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David B Medeiros, Leonardo Perez de Souza, Werner C Antunes, Wagner L Araújo, Danilo M Daloso, Alisdair R Fernie
Sucrose has long been thought to play an osmolytic role in stomatal opening. However, recent evidence supports the idea that the role of sucrose in this process is primarily energetic. Here we used a combination of stomatal aperture assays coupled with kinetic [U-13 C]-sucrose isotope labelling experiments to confirm that sucrose is degraded during light-induced stomatal opening and to define the fate of the C released from sucrose breakdown. We additionally show that addition of sucrose in the medium did not enhance light-induced stomatal opening...
March 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Petra Schwendner, Maria Bohmeier, Petra Rettberg, Kristina Beblo-Vranesevic, Frédéric Gaboyer, Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Alexandra K Perras, Pauline Vannier, Viggó T Marteinsson, Laura Garcia-Descalzo, Felipe Gómez, Moustafa Malki, Ricardo Amils, Frances Westall, Andreas Riedo, Euan P Monaghan, Pascale Ehrenfreund, Patricia Cabezas, Nicolas Walter, Charles Cockell
Growth in sodium chloride (NaCl) is known to induce stress in non-halophilic microorganisms leading to effects on the microbial metabolism and cell structure. Microorganisms have evolved a number of adaptations, both structural and metabolic, to counteract osmotic stress. These strategies are well-understood for organisms in NaCl-rich brines such as the accumulation of certain organic solutes (known as either compatible solutes or osmolytes). Less well studied are responses to ionic environments such as sulfate-rich brines which are prevalent on Earth but can also be found on Mars...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sameh Dbira, Mohamad Al Hassan, Pietro Gramazio, Ali Ferchichi, Oscar Vicente, Jaime Prohens, Monica Boscaiu
Due to its high tolerance to abiotic stress, barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) is cultivated in many arid areas of the world. In the present study, we evaluate the tolerance to water stress (drought) in nine accessions of "Ardhaoui" barley landraces from different regions of Tunisia. The genetic diversity of the accessions is evaluated with six SSR markers. Seedlings from the nine accessions are subjected to water stress by completely stopping irrigation for three weeks. A high genetic diversity is detected among the nine accessions, with no relationships between genetic distance and geographical or ecogeographical zone...
March 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Shokoofeh Hajihashemi, Shakiba Rajabpoor, Ivica Djalovic
The study on Stevia callus has the potential to advance the knowledge of antioxidant mechanisms involved in unorganized cells response to drought stress. The effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG; 0 and 4% w/v) in combination with paclobutrazol (PBZ; 0 and 2 mg l-1 ) and gibberellin (GA; 0 and 2 mg l-1 ) were studied on Stevia rebaudiana callus. PEG treatment led to an oxidative stress, as indicated by increased H2 O2 content whose accumulation was prevented with PBZ and GA treatments. All treatments of PEG, PBZ and GA increased the total antioxidant capacity, with the highest antioxidant power in PBZ and GA treatments without PEG...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Sorour Ahmadyan, Mahboubeh Kabiri, Noushin Tasharofi, Simzar Hosseinzadeh, Mousa Kehtari, Athena Hajari Zadeh, Masoud Soleimani, Ali Farazmand, Hana Hanaee-Ahvaz
Stem cells' fate during in vitro differentiation is influenced by biophysicochemical cues. Osmotic stress has proved to enhance chondrocyte marker expression, however its potent negative impacts had never been surveyed. We questioned whether specific osmotic conditions, regarding the osmolyte agent, could benefit chondrogenesis while dampening undesired concomitant hypertrophy and inflammatory responses. To examine the potential side effects of hypertonicity, we assessed cell proliferation as well as chondrogenic and hypertrophic marker expression of human Adipose Derived-MSC after a two week induction in chondrogenic media with either NaCl or Sorbitol, as the osmolyte agent to reach a +100 mOsm hypertonic condition...
February 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Mohammad Abass Ahanger, Leonard Wijaya, Pravej Alam, Renu Bhardwaj, Parvaiz Ahmad
The original paper was published online bearing incorrect headings for Table 1. Headers "change 0 by C" which appear in columns 2 and 3, should be C only. Corrected table is provided below.
