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Salar Farhangi-Abriz, Shahram Torabian
Salinity damaged cellular membranes through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while osmolytes and antioxidant capacities play a vital role in protecting plants from salinity caused oxidative damages. Biochar also could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crops. The pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar on some antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolyte adjustments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Derakhshan) under salinity stress. Bean plants were subjected to three salinity levels (non-saline, 6 and 12 dSm(-1) of NaCl) and biochar treatments (non-biochar, 10% and 20% total pot mass)...
December 1, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yoshiyuki Kubo, Shin-Ichi Akanuma, Ken-Ichi Hosoya
Cumulative studies showed that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) contributes to a variety of physiological events. Transport study suggested the cellular taurine transport in an Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent manner, and the several members of SLC6A family have been shown as taurine transporter. At the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB), taurine transporter (TauT/SLC6A) is involved in the transport of taurine to the retina from the circulating blood. The involvement of TauT is also suggested in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport at the inner BRB, and its role is assumed in the elimination of GABA from the retinal interstitial fluid...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Qingye Li, Rong Chang, Yijun Sun, Bosheng Li
Low temperature (LT) is one of the most important abiotic stresses that can significantly reduce crop yield. To gain insight into how Spirulina responds to LT stress, comprehensive physiological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Significant decreases in growth and pigment levels as well as excessive accumulation of compatible osmolytes were observed in response to LT stress. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics approach was used to identify changes in protein abundance in Spirulina under LT...
2016: PloS One
Michael Lever, Christopher J McEntyre, Peter M George, Stephen T Chambers
Choline metabolism is by oxidation to betaine, which is demethylated to N,N-dimethylglycine; dimethylglycine is oxidatively demethylated to sarcosine. This pathway is important for osmoregulation and as a source of methyl groups. We asked whether another metabolite was involved. We synthesized the N-oxide of dimethylglycine (DMGO) by oxidizing dimethylglycine with peracetic acid, and measured DMGO in human plasma and urine by HPLC-MS/MS with positive ion detection, using two chromatography procedures, based on ion exchange and HILIC separations...
November 30, 2016: Biological Chemistry
Tiantian Ye, Haitao Shi, Yanping Wang, Fan Yang, Zhulong Chan
Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is one of tolerant grass species to drought and salt. The comparative analyses of bermudagrass in response to drought and salt stresses at the physiological, proteomic, and metabolomic levels were performed in this study. The physiological results indicated that osmolytes accumulation, ROS level and antioxidant enzyme activities were extensively changed by drought and salt stresses. Through comparative proteomic analyses, we successfully identified a total of 77 proteins involved in photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate, glycolysis, and redox metabolic pathways when exposed to drought and salt stresses...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jie Lu, Yanyan Shi, Shuhui Cai, Jianghua Feng
Vibrio parahemolyticus is a devastating bacterial pathogen that often causes outbreak of vibriosis in abalone Haliotis diversicolor. Elucidation of metabolic mechanisms of abalones in responding to V. parahemolyticus infection is essential for controlling the epidemic. In this work, (1)H NMR-based metabolomic techniques along with correlation and network analyses are used to investigate characteristic metabolites, as well as corresponding disturbed pathways in hepatopancreas and gill of H. diversicolor after V...
