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Avi Wallerstein, W Bruce Jackson, Jeffrey Chambers, Amir M Moezzi, Hugh Lin, Peter A Simmons
Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of a preservative-free, multi-ingredient formulation of carboxymethylcellulose 0.5%, hyaluronic acid 0.1%, and organic osmolytes (CMC-HA), to preservative-free carboxymethylcellulose 0.5% (CMC) in the management of postoperative signs and symptoms of dry eye following laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods: This was a double-masked, randomized, parallel-group study conducted in 14 clinical centers in Canada and Australia...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Yoshinori Kawabe, Takahiro Morio, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Pauline Schaap
Background: Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) regulates many cell fate decisions in animal development. In multicellular structures of the group 4 dictyostelid Dictyostelium discoideum , GSK3 promotes spore over stalk-like differentiation. We investigated whether, similar to other sporulation-inducing genes such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), this role of GSK3 is derived from an ancestral role in encystation of unicellular amoebas. Results: We deleted GSK3 in Polysphondylium pallidum , a group 2 dictyostelid which has retained encystation as an alternative survival strategy...
2018: EvoDevo
Cindy Irwin, Mari van Reenen, Shayne Mason, Lodewyk J Mienie, Ron A Wevers, Johan A Westerhuis, Carolus J Reinecke
Metabolomics studies of disease conditions related to chronic alcohol consumption provide compelling evidence of several perturbed metabolic pathways underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. The objective of the present study was to utilize proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy metabolomics to study the holistic metabolic consequences of acute alcohol consumption in humans. The experimental design was a cross-over intervention study which included a number of substances to be consumed-alcohol, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) supplement, and a benzoic acid-containing flavoured water vehicle...
2018: PloS One
M Benjamin Barth, Katja Buchwalder, Akito Y Kawahara, Xin Zhou, Shanlin Liu, Nicolas Krezdorn, Björn Rotter, Ralf Horres, Anna K Hundsdoerfer
Background: The European spurge hawkmoth, Hyles euphorbiae (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae), has been intensively studied as a model organism for insect chemical ecology, cold hardiness and evolution of species delineation. To understand species isolation mechanisms at a molecular level, this study aims at determining genetic factors underlying two adaptive ecological trait candidates, phorbol ester (TPA) detoxification and seasonal cold acclimation. Method: A draft transcriptome of H...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Kwang-Im Oh, Carlos R Baiz
Up to 40% of intracellular water is confined due to the dense packing of macromolecules, ions, and osmolytes. Despite the large body of work concerning the effect of additives on biomolecular structure and stability, the role of crowding and heterogeneity is not well understood. Here, infrared spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations are used to describe the mechanisms by which crowding modulates hydrogen bonding interactions between water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Specifically, we use formamide and dimethylformamide (DMF) as molecular crowders and show that S=O hydrogen bond populations in aqueous mixtures are increased by both amides...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Awanis Azizan, Muhammad Safwan Ahamad Bustamam, M Maulidiani, Khozirah Shaari, Intan Safinar Ismail, Norio Nagao, Faridah Abas
Microalgae are promising candidate resources from marine ecology for health-improving effects. Metabolite profiling of the microalgal diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans was conducted by using robust metabolomics tools, namely ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The unsupervised data analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), resolved the five types of extracts made by solvents ranging from polar to non-polar into five different clusters. Collectively, with various extraction solvents, 11 amino acids, cholesterol, 6 fatty acids, 2 sugars, 1 osmolyte, 6 carotenoids and 2 chlorophyll pigments were identified...
May 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
Silvia Simón-Grao, Manuel Nieves, Juan J Martínez-Nicolás, José M Cámara-Zapata, Marina Alfosea-Simón, Francisco García-Sánchez
In citrus, the effects of an excess of boron (B) are conditioned by the type of rootstock. In the present work, the morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of seedlings from three citrus genotypes, commonly used as rootstocks in citriculture. In particular, Citrange Carrizo (CC), Citrus macrophylla (CM) and sour orange (SO) seedlings were treated with an excess of B (10 mg L-1 ) in the nutrient solution in order to determine the relative tolerance and to understand the possible mechanisms that make a rootstock more tolerant than the others...
