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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324156/molecular-characterization-of-two-rhesus-glycoproteins-from-the-euryhaline-freshwater-white-rimmed-stingray-himantura-signifer-and-changes-in-their-transcript-levels-and-protein-abundance-in-the-gills-kidney-and-liver-during-brackish-water-acclimation
#1
Cheng T Yeam, You R Chng, Jasmine L Y Ong, Wai P Wong, Shit F Chew, Yuen K Ip
Himantura signifer is a freshwater stingray which inhabits rivers in Southeast Asia. It is ammonotelic in fresh water, but retains the capacities of urea synthesis and ureosmotic osmoregulation to survive in brackish water. This study aimed to elucidate the roles of Rhesus glycoproteins (Rhgp), which are known to transport ammonia, in conserving nitrogen (N) in H. signifer during brackish water acclimation when N became limited resulting from increased hepatic urea synthesis. The complete coding sequence of rhbg from H...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315108/osmolytic-effect-of-sucrose-on-thermal-denaturation-of-pea-seedling-copper-amine-oxidase
#2
Mojtaba Amani, Aboozar Barzegar, Mohammad Mazani
Protein stability is a subject of interest by many researchers. One of the common methods to increase the protein stability is using the osmolytes. Many studies and theories analyzed and explained osmolytic effect by equilibrium thermodynamic while most proteins undergo an irreversible denaturation. In current study we investigated the effect of sucrose as an osmolyte on the thermal denaturation of pea seedlings amine oxidase by the enzyme activity, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and differential scanning calorimetry...
March 18, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301576/restored-mutant-receptor-corticoid-binding-in-chaperone-complexes-by-trimethylamine-n-oxide
#3
Aaron L Miller, W Austin Elam, Betty H Johnson, Shagufta H Khan, Raj Kumar, E Brad Thompson
Without a glucocorticoid (GC) ligand, the transcription factor glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is largely cytoplasmic, with its GC-binding domain held in high affinity conformation by a cluster of chaperones. Binding a GC causes serial dis- and re-associations with chaperones, translocation of the GR to the nucleus, where it binds to DNA sites and associates with coregulatory proteins and basic transcription complexes. Herein, we describe the effects of a potent protective osmolyte, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), on a conditions-dependent "activation-labile" mutant GR (GRact/l), which under GR-activating conditions cannot bind GCs in cells or in cell cytosols...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295748/role-of-the-sln1-phosphorelay-pathway-in-the-response-to-hyperosmotic-stress-in-the-yeast-kluyveromyces-lactis
#4
Miriam Rodríguez-González, Laura Kawasaki, Nancy Velázquez-Zavala, Eunice Domínguez-Martín, Abraham Trejo-Medecigo, Natalia Martagón, Emilio Espinoza-Simón, Araceli Vázquez-Ibarra, Laura Ongay-Larios, Dimitris Georgellis, Eulàlia de Nadal, Francesc Posas, Roberto Coria
The Kluyveromyces lactis SLN1 phosphorelay system includes the osmosensor histidine kinase Sln1, the phosphotransfer protein Ypd1 and the response regulator Ssk1. Here we show that K. lactis has a functional phosphorelay system. In vitro assays, using a heterolougus histidine kinase, show that the phosphate group is accepted by KlYpd1 and transfer to KlSsk1. Upon hyperosmotic stress the phosphorelay is inactivated, KlYpd1 is dephosphorylated in a KlSln1 dependent manner, and only the version of KlSsk1 that lacks the phosphate group interacts with the MAPKKK KlSsk2...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290079/silicon-alleviates-salt-and-drought-stress-of-glycyrrhiza-uralensis-seedling-by-altering-antioxidant-metabolism-and-osmotic-adjustment
#5
Wenjin Zhang, Zhicai Xie, Lianhong Wang, Ming Li, Duoyong Lang, Xinhui Zhang
