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Osmolyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326168/cyclic-di-adenosine-monophosphate-c-di-amp-is-required-for-osmotic-regulation-in-staphylococcus-aureus-but-dispensable-for-viability-in-anaerobic-conditions
#1
Merve S Zeden, Christopher F Schuster, Lisa Bowman, Qiyun Zhong, Huw D Williams, Angelika Gründling
Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a recently discovered signaling molecule important for the survival of Firmicutes, a large bacterial group that includes notable pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. However, the exact role of this molecule has not been identified. dacA, the S. aureus gene encoding the diadenylate cyclase enzyme required for c-di-AMP production, cannot be deleted when bacterial cells are grown in rich medium, indicating that c-di-AMP is required for growth in this condition...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323488/functional-implications-of-intracellular-phase-transitions
#2
Alex S Holehouse, Rohit V Pappu
Intracellular environments are heterogeneous milieus comprising of macromolecules, osmolytes, and a range of assemblies that include membrane-bound organelles and membraneless biomolecular condensates. The latter are non-stoichiometric assemblies of protein and RNA molecules. They represent distinct phases and form via intracellular phase transitions. Here, we present insights from recent studies and provide a perspective on how phase transitions that lead to biomolecular condensates might contribute to cellular functions...
January 11, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320696/using-a-fret-library-with-multiple-probe-pairs-to%C3%A2-drive-monte-carlo-simulations-of-%C3%AE-synuclein
#3
John J Ferrie, Conor M Haney, Jimin Yoon, Buyan Pan, Yi-Chih Lin, Zahra Fakhraai, Elizabeth Rhoades, Abhinav Nath, E James Petersson
We describe a strategy for experimentally-constraining computational simulations of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), using α-synuclein, an IDP with a central role in Parkinson's disease pathology, as an example. Previously, data from single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) experiments have been effectively utilized to generate experimentally constrained computational models of IDPs. However, the fluorophores required for single-molecule FRET experiments are not amenable to the study of short-range (<30 Å) interactions...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315031/osmolyte-adjustments-as-a-pressure-adaptation-in-deep-sea-chondrichthyan-fishes-an-intraspecific-test-in-arctic-skates-amblyraja-hyperborea-along-a-depth-gradient
#4
Paul H Yancey, Ben Speers-Roesch, Sheila Atchinson, James D Reist, Andrew R Majewski, Jason R Treberg
Accumulation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) by deep-sea animals is proposed to protect proteins against the destabilizing effects of high hydrostatic pressure (the piezolyte hypothesis). Chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) provide a unique test of this hypothesis because shallow-living species have elevated TMAO levels to counteract the destabilizing effects of high urea levels accumulated for osmoregulation. Limited interspecific studies of chondrichthyans reveal that increasing depth correlates with decreased urea and increased TMAO levels, suggesting a dynamic balance between destabilizing forces on proteins (high urea, hydrostatic pressure) and TMAO to counteract these forces...
March 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305883/quantification-of-differential-efficacy-of-chemical-chaperones-in-ameliorating-solubilization-and-folding-of-zebrafish-dihydrofolate-reductase
#5
Naira Rashid, Charu Thapliyal, Pratima Chaudhuri Chattopadhyay
Protein aggregation is a major hindrance in many in vivo and in vitro studies of proteins. It results in the formation of inclusion bodies and non-functional aggregates. Chemical chaperones also known as osmolytes which are accumulated during the stress conditions in the cells can influence the protein stability through various mechanisms. They act as osmoprotectants and contribute to the protein folding by enabling the protein to bury the backbone into the core of protein fold. In the current study, we observed the effect of chemical chaperones from four different classes on the stability and functionality of aggregation prone protein zebrafish dihydrofolate reductase (zDHFR)...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303581/pulsatile-gating-of-giant-vesicles-containing-macromolecular-crowding-agents-induced-by-colligative-nonideality
#6
Wan-Chih Su, Douglas L Gettel, Morgan Chabanon, Padmini Rangamani, Atul N Parikh
The ability of large macromolecules to exhibit nontrivial deviations in colligative properties of their aqueous solutions is well-appreciated in polymer physics. Here, we show that this colligative nonideality subjects giant lipid vesicles containing inert macromolecular crowding agents to osmotic pressure differentials when bathed in small-molecule osmolytes at comparable concentrations. The ensuing influx of water across the semipermeable membrane induces characteristic swell-burst cycles: here, cyclical and damped oscillations in size, tension, and membrane phase separation occur en route to equilibration...
January 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290092/macroalgal-bacterial-interactions-role-of-dimethylsulfoniopropionate-in-microbial-gardening-by-ulva-chlorophyta
#7
Ralf W Kessler, Anne Weiss, Stefan Kuegler, Cornelia Hermes, Thomas Wichard
The marine macroalga Ulva mutabilis (Chlorophyta) develops into callus-like colonies consisting of undifferentiated cells and abnormal cell walls under axenic conditions. U. mutabilis is routinely cultured with two bacteria, the Roseovarius sp. MS2 strain and the Maribacter sp. MS6 strain, which release morphogenetic compounds and ensure proper algal morphogenesis. Using this tripartite community as an emerging model system, we tested the hypothesis that the bacterial-algal interactions evolved as a result of mutually taking advantage of signals in the environment...
