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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544603/metabolic-reprogramming-of-macrophages-exposed-to-silk-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-and-silica-nanoparticles
#1
Raquel Saborano, Thidarat Wongpinyochit, John D Totten, Blair F Johnston, F Philipp Seib, Iola F Duarte
Monitoring macrophage metabolism in response to nanoparticle exposure provides new insights into biological outcomes, such as inflammation or toxicity, and supports the design of tailored nanomedicines. This paper describes the metabolic signature of macrophages exposed to nanoparticles ranging in diameter from 100 to 125 nm and made from silk, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) or silica. Nanoparticles of this size and type are currently at various stages of preclinical and clinical development for drug delivery applications...
May 8, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536755/taurine-protects-cardiac-contractility-in-killifish-fundulus-heteroclitus-by-enhancing-sarcoplasmic-reticular-ca-2-cycling
#2
Elenor F Henry, Tyson J MacCormack
Intracellular taurine is abundant in many animals and it influences an array of physiological processes, including osmoregulation, metabolism, and cardiac contractility. Taurine is an important osmolyte in teleost hearts, but its role in stress tolerance, cardiac metabolism, and contractility has not been assessed. The goal of this study was to determine if ventricular taurine concentration changes in response to environmental stress and to characterize its influence on contractility. Cardiac taurine concentrations varied in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) but were generally maintained following acute environmental challenges...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527336/title-potassium-application-regulates-nitrogen-metabolism-and-osmotic-adjustment-in-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-functional-leaf-under-drought-stress
#3
Rizwan Zahoor, Wenqing Zhao, Muhammad Abid, Haoran Dong, Zhiguo Zhou
To evaluate the role of potassium (K) in maintaining nitrogen metabolism and osmotic adjustment development of cotton functional leaves to sustain growth under soil drought and rewatering conditions, the plants of two cotton cultivars Siza 3 (low-K sensitive) and Simian 3 (low-K tolerant), were grown under three different K rates (K0, K1, and K2; 0, 150, and 300kgK2Oha(-1), respectively) and exposed to drought stress with 40±5% soil relative water content (SRWC). The drought stress was applied at flowering stage by withholding water for eight days followed by rewatering to a well-watered level (75±5% SRWC)...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525711/protein-partial-molar-volumes-in-multi-component-solutions-from-the-perspective-of-inverse-kirkwood-buff-theory
#4
Cesar Calero-Rubio, Curtis M Strab, Gregory V Barnett, Christopher J Roberts
Inverse Kirkwood-Buff (KB) solution theory can be used to relate macroscopic quantities with molecular scale interactions and correlation functions, in the form of KB integrals. Protein partial specific volumes (<HAT>V</HAT>2) from high-precision density measurements can be used to quantify solvent-solute and solute-solute KB integrals. Currently, general expressions for <HAT>V</HAT>2 as a function of co-solute concentration (c3) have been provided for only binary and ternary solutions...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515076/vertically-transmitted-symbionts-as-mechanisms-of-transgenerational-effects
#5
Pedro E Gundel, Jennifer A Rudgers, Kenneth D Whitney
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A transgenerational effect occurs when a biotic or abiotic environmental factor acts on a parental individual and thereby affects the phenotype of progeny. Due to the importance of transgenerational effects for understanding plant ecology and evolution, their underlying mechanisms are of general interest. Here, we introduce the concept that inherited symbiotic microorganisms could act as mechanisms of transgenerational effects in plants. METHODS: We define the criteria required to demonstrate that transgenerational effects are microbially mediated and review evidence from the well-studied, vertically transmitted plant-fungal symbiosis (grass-Epichloë spp...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512315/midgut-bacteria-in-deltamethrin-resistant-deltamethrin-susceptible-and-field-caught-populations-of-plutella-xylostella-and-phenomics-of-the-predominant-midgut-bacterium-enterococcus-mundtii
#6
Wenhong Li, Daochao Jin, Caihua Shi, Fengliang Li
Gut bacteria play a significant role in host insect. This study evaluated detail difference of midgut bacteria in deltamethrin-resistant, deltamethrin-susceptible and field-caught populations of diamondback moth, and studied phenomics of the predominant midgut bacterium Enterococcus mundtii. Cultivable bacteria revealed that E. mundtii and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum dominated the bacterial populations from deltamethrin-resistant and deltamethrin-susceptible larval midguts, whereas E. mundtii was predominant in field-caught population...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511789/salicylic-acid-mediated-growth-physiological-and-proteomic-responses-in-two-wheat-varieties-under-drought-stress
#7
Marisha Sharma, Sunil K Gupta, Baisakhi Majumder, Vivek K Maurya, Farah Deeba, Afroz Alam, Vivek Pandey
Salicylic acid (SA) induced drought tolerance can be a key trait for increasing and stabilizing wheat production. These SA induced traits were studied in two Triticum aestivum L. varieties; drought tolerant, Kundan and drought sensitive, Lok1 under two different water deficit regimes: and rehydration at vegetative and flowering stages. SA alleviated the negative effects of water stress on photosynthesis more in Kundan. SA induced defense responses against drought by increasing antioxidative enzymes and osmolytes (proline and total soluble sugars)...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511016/structural-and-biochemical-insights-into-dimethylsulfoniopropionate-cleavage-by-cofactor-bound-dddk-from-the-prolific-marine-bacterium-pelagibacter
#8
Nicholas J Schnicker, Saumya M De Silva, Jonathan D Todd, Mishtu Dey
Enormous amounts of the organic osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) are produced in marine environments where bacterial DMSP lyases cleave it yielding acrylate and the climate-active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). SAR11 bacteria are the most abundant clade of heterotrophic bacteria in the oceans and they play a key role in DMSP catabolism. An important environmental factor affecting DMS generation via DMSP lyases is the availability of metal ions since they are essential cofactors for many of these enzymes...