This study was conducted to determine effect and mechanism of exogenous silicon (Si) on salt and drought tolerance of Glycyrrhiza uralensis seedling by focusing on the pathways of antioxidant defense and osmotic adjustment. Seedling growth, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant metabolism, osmolytes concentration and Si content of G. uralensis seedlings were analyzed under control, salt and drought stress [100 mM NaCl with 0, 10 and 20% of PEG-6000 (Polyethylene glycol-6000)] with or without 1 mM Si. Si addition markedly affected the G...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283543/kcnq-smit-complex-formation-facilitates-ion-channel-solute-transporter-cross-talk
#6
Daniel L Neverisky, Geoffrey W Abbott
Voltage-gated potassium channels formed by KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 are essential for normal neuronal excitability. KCNQ2/3 channel activity is augmented in vivo by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which is generated from myo-inositol, an osmolyte transported into cells by sodium-dependent myo-inositol transporters (SMITs). Here, we discovered that KCNQ2/3 channels isoform-specifically colocalize with SMIT1 and SMIT2 at sciatic nerve nodes of Ranvier and in axon initial segments, and form channel-transporter complexes in vitro and in vivo KCNQ2/3 coexpression protected SMIT1 activity from the otherwise inhibitory effects of cellular depolarization imposed by elevating extracellular [K(+)], and KCNQ2 was required for potentiation of SMIT activity by myo-inositol preincubation...
March 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283210/osmolyte-depletion-viewed-in-terms-of-the-dividing-membrane-and-its-work-of-expansion-against-osmotic-pressure
#7
Seishi Shimizu, Nobuyuki Matubayasi
How osmolytes enhance the folding, binding, and self-assembly of biological macromolecules at a microscopic scale has long been a matter of debate. Ambiguities persist on the key interpretive concepts, such as the "effective membrane" (which marks the boundary of the volume from which osmolytes are excluded) and the "free energy of exclusion" of osmolytes from biomolecular surfaces. In this paper, we formulate these elusive concepts based upon chemical thermodynamics and rigorous statistical thermodynamics (the Kirkwood-Buff theory)...
February 27, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281000/methylglyoxal-as-a-novel-signal-molecule-induces-the-salt-tolerance-of-wheat-by-regulating-the-glyoxalase-system-the-antioxidant-system-and-osmolytes
#8
Zhong-Guang Li, Xiang-Qiu Duan, Xiong Min, Zhi-Hao Zhou
Reactive carbonyl species methylglyoxal (MG) has always been regarded as a cytotoxic metabolite, but now is emerging to function as signal molecule in plants. However, whether MG can induce salt tolerance is elusive. In this study, treatment of wheat seeds with NaCl reduced seed germination, plant height, root length, fresh weight, and dry weight, indicating the inhibitive effects of NaCl on seed germination and seedling growth. The inhibitive effects of NaCl were alleviated by applying exogenous MG, but aggravated by the MG scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), suggesting that MG could induce the salt tolerance of wheat...
March 9, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272865/sugar-terminated-nanoparticle-chaperones-are-102-105-times-better-than-molecular-sugars-in-inhibiting-protein-aggregation-and-lowering-of-amyloidogenic-cytotoxicity
#9
Nibedita Pradhan, Shashi Shekhar, Nihar R Jana, Nikhil R Jana
Sugar-based osmolyte molecules are known to stabilize proteins under stress but usually they have poor chaperone performance in inhibiting protein aggregation. Here we show that nanoparticle form of sugar molecule can enhance their chaperone performance typically by 102 to 105 times as compared to molecular sugar. Sugar-based nanoparticles of 20-40 nm size have been synthesized by simple heating of acidic aqueous solution of glucose/sucrose/maltose/trehalose. These nanoparticles have excitation dependent green/yellow/orange emission and surface chemistry identical to respective sugar molecule...