May 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Vira N Agieienko, Christoph Hölzl, Dominik Horinek, Richard Buchner
The intermolecular interactions and dynamics of aqueous 1,1-dimethyurea (1,1-DMU) solutions were studied by examining the concentration dependence of the solvent and solute relaxations detected by dielectric spectroscopy. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to facilitate interpretation of the dielectric data and to get a deeper insight into the behavior of the system components at microscopic level. In particular, the simulations allowed for explaining the main differences between the dielectric spectra of aqueous solutions of 1,1-DMU and of its structural isomer 1,3-DMU...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Lu Wang, Mark T Waters, Steven M Smith
The control of seed germination in response to environmental conditions is important for plant success. We investigated the role of the karrikin receptor KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) in the response of Arabidopsis seeds to osmotic stress, salinity and high temperature. Germination of the kai2 mutant was examined in response to NaCl, mannitol and elevated temperature. The effect of karrikin on germination of wild-type seeds, hypocotyl elongation and the expression of karrikin-responsive genes was also examined in response to such stresses...
May 4, 2018: New Phytologist
Qianqian Bai, Xiaoying Wang, Xi Chen, Guiqing Shi, Zhipeng Liu, Chengjin Guo, Kai Xiao
MicroRNAs (miRNA) families act as critical regulators for plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, we characterized TaemiR408, a miRNA family member of wheat ( Triticum aestivum ), for the role in mediating plant responses to Pi starvation and salt stress. TaemiR408 targets six genes that encode proteins involving biochemical metabolism, microtubule organization, and signaling transduction. 5'- and 3'-RACE analyses confirmed the mRNA cleavage of target genes mediated by this wheat miRNA...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Caryn L Heldt, Ashish Saksule, Pratik U Joshi, Majid Ghafarian
Vaccine manufacturing has conventionally been performed by the developed world using traditional unit operations like filtration and chromatography. There is currently a shift in the manufacturing of vaccines to the less developed world, requiring unit operations that reduce costs, increase recovery, and are amenable to continuous manufacturing. This work demonstrates that mannitol can be used as a flocculant for an enveloped and non-enveloped virus and can purify the virus from protein contaminants after microfiltration...
May 1, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Jessica J Hung, Barton J Dear, Aileen K Dinin, Ameya U Borwankar, Sumarth K Mehta, Thomas T Truskett, Keith P Johnston
PURPOSE: To explain the effects of the osmolyte proline on the protein-protein interactions (PPI), viscosity and stability of highly concentrated antibody solutions in contrast to other neutral osmolytes. METHODS: The viscosity of ~225 mg/mL mAb solutions was measured with proline, glycine and trehalose as a function of pH and co-solute concentration up to 1.3 M. The stability was assessed via turbidity as well as size exclusion chromatography after 4 weeks storage at 40°C...
April 30, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Quoc Dat Pham, Amanuel Wolde-Kidan, Anirudh Gupta, Alexander Schlaich, Emanuel Schneck, Roland R Netz, Emma Sparr
Most land-living organisms regularly experience dehydration. In nature, one commonly applied strategy to protect against this osmotic stress is to introduce small polar molecules with low vapor pressure, commonly called osmolytes. Two examples of naturally occurring small polar compounds are urea and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which are known to have counteracting effects on protein stability. In this work, we investigate the effects of urea and TMAO on lipid self-assembly at varying water contents, focusing on dehydrated conditions...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Michel W Jaworek, Vitor Schuabb, Roland Winter
We report on the effects of pressure and cosolvents on the catalytic activity of a designed amyloid fibril by applying a high-pressure stopped-flow methodology with rapid spectroscopic detection. FTIR spectroscopic data revealed a remarkable pressure and temperature stability of the fibrillar catalyst. The activity is further enhanced by osmolytes and macromolecular crowding.