December 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290028/carboxybetaine-modified-succinylated-chitosan-based-beads-encourage-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-min-6-to-form-islet-like-spheroids-under-in-vitro-conditions
#8
Valeria Perugini, Mark Best, Sandeep Kumar, Anna L Guildford, Adrian J Bone, Wendy M Macfarlane, Matteo Santin, Gary J Phillips
In vitro, pancreatic β-cells tend to reduce their ability to aggregate into islets and lose insulin-producing ability, likely due to insufficient cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions that are essential for β-cell retention, viability and functionality. In response to these needs, surfaces of succinylated chitosan-based beads (NSC) were modified with zwitterionic carboxy-betaine (CB) moieties, a compatible osmolyte known to regulate cellular hydration state, and used to promote the formation of β-cell spheroids using a conventional 2D cell culture technique...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288768/untargeted-metabolic-profiling-reveals-distinct-patterns-of-thermal-sensitivity-in-two-related-notothenioids
#9
Anja Rebelein, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Christian Bock
Antarctic marine ectothermal animals may be affected more than temperate species by rising temperatures due to ongoing climate change. Their specialisation on stable cold temperatures make them vulnerable to even small degrees of warming. Thus, addressing the impacts of warming on Antarctic organisms and identifying their potentially limited capacities to respond is of interest. The objective of the study was to determine changes in metabolite profiles related to temperature acclimation. In a long-term experiment adult fish of two Antarctic sister species Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps were acclimated to 0 °C and 5 °C for three months...
December 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287899/strategizing-for-the-purification-of-a-multiple-big-domain-containing-protein-in-native-conformation-is-worth-it
#10
Asmita D Pawar, Deepshikha Verma, Venu Sankeshi, Rajeev Raman, Yogendra Sharma
The reliability and accuracy of conformational or functional studies of any novel multidomain protein rely on the quality of protein. The bottleneck in structural studies with the complete Big_2 domain containing proteins like LigA, LigB or MpIBP is usually their large molecular size owing to their multidomain (>10-12 domains) architectures. Interestingly, a soil bacterium Paenarthrobacter aurescens TC1, harbours a gene that encodes a protein comprising of four predicted Big_2 domains. We report here the expression and purification of this novel, multiple Big_2 domains containing protein, Arig of P...
December 26, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277507/osmotic-demyelination-unrelated-to-hyponatremia
#11
Maulin K Shah, Sreedhar Mandayam, Horacio J Adrogué
Osmotic demyelination unrelated to hyponatremia is rarely reported. We present a case of osmotic demyelination in a patient with hypernatremia in the absence of preceding hyponatremia and review previously reported cases of osmotic demyelination in nonhyponatremic patients. We conclude that a rapid increase in serum sodium concentration and plasma tonicity even in the absence of preceding hyponatremia may surpass the brain's capacity for adaptation to hypertonicity and lead to osmotic demyelination in predisposed individuals...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276506/escherichia-coli-o157-h7-converts-plant-derived-choline-to-glycine-betaine-for-osmoprotection-during-pre-and-post-harvest-colonization-of-injured-lettuce-leaves
#12
Russell A Scott, Roger Thilmony, Leslie A Harden, Yaguang Zhou, Maria T Brandl
Plant injury is inherent to the production and processing of fruit and vegetables. The opportunistic colonization of damaged plant tissue by human enteric pathogens may contribute to the occurrence of outbreaks of foodborne illness linked to produce. Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) responds to physicochemical stresses in cut lettuce and lettuce lysates by upregulation of several stress response pathways. We investigated the tolerance of EcO157 to osmotic stress imposed by the leakage of osmolytes from injured lettuce leaf tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274422/roles-of-osmolytes-in-protein-folding-and-aggregation-in-cells-and-their-biotechnological-applications
#13
REVIEW
Gulam Rabbani, Inho Choi
Nature selected osmolytes to protect intracellular macromolecules exposed to denaturing conditions and stabilize proteins. Osmolytes are small naturally occurring compounds that act as chemical chaperones under changing environmental conditions and in disease states, and are present in microorganisms, animals, and plants. In the intracellular environment osmolytes naturally accumulate at high concentrations when cells/tissues are exposed to stressful conditions, which is important because protein aggregation, misfolding, and destabilization underlie the pathogeneses of several life-threatening neurodegenerative disorders...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248570/synthetic-capacity-does-not-predict-elasmobranchs-ability-to-maintain-trimethylamine-oxide-without-a-dietary-contribution
#14
Abigail B Bockus, Brad A Seibel
Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) is an organic osmolyte and universal protein stabilizer. Its role as a cytoprotectant is particularly important in ureosmotic elasmobranchs that accumulate high levels of urea, a macromolecular perturbant. Feeding is a key component in the turnover and maintenance of these nitrogenous compounds. However, previous studies examining TMAO regulation have been largely completed using starved individuals, when nitrogen balance is altered. Here, under fed conditions, we test the importance of dietary TMAO on long-term maintenance in three elasmobranch species with differing endogenous synthetic capacities...