May 16, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509857/microbial-diversity-in-extreme-marine-habitats-and-their-biomolecules
#9
REVIEW
Annarita Poli, Ilaria Finore, Ida Romano, Alessia Gioiello, Licia Lama, Barbara Nicolaus
Extreme marine environments have been the subject of many studies and scientific publications. For many years, these environmental niches, which are characterized by high or low temperatures, high-pressure, low pH, high salt concentrations and also two or more extreme parameters in combination, have been thought to be incompatible to any life forms. Thanks to new technologies such as metagenomics, it is now possible to detect life in most extreme environments. Starting from the discovery of deep sea hydrothermal vents up to the study of marine biodiversity, new microorganisms have been identified, and their potential uses in several applied fields have been outlined...
May 16, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508198/role-of-the-low-selective-organic-anion-transport-in-regulation-of-osmotic-balance-of-renal-collecting-duct-principal-cells-under-hypo-osmotic-conditions
#10
G S Baturina, L E Katkova, E I Solenov, L N Ivanova
In the course of adaptation of the rat kidney collecting duct cells to hypo-osmotic medium, the organic anion transporter inhibitor probenecid reduced significantly the regulatory cell volume decrease in response to a hypotonic shock. Both probenecid and hypotonic shock delayed significantly the entry into a cell of the fluorescent dye calcein, which exists as anion at neutral pH. Thus, the organic osmolyte transport plays an important role in the regulatory decrease of the principal cell volume under the hypo-osmotic conditions...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483512/changes-in-free-amino-acid-content-during-naupliar-development-of-the-calanoid-copepod-acartia-tonsa
#11
Thomas Allan Rayner, Niels Ole Gerslev Jørgensen, Guillaume Drillet, Benni Winding Hansen
Changes in free amino acids (FAA) were investigated in the potentially important live feed and neritic copepod species Acartia tonsa during naupliar development. Total content of FAA in A. tonsa nauplii was around 17% of dry weight at first development stage, and declined to 6% for later stages. Relative to body-volume and biomass, the FAA content indicated possible volume-dependent changes. However, changes in FAA with osmolytic activity could not account for this decline in FAA content, but suggests that the decline reflected degradation of residual FAAs from the embryonic stage...
May 5, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483057/long-chain-base-kinase1-affects-freezing-tolerance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#12
Xiaozhen Huang, Yao Zhang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yiting Shi
Long-chain base kinases (LCBKs) phosphorylate sphingolipid-derived long-chain base lipids and participate in the regulation of stress responses in plants. Here, we isolated a novel Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, lcbk1-2, which was extremely sensitive to freezing temperatures with or without cold acclimation. Physiological assays revealed that concentrations of osmolytes (proline and soluble sugars) and the activity of superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased in the lcbk1-2 mutant, compared with wild type...
