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) of rice plants, which are in connection with the depletion of the contents of photosynthetic pigments...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711787/seed-priming-and-transgenerational-drought-memory-improves-tolerance-against-salt-stress-in-bread-wheat
#7
Tahira Tabassum, Muhammad Farooq, Riaz Ahmad, Ali Zohaib, Abdul Wahid
This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of seed priming following terminal drought on tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat. Drought was imposed in field sown wheat at reproductive stage (BBCH growth stage 49) and was maintained till physiological maturity (BBCH growth stage 83). Seeds of bread wheat, collected from crop raised under terminal drought and/or well-watered conditions, were subjected to hydropriming and osmopriming (with 1.5% CaCl2) and were sown in soil-filled pots. After stand establishment, salt stress treatments viz...
July 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710664/role-of-sodium-ion-transporters-and-osmotic-adjustments-in-stress-alleviation-of-cynodon-dactylon-under-nacl-treatment-a-parallel-investigation-with-rice
#8
Swarnendu Roy, Usha Chakraborty
Comparative analyses of the responses to NaCl in Cynodon dactylon and a sensitive crop species like rice could effectively unravel the salt tolerance mechanism in the former. C. dactylon, a wild perennial chloridoid grass having a wide range of ecological distribution is generally adaptable to varying degrees of salinity stress. The role of salt exclusion mechanism present exclusively in the wild grass was one of the major factors contributing to its tolerance. Salt exclusion was found to be induced at 4 days when the plants were treated with a minimum conc...
July 15, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708005/taurine-protects-lens-epithelial-cells-against-ultraviolet-b-induced-apoptosis
#9
Wu Dayang, Pang Dongbo
BACKGROUND: The massive uptake of compatible osmolytes is a self-protective response shared by lens exposed to hypertonic stress and ultraviolet stress. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of taurine against ultraviolet B-induced cytotoxicity in the lens epithelial cells. METHODS: Real-time PCR was used to measure osmolytes transport. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure osmolytes uptake. Cell counting kit-8 assays were used to measure cellular viability...
July 14, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697427/nmr-based-metabolomic-study-on-the-toxicological-effects-of-pesticide-diazinon-on-adaptation-to-sea-water-by-endangered-persian-sturgeon-acipenser-persicus-fingerlings
#10
Saeed Hajirezaee, Alireza Mirvaghefi, Hamid Farahmand, Naser Agh
NMR-based metabolomics was applied to explore metabolic impacts of diazinon on sea water adaptation of Persian sturgeon fingerlings, Acipenser persicus. Fingerlings were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of diazinon in freshwater (FW) for 96 h (short-term trial) and 12 days (long-term trial) and then exposed in brackish water (BW) (12 mg L(-1) salinity) for 24 h. After 96 h and 12 days exposure in FW, identified metabolites (amino acids, osmolytes, energy metabolites) showed different change-patterns compared to control group (P < 0...
July 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694802/the-response-regulator-slr1588-regulates-spsa-but-is-not-crucial-for-salt-acclimation-of-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#11
Kuo Song, Martin Hagemann, Xiaoming Tan, Xuefeng Lu
Cyanobacterial sucrose biosynthesis is stimulated under salt stress, which could be used for biotechnological sugar production. It has been shown that the response regulator Slr1588 negatively regulates the spsA gene encoding sucrose-phosphate synthase and mutation of the slr1588 gene also affected the salt tolerance of Synechocystis (Chen et al., 2014). The latter finding is contrary to earlier observations (Hagemann et al., 1997b). Here, we observed that ectopic expression of slr1588 did not restore the salt tolerance of the slr1588 mutant, making the essential function of this response regulator for salt tolerance questionable...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694800/bacterial-survival-under-extreme-uv-radiation-a-comparative-proteomics-study-of-rhodobacter-sp-isolated-from-high-altitude-wetlands-in-chile
#12
Vilma Pérez, Martha Hengst, Lenka Kurte, Cristina Dorador, Wade H Jeffrey, Ruddy Wattiez, Veronica Molina, Sabine Matallana-Surget
Salar de Huasco, defined as a polyextreme environment, is a high altitude saline wetland in the Chilean Altiplano (3800 m.a.s.l.), permanently exposed to the highest solar radiation doses registered in the world. We present here the first comparative proteomics study of a photoheterotrophic bacterium, Rhodobacter sp., isolated from this remote and hostile habitat. We developed an innovative experimental approach using different sources of radiation (in situ sunlight and UVB lamps), cut-off filters (Mylar, Lee filters) and a high-throughput, label-free quantitative proteomics method to comprehensively analyze the effect of seven spectral bands on protein regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692101/molecular-origin-of-urea-driven-hydrophobic-polymer-collapse-and-unfolding-depending-on-side-chain-chemistry
#13
Divya Nayar, Angelina Folberth, Nico F A van der Vegt
Osmolytes affect hydrophobic collapse and protein folding equilibria. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not well understood. We report large-scale conformational sampling of two hydrophobic polymers with secondary and tertiary amide side chains using extensive molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated free energy of unfolding increases with urea for the secondary amide, yet decreases for the tertiary amide, in agreement with experiment. The underlying mechanism is rooted in opposing entropic driving forces: while urea screens the hydrophobic macromolecular interface and drives unfolding of the tertiary amide, urea's concomitant loss in configurational entropy drives collapse of the secondary amide...