March 5, 2018: Protoplasma
Oscar Goñi, Patrick Quille, Shane O'Connell
Global changes in climate are leading to increased occurrence and duration of drought episodes with concurrent reduction in crop yields. Expansion of the irrigated land area does not appear to be a viable solution in many regions to deliver crop productivity. The development of crop drought tolerance traits by either genetic modification or plant breeding represent the principal approaches to meeting this challenge to date. Biostimulants are an emerging category of crop management products which can enhance crop productivity under abiotic stress conditions...
March 1, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
María J León, Tamara Hoffmann, Cristina Sánchez-Porro, Johann Heider, Antonio Ventosa, Erhard Bremer
Members of the genus Spiribacter are found worldwide and are abundant in ecosystems possessing intermediate salinities between seawater and saturated salt concentrations. Spiribacter salinus M19-40 is the type species of this genus and its first cultivated representative. In the habitats of S. salinus M19-40, high salinity is a key determinant for growth and we therefore focused on the cellular adjustment strategy to this persistent environmental challenge. We coupled these experimental studies to the in silico mining of the genome sequence of this moderate halophile with respect to systems allowing this bacterium to control its potassium and sodium pools, and its ability to import and synthesize compatible solutes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
William Dodd, Lanlan Tang, Jean-Christophe Lone, Keon Wimberly, Cheng-Wei Wu, Claudia Consalvo, Joni E Wright, Nathalie Pujol, Keith P Choe
Extracellular matrix barriers and inducible cytoprotective genes form successive lines of defense against chemical and microbial environmental stressors. The barrier in nematodes is a collagenous extracellular matrix called the cuticle. In C. elegans , disruption of some cuticle collagen genes activates osmolyte and antimicrobial response genes. Physical damage to the epidermis also activates antimicrobial responses. Here, we assayed the effect of knocking down genes required for cuticle and epidermal integrity on diverse cellular stress responses...
February 27, 2018: Genetics
Zhaoqian Su, Gopal Ravindhran, Cristiano Luis Dias
Effects of Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) on hydrophobic and charge-charge interactions are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Recently, these interactions in model peptides and in the Trp-Cage miniprotein have been reported to be strongly affected by TMAO. Neopentane dimers and Na+ Cl- are used, here, as models for hydrophobic and charge-charge interactions, respectively. Distance-dependent interactions, i.e., potential of mean force, are computed using an umbrella sampling protocol at different temperatures which allows us to determine enthalpy and entropic energies...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Shivani Vaidya, Kamal Dev, Anuradha Sourirajan
Two strict halophilic bacterial strains, Halobacillus trueperi SS1, and Halobacillus trueperi SS3, and three halotolerant bacterial strains, Shewanella algae SS2, Halomonas venusta SS5, and Marinomonas sp. SS8 of Lunsu salt water body, Himachal Pradesh, India, were selected to study the mechanism of salt tolerance and the role of osmolytes therein. A combination of flame photometry, chromatographic and colorimetric assays was used to study the mechanism of salt tolerance in the selected strict halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains...
February 26, 2018: Current Microbiology
Karin Julius, Samy R Al-Ayoubi, Michael Paulus, Metin Tolan, Roland Winter
Investigating the correlation between structure and activity of oligomeric enzymes at high pressure is essential for understanding intermolecular interactions and reactivity of proteins in cellulo of organisms thriving at extreme environmental conditions as well as for biotechnological applications, such as high-pressure enzymology. In a combined experimental effort employing small-angle X-ray scattering, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as stopped-flow enzyme kinetics in concert with high-pressure techniques, we reveal the pressure-induced conformational changes of the dimeric enzyme horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH) on the quaternary, secondary and tertiary structural level...