April 25, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
George D Bachand, Rishi Jain, Randy Ko, Nathan F Bouxsein, Virginia VanDelinder
Microtubule dynamics play a critical role in the normal physiology of eukaryotic cells, as well as a number of cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The polymerization/depolymerization of microtubules is regulated by a variety of stabilizing and destabilizing factors, including microtubule-associated proteins and therapeutic agents (e.g., paclitaxel, nocodazole). Here we describe the ability of the osmolytes polyethylene glycol (PEG) and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) to inhibit the depolymerization of individual microtubule filaments for extended periods of time (up to 30 days)...
April 24, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Uğur Çetiner, Andriy Anishkin, Sergei Sukharev
Adaptive desensitization and inactivation are common properties of most ion channels and receptors. The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance MscS, which serves as a low-threshold osmolyte release valve in most bacteria, inactivates not from the open, but from the resting state under moderate tensions. This mechanism enables the channel to respond differently to slow tension ramps versus abruptly applied stimuli. In this work, we present a reconstruction of the energy landscape for MscS transitions based on patch current kinetics recorded under special pressure protocols...
April 23, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Nadia Perchat, Pierre-Loïc Saaidi, Ekaterina Darii, Christine Pellé, Jean-Louis Petit, Marielle Besnard-Gonnet, Véronique de Berardinis, Maeva Dupont, Alexandra Gimbernat, Marcel Salanoubat, Cécile Fischer, Alain Perret
Trigonelline (TG; N- methylnicotinate) is a ubiquitous osmolyte. Although it is known that it can be degraded, the enzymes and metabolites have not been described so far. In this work, we challenged the laboratory model soil-borne, gram-negative bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 (ADP1) for its ability to grow on TG and we identified a cluster of catabolic, transporter, and regulatory genes. We dissected the pathway to the level of enzymes and metabolites, and proceeded to in vitro reconstruction of the complete pathway by six purified proteins...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Moin Ishrat, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Faizan Ahmad, Asimul Islam
Organisms synthesize sugar osmolytes during environmental stresses to protect proteins against denaturation. These studies were carried out in dilute buffer whereas intracellular milieu within cells has cytoplasmic concentration of macromolecules in the range of 80-400 mg ml-1 . Is the stabilizing effect of sugar osmolytes on the protein in dilute buffer different from that when protein is in cellular environment? To answer this question, we have measured and analysed the effect of sugar osmolytes on the structural and thermodynamic stability of ribonuclease A in the presence of dextran 70 at multiple concentrations of six sugars at different pH values...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Laura Devaux, Dona Sleiman, Maria-Vittoria Mazzuoli, Myriam Gominet, Philippe Lanotte, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Pierre-Alexandre Kaminski, Arnaud Firon
Cyclic nucleotides are universally used as secondary messengers to control cellular physiology. Among these signalling molecules, cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a specific bacterial second messenger recognized by host cells during infections and its synthesis is assumed to be necessary for bacterial growth by controlling a conserved and essential cellular function. In this study, we sought to identify the main c-di-AMP dependent pathway in Streptococcus agalactiae, the etiological agent of neonatal septicaemia and meningitis...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Wu Dayang, Pang Dongbo
AIM: To explore the osmolytes expression in UVA stressed human retinal pigment epithelial cells. METHODS: Osmolyte transporters and VEGF mRNA were determined by realtime PCR. Osmolyte uptake were measured by radioimmunoassay. VEGF concentrations were determined by immunoassay and ELISA. Osmolyte transporter TAUT were silenced by siRNA technology. RESULTS: Hypertonicity accelerated osmolyte betaine uptake, myoinositol uptake and taurine uptake, compared to normotonic stress...
April 15, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
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