July 10, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684716/nmr-profiling-of-metabolites-in-larval-and-juvenile-blue-mussels-mytilus-edulis-under-ambient-and-low-salinity-conditions
#14
Melissa A May, Karl D Bishop, Paul D Rawson
Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are ecologically and economically important marine invertebrates whose populations are at risk from climate change-associated variation in their environment, such as decreased coastal salinity. Blue mussels are osmoconfomers and use components of the metabolome (free amino acids) to help maintain osmotic balance and cellular function during low salinity exposure. However, little is known about the capacity of blue mussels during the planktonic larval stages to regulate metabolites during osmotic stress...
July 6, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683918/enzymology-of-microbial-dimethylsulfoniopropionate-catabolism
#15
Mishtu Dey
The biochemistry of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) catabolism is reviewed. The microbes that catalyze the reactions central to DMSP catabolic pathways are described, and the focus is on the enzymology of the process. Approximately 10(9)tons of DMSP is released annually by marine eukaryotes as an osmolyte. A vast majority of DMSP is assimilated by bacteria through either a demethylation or lyase pathways, producing either the methane thiol or the volatile dimethylsulfide (DMS), respectively. Enzymatic breakdown of DMSP generates ~10(7)tons of DMS annually, which may have impact on global climate...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683533/effect-of-exogenous-proline-on-metabolic-response-of-tetragenococcus-halophilus-under-salt-stress
#16
Guiqiang He, Chongde Wu, Jun Hunag, Rongqing Zhou
This study investigated the effect of proline addition on the salt tolerance of Tetragenococcus halophilus. Salt stress led to the accumulation of intracellular proline in T. halophilus. When 0.5 g/L proline was added to hyperhaline medium, the biomass increased 34.6% (12% NaCl) and 27.7% (18% NaCl) compared with the control (without proline addition), respectively. Metabolomic approach was employed to reveal the cellular metabolic responses and protective mechanisms of proline upon salt stress. The results showed that both cellular membrane fatty acid composition and metabolite profiling were responded by increasing unsaturated and cyclopropane fatty acid proportions, as well as accumulating some specific intracellular metabolites (environmental stress protector)...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678423/how-osmolytes-counteract-pressure-denaturation-on-a-molecular-scale
#17
Seishi Shimizu, Paul E Smith
Life in the deep sea exposes enzymes to high hydrostatic pressure, which decreases their stability. For survival, deep sea organisms tend to accumulate various osmolytes, most notably trimethylamine N-oxide used by fish, to counteract pressure denaturation. However, exactly how these osmolytes work remains unclear. Here, a rigorous statistical thermodynamics approach is used to clarify the mechanism of osmoprotection. It is shown that the weak, nonspecific, and dynamic interactions of water and osmolytes with proteins can be characterized only statistically, and that the competition between protein-osmolyte and protein-water interactions is crucial in determining conformational stability...
July 5, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678348/nacl-and-osmolarity-produce-different-responses-in-organum-vasculosum-of-the-lamina-terminalis-neurons-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure
#18
Brian J Kinsman, Kirsteen N Browning, Sean D Stocker
Systemic or central infusion of hypertonic NaCl and other osmolytes readily stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. In contrast, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol. Although these responses depend on neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), these observations suggest OVLT neurons may sense or respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in Sprague-Dawley rats...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667645/recombinant-production-of-aspergillus-flavus-uricase-and-investigation-of-its-thermal-stability-in-the-presence-of-raffinose-and-lactose
#19
Mehdi Imani, Serveh Shahmohamadnejad
Aspergillus flavus uricase (Rasburicase) with a molecular mass of 135 kDa is currently used for the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia occurring in tumor lysis syndrome. To characterize the effects of raffinose and lactose osmolytes on the uricase structure, its coding sequence was cloned, expressed in E. coli BL21, and purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. Thermal inactivation studies at 40 °C showed that nearly 15% of UOX activity was preserved, while the presence of raffinose and lactose reduced its activity to 35 and 45% of its original activity, respectively...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662476/effect-of-crosslinking-on-the-physical-and-chemical-properties-of-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-blg-microgels
#20
Ryan W Murphy, Brian E Farkas, Owen G Jones
HYPOTHESIS: Microgels assembled from the protein β-lactoglobulin are colloidal structures with potential applications in food materials. Modifying the internal crosslinking within these microgels using enzymatic or chemical treatments should affect dissolution, swelling, and viscous attributes under strongly solvating conditions. EXPERIMENTS: Microgels were treated with citric acid, glutaraldehyde and transglutaminase to induce cross-linking or with tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine to reduce disulfide linkages...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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