February 26, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Juthika Saikia, Rupak K Sarma, Rajashree Dhandia, Archana Yadav, Rupjyoti Bharali, Vijai K Gupta, Ratul Saikia
The agricultural crops are often affected by the scarcity of fresh water. Seasonal drought is a major constraint on Northeast Indian agriculture. Almost 80% of the agricultural land in this region is acidic and facing severe drought during the winter period. Apart from classical breeding and transgenic approaches, the application of plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is an alternative strategy for improving plant fitness under stressful conditions. The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase-producing PGPB offer drought stress tolerance by regulating plant ethylene levels...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vasim Ahmed, Manoj K Verma, Shashank Gupta, Vibha Mandhan, Nar S Chauhan
Osmotolerance is one of the critical factors for successful survival and colonization of microbes in saline environments. Nonetheless, information about these osmotolerance mechanisms is still inadequate. Exploration of the saline soil microbiome for its community structure and novel genetic elements is likely to provide information on the mechanisms involved in osmoadaptation. The present study explores the saline soil microbiome for its native structure and novel genetic elements involved in osmoadaptation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jorick Franceus, Lena Decuyper, Matthias D'hooghe, Tom Desmet
In the carbohydrate-active enzyme database, GH13_18 is a family of retaining glycoside phosphorylases that act on α-glucosides. In this work, we explored the functional diversity of this family by comparing distinctive sequence motifs in different branches of its phylogenetic tree. A glycoside phosphorylase from Marinobacter adhaerens HP15 that was predicted to have a novel function was expressed and characterised. The enzyme was found to catalyse the reversible phosphorolysis of 2-O-α-D-glucosylglycerol with retention of the anomeric configuration, a specificity that has never been described before...
February 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Eugene P Sokolov, Inna M Sokolova
Salinity is an important environmental factor affecting physiology of marine organisms. Osmoconformers such as marine mollusks maintain metabolic function despite changes of the osmolarity and composition of the cytosol during salinity shifts. Currently, metabolic responses to the salinity-induced changes of the intracellular milieu are not well understood. We studied the effects of osmolarity (450 vs. 900 mOsm) and compatible osmolytes (70-590 mM of taurine or betaine) on isolated gill mitochondria of a marine osmoconformer, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas...
February 16, 2018: Mitochondrion
Kaethe N Leonard, Joshua M Blose
Osmolytes and macromolecular crowders have the potential to influence the stability of secondary structure motifs and alter preferences for conserved nucleic acid sequences in vivo . To further understand the cellular function of RNA we observed the effects of a model osmolyte, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 200, and a model macromolecular crowding agent, PEG 8000, on the GAAA tetraloop motif. GAAA tetraloops are conserved, stable tetraloops, and are critical participants in RNA tertiary structure. They also have a thermodynamic preference for a CG closing base pair...
2018: PeerJ
Artur Conde, Flávio Soares, Richard Breia, Hernâni Gerós
Postharvest dehydration causes changes in texture, color, taste and nutritional value of food due to the high temperatures and long drying times required. In grape berries, a gradual dehydration process is normally utilized for raisin production and for making special wines. Here we applied a raisin industry-mimicking dehydration process for eleven days at 50°C to intact berry clusters from cv. Sémillon plants, and a set of molecular, cellular and biochemical analyses were performed to study the impact of postharvest dehydration in the primary metabolism...
March 2018: Food Research International
Florian Götz, Krista Longnecker, Melissa C Kido Soule, Kevin W Becker, Jesse McNichol, Elizabeth B Kujawinski, Stefan M Sievert
Chemoautotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Sulfurimonas in the class Campylobacteria are widespread in many marine environments characterized by redox interfaces, yet little is known about their physiological adaptations to different environmental conditions. Here, we used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a targeted metabolomics approach to study the adaptations of Sulfurimonas denitrificans to varying salt concentrations that are found in its natural habitat of tidal mudflats...
February 9, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Wu Dayang, Pang Dongbo
BACKGROUND: The massive uptake of organic compatible osmolytes is a self-protective response to multiple stressors. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the protective effects of the osmolyte taurine against blue light-induced apoptosis in retinal neuronal cells in vitro. METHODS: Real-time PCR was used to measure osmolyte transport. Radioimmunoassays were performed to measure osmolyte uptake. Cell Counting Kit-8 assays were conducted to measure cellular viability...
February 27, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
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