November 24, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Alexander E Yarawsky, Lance R English, Steven T Whitten, Andrew B Herr
Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the primary bacterial species responsible for healthcare-associated infections. The most significant virulence factor for S. epidermidis is its ability to form a biofilm, which renders the bacteria highly resistant to host immune responses and antibiotic action. Intercellular adhesion within the biofilm is mediated by the accumulation-associated protein (Aap), a cell wall-anchored protein that self-assembles in a zinc-dependent manner. The C-terminal portion of Aap contains a proline/glycine-rich, 135 amino acid-long region that has not yet been characterized...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Olubukayo-Opeyemi Oyetayo, Oscar Méndez-Lucio, Andreas Bender, Hans Kiefer
Solvents used for therapeutic proteins in downstream processing and in formulations often contain stabilizing additives that inhibit denaturation and aggregation. Such additives are mostly selected based on their positive effect on thermal stability of the protein, and are often derived from naturally occuring osmolytes. To better understand the structural basis underlying the effect of additives, we selected a diverse library of compounds comprising 79 compounds of the polyol, amino acid and methylamine chemical classes and determined the effect of each compound on thermal stability of a monoclonal antibody as a function of compound concentration...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Erif Maha Nugraha Setyawan, Min Jung Kim, Hyun Ju Oh, Geon A Kim, Young Kwang Jo, Seok Hee Lee, Yoo Bin Choi, Byeong Chun Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Cryobiology
Gagan Paudel, Tatiana Bilova, Rico Schmidt, Uta Greifenhagen, Robert Berger, Elena Tarakhovskaya, Stefanie Stöckhardt, Gerd Ulrich Balcke, Klaus Humbeck, Wolfgang Brandt, Andrea Sinz, Thomas Vogt, Claudia Birkemeyer, Ludger Wessjohann, Andrej Frolov
Among the environmental alterations accompanying oncoming climate changes, drought is the most important factor influencing crop plant productivity. In plants, water deficit ultimately results in the development of oxidative stress and accumulation of osmolytes (e.g. amino acids and carbohydrates) in all tissues. Up-regulation of sugar biosynthesis in parallel to the increasing overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) might enhance protein glycation, i.e. interaction of carbonyl compounds, reducing sugars and α-dicarbonyls with lysyl and arginyl side-chains yielding early (Amadori and Heyns compounds) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs)...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Xin-Yan Cao, Jack Rose, Shi-Yong Wang, Yong Liu, Meng Zhao, Ming-Jie Xing, Tong Chang, Baozeng Xu
Ice-free cryopreservation, referred to as vitrification, is receiving increased attention in the human and animal assisted reproduction. However, it introduces the detrimental osmotic stress by adding and removing high contents of cryoprotectants. In this study, we evaluated the effects of normalizing cell volume regulation by adding glycine, an organic osmolyte, during vitrification of mouse germinal vesicle stage oocyte and/or subsequent maturation on its development. The data showed that glycine supplementation in either vitrification/thawing or maturation medium significantly improved the cytoplasmic maturation of MII oocytes manifested by spindle assembly, chromosomal alignment, mitochondrial distribution, euploidy rate, and blastocyst development following fertilization in vitro, compared to the control without glycine treatment...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
Barton J Dear, Jessica J Hung, Thomas M Truskett, Keith P Johnston
PURPOSE: To explain the effects of cationic amino acids and other co-solutes on the viscosity, stability and protein-protein interactions (PPI) of highly concentrated (≥200 mg/ml) monoclonal antibody (mAb) solutions to advance subcutaneous injection. METHODS: The viscosities of ≥200 mg/ml mAb1 solutions with various co-solutes and pH were measured by capillary rheometry in some cases up to 70,000 s(-1). The viscosities are analyzed in terms of dilute PPI characterized by diffusion interaction parameters (k D ) from dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
November 11, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Zhong-Guang Li, Xiong Min, Zhi-Hao Zhou
For a long time, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been considered as merely a toxic by product of cell metabolism, but nowadays is emerging as a novel gaseous signal molecule, which participates in seed germination, plant growth and development, as well as the acquisition of stress tolerance including cross-adaptation in plants. Cross-adaptation, widely existing in nature, is the phenomenon in which plants expose to a moderate stress can induce the resistance to other stresses. The mechanism of cross-adaptation is involved in a complex signal network consisting of many second messengers such as Ca(2+), abscisic acid, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, as well as their crosstalk...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Milan Borišev, Ivana Borišev, Milan Župunski, Danijela Arsenov, Slobodanka Pajević, Živko Ćurčić, Jovica Vasin, Aleksandar Djordjevic
Over the past few years, significant efforts have been made to decrease the effects of drought stress on plant productivity and quality. We propose that fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs, molecular formula C60(OH)24) may help alleviate drought stress by serving as an additional intercellular water supply. Specifically, FNPs are able to penetrate plant leaf and root tissues, where they bind water in various cell compartments. This hydroscopic activity suggests that FNPs could be beneficial in plants. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of FNPs on sugar beet plants exposed to drought stress...