June 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473840/cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-l-walp-metabolomics-osmoprotection-as-a-physiological-strategy-for-drought-stress-resistance-and-improved-yield
#13
Piebiep Goufo, José M Moutinho-Pereira, Tiago F Jorge, Carlos M Correia, Manuela R Oliveira, Eduardo A S Rosa, Carla António, Henrique Trindade
Plants usually tolerate drought by producing organic solutes, which can either act as compatible osmolytes for maintaining turgor, or radical scavengers for protecting cellular functions. However, these two properties of organic solutes are often indistinguishable during stress progression. This study looked at individualizing properties of osmotic adjustment vs. osmoprotection in plants, using cowpea as the model species. Two cultivars were grown in well-watered soil, drought conditions, or drought followed by rewatering through fruit formation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469605/evolution-of-dimethylsulfoniopropionate-metabolism-in-marine-phytoplankton-and-bacteria
#14
REVIEW
Hannah A Bullock, Haiwei Luo, William B Whitman
The elucidation of the pathways for dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) synthesis and metabolism and the ecological impact of DMSP have been studied for nearly 70 years. Much of this interest stems from the fact that DMSP metabolism produces the climatically active gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS), the primary natural source of sulfur to the atmosphere. DMSP plays many important roles for marine life, including use as an osmolyte, antioxidant, predator deterrent, and cryoprotectant for phytoplankton and as a reduced carbon and sulfur source for marine bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454054/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-investigation-on-the-effects-of-petrochemical-contamination-in-posterior-adductor-muscles-of-caged-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#15
Tiziana Cappello, Maria Maisano, Angela Mauceri, Salvatore Fasulo
Environmental metabolomics is a high-throughout approach that provides a snapshot of the metabolic status of an organism. In order to elucidate the biological effects of petrochemical contamination on aquatic invertebrates, mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis were caged at the "Augusta-Melilli-Priolo" petrochemical area and Brucoli (Sicily, south Italy), chosen as the reference site. After confirming the elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mercury (Hg) in Augusta sediments in our previous work (Maisano et al...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447688/influence-of-cosolvents-self-crowding-temperature-and-pressure-on-the-sub-nanosecond-dynamics-and-folding-stability-of-lysozyme
#16
S R Al-Ayoubi, P H Schummel, M Golub, J Peters, R Winter
We studied the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on the dynamical properties and folding stability of highly concentrated lysozyme solutions in the absence and presence of the osmolytes trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and urea. Elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) was applied to determine the mean-squared displacement (MSD) of the protein's hydrogen atoms to yield insights into the effects of these cosolvents on the averaged sub-nanosecond dynamics in the pressure range from ambient up to 4000 bar...
April 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437448/expression-profiling-of-chrysanthemum-crassum-under-salinity-stress-and-the-initiation-of-morphological-changes
#17
Zhiyong Guan, Yitong Feng, Aiping Song, Xiaomeng Shi, Yachao Mao, Sumei Chen, Jiafu Jiang, Lian Ding, Fadi Chen
Chrysanthemum crassum is a decaploid species of Chrysanthemum with high stress tolerance that allows survival under salinity stress while maintaining a relatively ideal growth rate. We previously recorded morphological changes after salt treatment, such as the expansion of leaf cells. To explore the underlying salinity tolerance mechanisms, we used an Illumina platform and obtained three sequencing libraries from samples collected after 0 h, 12 h and 24 h of salt treatment. Following de novo assembly, 154,944 transcripts were generated, and 97,833 (63...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432632/tryptophan-fluorescence-yields-and-lifetimes-as-a-probe-of-conformational-changes-in-human-glucokinase
#18
Bogumil Zelent, Chris Bialas, Ignacy Gryczynski, Pan Chen, Rahul Chib, Karina Lewerissa, Maria G Corradini, Richard D Ludescher, Jane M Vanderkooi, Franz M Matschinsky
Five variants of glucokinase (ATP-D-hexose-6-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.1) including wild type and single Trp mutants with the Trp residue at positions 65, 99, 167 and 257 were prepared. The fluorescence of Trp in all locations studied showed intensity changes when glucose bound, indicating that conformational change occurs globally over the entire protein. While the fluorescence quantum yield changes upon glucose binding, the enzyme's absorption spectra, emission spectra and fluorescence lifetimes change very little...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427940/characterization-of-the-rax1-gene-encoding-a-putative-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#19
Olumuyiwa Ayokunle Igbalajobi, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Kwang-Soo Shin
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the major cause of life threatening invasive aspergillosis, and its small hydrophobic asexual spores (conidia) are the major infection agent. To better understand biology of A. fumigatus, we have characterized the rax1 gene encoding a putative regulator of G protein signaling (RGS). The deletion (Δ) of rax1 results in restricted colony growth and highly reduced number of conidia in A. fumigatus. Transcript levels of the three central activators of asexual development abaA, brlA, and wetA are significantly reduced in the Δrax1 mutant...
April 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424229/tension-activated-channels-in-the-mechanism-of-osmotic-fitness-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
Uğur Çetiner, Ian Rowe, Anthony Schams, Christina Mayhew, Deanna Rubin, Andriy Anishkin, Sergei Sukharev
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is an opportunistic pathogen with an exceptional ability to adapt to a range of environments. Part of its adaptive potential is the ability to survive drastic osmolarity changes. Upon a sudden dilution of external medium, such as during exposure to rain, bacteria evade mechanical rupture by engaging tension-activated channels that act as osmolyte release valves. In this study, we compare fast osmotic permeability responses in suspensions of wild-type PA and Escherichia coli (EC) strains in stopped-flow experiments and provide electrophysiological descriptions of osmotic-release channels in PA...
May 1, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
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