December 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237740/grhl2-is-required-for-collecting-duct-epithelial-barrier-function-and-renal-osmoregulation
#15
Christian Hinze, Janett Ruffert, Katharina Walentin, Nina Himmerkus, Elham Nikpey, Olav Tenstad, Helge Wiig, Kerim Mutig, Zeliha Yesim Yurtdas, Janet D Klein, Jeff M Sands, Federica Branchi, Michael Schumann, Sebastian Bachmann, Markus Bleich, Kai M Schmidt-Ott
Collecting ducts make up the distal-most tubular segments of the kidney, extending from the cortex, where they connect to the nephron proper, into the medulla, where they release urine into the renal pelvis. During water deprivation, body water preservation is ensured by the selective transepithelial reabsorption of water into the hypertonic medullary interstitium mediated by collecting ducts. The collecting duct epithelium forms tight junctions composed of barrier-enforcing claudins and exhibits a higher transepithelial resistance than other segments of the renal tubule exhibit...
December 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236952/impaired-cardiac-contractile-function-in-agat-knockout-mice-devoid-of-creatine-is-rescued-by-homoarginine-but-not-creatine
#16
Kiterie M E Faller, Dorothee Atzler, Debra J McAndrew, Sevasti Zervou, Hannah J Whittington, Jillian N Simon, Dunja Aksentijevic, Michiel Ten Hove, Chi-Un Choe, Dirk Isbrandt, Barbara Casadei, Jurgen E Schneider, Stefan Neubauer, Craig A Lygate
Aims: Creatine buffers cellular ATP via the creatine kinase reaction. Creatine levels are reduced in heart failure, but their contribution to pathophysiology is unclear. Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) in the kidney catalyses both the first step in creatine biosynthesis as well as homoarginine synthesis. AGAT-/- mice fed a creatine-free diet have a whole body creatine-deficiency. We hypothesised that AGAT-/- mice would develop cardiac dysfunction and rescue by dietary creatine would imply causality...
December 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214802/tmao-counteracts-urea-denaturation-by-inhibiting-protein-urea-preferential-interaction
#17
Pritam Ganguly, Pablo Boserman, Nico F A van der Vegt, Joan-Emma Shea
Osmolytes are small organic molecules that can modulate the stability and function of cellular proteins by altering the chemical environment of the cell. Some of these osmolytes work in conjunction, via mechanisms that are poorly understood. An example is the naturally-occurring protein-protective osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) that stabilizes cellular proteins in marine organisms against the detrimental denaturing effects of another naturally occurring osmolyte, urea. From a computational standpoint, our understanding of this counteraction mechanism is hampered by the fact that existing force fields fail to capture the correct balance of TMAO and urea interactions in ternary solutions...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205045/colon-ascendens-stent-peritonitis-casp-induces-excessive-inflammation-and-systemic-metabolic-dysfunction-in-a-septic-rat-model
#18
Limin Zhang, Yuan Tian, Jianfen Yang, Jieshou Li, Huiru Tang, Yulan Wang
The colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) surgery creates a leakage of intestinal contents, resulting in polymicrobial sepsis associated with a high risk for postoperative multiple organ failure and death in surgical patients. To evaluate the effects of CASP on multiple organs, we analyzed the systemic metabolic consequences in liver, kidney, lung and heart of rats after CASP by employing a combination of metabolomics, clinical chemistry and biological assays. We found that CASP surgery after 18 h caused significant elevations of lipid, amino acids, acetate, choline, PC and GPC in rat liver together with significant depletion of glucose and glycogen...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201893/evidence-of-the-complexity-of-gene-expression-analysis-in-fish-wild-populations
#19
Mbaye Tine
The present work examines the induction of the band 3 anion transport protein, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively related to osmolyte transport, cell volume regulation, and energy production in the gills of two tilapia strains exposed to either freshwater or hypersaline water. Overall, genes showed similar expression patterns between strains. However, a wild population survey across a range of natural habitats and salinities did not reveal the expected patterns. Although significant, the correlations between gene expression and salinity were slightly ambiguous and did not show any link with phenotypic differences in life history traits previously reported between the same populations...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200303/effect-of-glucose-on-the-mobility-of-membrane-adhering-liposomes
#20
Jurriaan J J Gillissen, Seyed R Tabaei, Joshua Alexander Jackman, Nam-Joon Cho
Enclosed lipid bilayer structures, referred to as liposomes or lipid vesicles, have a wide range of biological functions, such as cellular signaling and membrane trafficking. The efficiency of cellular uptake of liposomes, a key step in many of these functions, is strongly dependent on the contact area between a liposome and a cell membrane, which is governed by the adhesion force, the membrane bending energy and the osmotic pressure. Herein, we investigate the relationship between these forces and the physicochemical properties of the solvent, namely the presence of glucose (a nonionic osmolyte)...
December 4, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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