March 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264775/yield-and-quality-responses-plant-metabolism-and-metal-distribution-pattern-in-aromatic-rice-under-lead-pb-toxicity
#10
Umair Ashraf, Xiangru Tang
Present study was planned to assess the yield and quality responses, plant physio-biochemical characters and Pb distribution pattern in two aromatic rice cultivars viz., Guixiangzhan (GXZ) and Nongxiang-18 (NX-18) under four different Pb-levels viz., control (0), low (400), medium (800) and high (1200) mg kg(-1)of soil. Results revealed that Pb toxicity increased H2O2, lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage while inhibited photosynthetic pigments production, but such increment was higher in NX-18 than GXZ...
February 24, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263768/osmotic-shock-induced-protein-destabilization-in-living-cells-and-its-reversal-by-glycine-betaine
#11
Samantha S Stadmiller, Annelise H Gorensek-Benitez, Alex J Guseman, Gary J Pielak
Many organisms can adapt to changes in the solute content of their surroundings (i.e., the osmolarity). Hyperosmotic shock causes water efflux and a concomitant reduction in cell volume, which is countered by the accumulation of osmolytes. This volume reduction increases the crowded nature of the cytoplasm, which is expected to affect protein stability. In contrast to traditional theory, which predicts that more crowded conditions can only increase protein stability, recent work shows that crowding can destabilize proteins through transient attractive interactions...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262899/can-an-ammonium-based-room-temperature-ionic-liquid-counteract-the-urea-induced-denaturation-of-a-small-peptide
#12
Soumadwip Ghosh, Souvik Dey, Mahendra Patel, Rajarshi Chakrabarti
The folding/unfolding equilibrium of proteins in aqueous medium can be altered by adding small organic molecules generally termed as co-solvents. Denaturants such as urea are instrumental in the unfolding of proteins while protecting osmolytes favour the folded ensemble. Recently, room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have been shown to counteract the deleterious effect of urea on proteins. In this paper, using atomistic molecular dynamics we show that a ternary mixture containing a particular ammonium-based IL, triethylammonium acetate (TEAA), and urea (in 1 : 5 molar ratio) helps a small 15-residue S-peptide analogue regain most of its native structure, whereas a binary aqueous mixture containing a large amount of urea alone completely distorts it...
March 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252223/chronic-effects-of-copper-in-oysters-crassostrea-hongkongensis-under-different-exposure-regimes-as-shown-by-nmr-based-metabolomics
#13
Chen Cao, Wen-Xiong Wang
Traditional metal toxicity tests on organisms have mainly focused on continuous exposure at a fixed concentration. However, organisms are more likely exposed to pollutants intermittently in estuarine environments that are significantly impacted by anthropogenic activity. The present study examined whether different copper (Cu) exposure regimes at an equivalent dose can induce different metabolomics effects on the oysters. An estuarine oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis was exposed to Cu continuously or intermittently at an equal dose (time × concentration) for 6 wk...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245755/towards-binding-mechanism-of-cu2-on-creatine-kinase-from-pelodiscus-sinensis-molecular-dynamics-simulation-integrating-inhibition-kinetics-study
#14
Yan Cai, Jinhyuk Lee, Wei Wang, Yong-Doo Park, Guo-Ying Qian
Cu2+ is well known to play important roles in living organisms having bifacial distinction: essential microelement that is necessary for a wide range of metabolic processes but hyper-accumulation of Cu2+ can be toxic. The physiological function of Cu2+ in ectothermic animals such as Pelodiscus sinensis (Chinese soft-shelled turtle) has not been elucidated. In this study, we elucidated effect of Cu2+ on the energy producing metabolic enzyme creatine kinase (CK), which might directly affect energy metabolism and homeostasis of P...
February 27, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244196/methylamine-as-a-nitrogen-source-for-microorganisms-from-a-coastal-marine-environment
#15
Martin Taubert, Carolina Grob, Alexandra M Howat, Oliver J Burns, Jennifer Pratscher, Nico Jehmlich, Martin von Bergen, Hans H Richnow, Yin Chen, J Colin Murrell
Nitrogen is a key limiting resource for biomass production in the marine environment. Methylated amines, released from the degradation of osmolytes, could provide a nitrogen source for marine microbes. Thus far, studies in aquatic habitats on the utilization of methylamine, the simplest methylated amine, have mainly focussed on the fate of the carbon from this compound. Various groups of methylotrophs, microorganisms that can grow on one-carbon compounds, use methylamine as a carbon source. Non-methylotrophic microorganisms may also utilize methylamine as a nitrogen source, but little is known about their diversity, especially in the marine environment...