2016: PloS One
Dhiman Chakravarty, Manisha Banerjee, Namrata Waghmare, Anand Ballal
Catalases are ubiquitous enzymes that detoxify H2O2 in virtually all organisms exposed to oxygen. The filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena PCC 7120, shows the presence of 2 genes (katA and katB) that encode Mn-catalases. We have recently shown that pre-treatment of Anabaena with NaCl causes substantial induction of the KatB protein, which consequently leads to increased oxidative stress resistance in that cyanobacterium. Interestingly, when compared to the wild-type, the katB mutant shows decreased growth and impaired photosynthetic activity in the presence of NaCl...
2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Jordan A Hein, Mark E Sherrard, Kirk P Manfredi, Tilahun Abebe
BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic organs of the cereal spike (ear) provide assimilate for grain filling, but their response to drought is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the drought response of individual organs of the barley spike (awn, lemma, and palea) and compared them with a vegetative organ (fifth leaf). Understanding differences in physiological and metabolic responses between the leaf and spike organs during drought can help us develop high yielding cultivars for environments where terminal drought is prevalent...
November 9, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Irfan Ullah, Kunho Chung, Jagadish Beloor, Jongkil Kim, Minyoung Cho, Nahyun Kim, Kuen Yong Lee, Priti Kumar, Sang-Kyung Lee
siRNA entrapment within endosomes is a significant problem encountered with siRNA delivery platforms that co-opt receptor mediated entry pathways. Attachment of a cell penetrating peptide (CPP), such as nona-arginine (9R) to a cell receptor-binding ligand like the Rabies virus glycoprotein, RVG, allows effective siRNA delivery to the cytoplasm by non-endocytic pathways, but a significant amount of siRNA complexes also enters the cell by ligand-induced receptor endocytosis and remain localized in endosomes. Here, we report that the incorporation of trileucine (3 Leu) residues as an endo-osmolytic moiety in the peptide improves endosomal escape and intracellular delivery of siRNA...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Drug Targeting
Tiziana Cappello, Patrícia Pereira, Maria Maisano, Angela Mauceri, Mário Pacheco, Salvatore Fasulo
Mercury (Hg) is recognized as a dangerous contaminant due to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification within trophic levels, leading to serious health risks to aquatic biota. Therefore, there is an urgent need to unravel the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of Hg. To this aim, a metabolomics approach based on protonic nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), coupled with chemometrics, was performed on the gills of wild golden grey mullets L. aurata living in an Hg-polluted area in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal)...
October 27, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Paul Hendrik Schummel, Mimi Gao, Roland Winter
Tubulin is one of the main components of the cytoskeleton and can be found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. In this study, we explored the effects of kosmotropic and chaotropic osmolytes, such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and the metabolic waste product urea, as well as the crowding agents Ficoll and sucrose on the polymerization reaction of α/β-tubulin. Time-dependent turbidimetry and fluorescence anisotropy experiments were performed to explore the kinetics of the polymerization reaction. Under different solvent conditions, diverse changes in the lag time, the half-life of the polymerization reaction, and the critical concentration of the polymerization reaction were observed...
November 3, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Martin Hagemann, Manja Henneberg, Vincent J M N L Felde, Simon M Berkowicz, Hagai Raanan, Nadin Pade, Peter Felix-Henningsen, Aaron Kaplan
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) fulfill numerous ecological functions in arid and semiarid areas. Cyanobacteria are important BSC organisms, which are responsible for carbon fixation, N2-fixation, and binding of soil via extracellular polysaccharides. The cyanobacterial populations were characterized in different sampling plots established in three experimental stations along a rainfall gradient within NW Negev Desert, Israel. Cyanobacterial crust thickness and osmolyte accumulation therein decreased in plots with lower moisture...
November 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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