February 28, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228526/trimethylamine-n-oxide-stabilizes-proteins-via-a-distinct-mechanism-compared-with-betaine-and-glycine
#16
Yi-Ting Liao, Anthony C Manson, Michael R DeLyser, William G Noid, Paul S Cremer
We report experimental and computational studies investigating the effects of three osmolytes, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), betaine, and glycine, on the hydrophobic collapse of an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP). All three osmolytes stabilize collapsed conformations of the ELP and reduce the lower critical solution temperature (LSCT) linearly with osmolyte concentration. As expected from conventional preferential solvation arguments, betaine and glycine both increase the surface tension at the air-water interface...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220130/drought-induced-changes-in-growth-osmolyte-accumulation-and-antioxidant-metabolism-of-three-maize-hybrids
#17
Shakeel A Anjum, Umair Ashraf, Mohsin Tanveer, Imran Khan, Saddam Hussain, Babar Shahzad, Ali Zohaib, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad F Saleem, Iftikhar Ali, Long C Wang
Consequences of drought stress in crop production systems are perhaps more deleterious than other abiotic stresses under changing climatic scenarios. Regulations of physio-biochemical responses of plants under drought stress can be used as markers for drought stress tolerance in selection and breeding. The present study was conducted to appraise the performance of three different maize hybrids (Dong Dan 80, Wan Dan 13, and Run Nong 35) under well-watered, low, moderate and SD conditions maintained at 100, 80, 60, and 40% of field capacity, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212821/cloning-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-betaine-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-glycine-betaine-in-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#18
María F Delgado-Gaytán, Jesús A Rosas-Rodríguez, Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia, Ciria G Figueroa-Soto, Elisa M Valenzuela-Soto
The enzyme betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine (GB), a very efficient osmolyte accumulated during osmotic stress. In this study, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA for the BADH from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvBADH). The cDNA was 1882 bp long, with a complete open reading frame of 1524 bp, encoding 507 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 54.15 kDa and a pI of 5.4. The predicted LvBADH amino acid sequence shares a high degree of identity with marine invertebrate BADHs...
February 15, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208054/high-glucose-induced-hypomethylation-promotes-binding-of-sp-1-to-myo-inositol-oxygenase-implication-in-the-pathobiology-of-diabetic-tubulopathy
#19
Isha Sharma, Rajesh K Dutta, Neel K Singh, Yashpal S Kanwar
The catabolic enzyme myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) is expressed in proximal tubules and up-regulated in the diabetic state. Previously, we reported its transcriptional and translation regulation by high glucose (HG), osmolytes, and fatty acids. However, its epigenetic regulation is unknown. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that both human and mouse MIOX promoters, enriched with CpG sites, are hypomethylated and unmethylated under HG ambience and hyperglycemic states associated with increased MIOX expression. Eletrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed increased binding of unmethylated oligos with nucleoproteins of cells maintained under HG...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207877/selective-inhibition-of-aggregation-fibrillation-of-bovine-serum-albumin-by-osmolytes-mechanistic-and-energetics-insights
#20
Moumita Dasgupta, Nand Kishore
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is an important transport protein of the blood and its aggregation/fibrillation would adversely affect its transport ability leading to metabolic disorder. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of fibrillation/aggregation of BSA and design of suitable inhibitor molecules for stabilizing its native conformation, are of utmost importance. The qualitative and quantitative aspects of the effect of osmolytes (proline, hydroxyproline, glycine betaine, sarcosine and sorbitol) on heat induced aggregation/fibrillation of BSA at physiological pH (pH 7...
2017: PloS One
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