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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239983/targeted-deletion-of-gd3-synthase-protects-against-mptp-induced-neurodegeneration
#1
Yada Akkhawattanangkul, Panchanan Maiti, Yi Xue, Dipendra Aryal, William C Wetsel, David Hamilton, Stephen C Fowler, Michael P McDonald
Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurodegenerative condition for which there is no cure. Converging evidence implicates gangliosides in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting a potential new class of therapeutic targets. We have shown that interventions that simultaneously increase the neuroprotective GM1 ganglioside and decrease the pro-apoptotic GD3 ganglioside-such as inhibition of GD3 synthase (GD3S) or administration of sialidase-are neuroprotective in vitro and in a number of preclinical models...
February 27, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239864/astrocytes-sniph-out-bicarbonate-to-regulate-acid-base-review-of-bicarbonate-sensing-in-mouse-cortical-astrocytes-during-extracellular-acid-base-disturbances-by-theparambil-et%C3%A2-al
#2
Robert Fern
In recent years the glial cell type called the astrocyte has been implicated in CNS functions previously considered to be the exclusive domain of neurons; examples include modulation of synaptic strength and memory consolidation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239845/stimulation-of-na-k-pump-currents-by-epithelial-nicotinic-receptors-in-rat-colon
#3
Sandra Bader, Lena Lottig, Martin Diener
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acetylcholine-induced epithelial Cl(-) secretion is generally thought to be mediated by epithelial muscarinic receptors and nicotinic receptors on secretomotor neurons. However, recent data showed the expression of nicotinic receptors by intestinal epithelium and the stimulation of Cl(-) secretion by nicotine in the presence of the neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin. In the present study, we aimed to identify the transporters activated by epithelial nicotinic receptors and to clarify their role in cholinergic regulation of intestinal ion transport...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239803/nasal-hppsis-administration-enhances-ngf-and-tumor-suppressor-protein-p73-in-human-brain-cancer-tissues-preliminary-data
#4
L Aloe, M L Rocco, E Stigliano, F Angelini, M Iacoangeli, V Frari, F Salvinelli
OBJECTIVE: Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor known to play a critical role in growth, survival, differentiation and neuroprotection of peripheral sensory and sympathetic neurons, as well as brain neurons. We have recently reported that nasal administration of high-pressure isotonic physiological saline solution (HPpSIS) enhances the level of NGF and the expression of NGF receptors in neurons of the olfactory bulbs and forebrain cholinergic neurons of laboratory animals...
February 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239767/down-regulation-of-pin1-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-and-mouse-model
#5
Lan Tang, Yanke Zhang, Guojun Chen, Yan Xiong, Xuefeng Wang, Binglin Zhu
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) is a unique PPIase belonging to the parvulin family, and it isomerizes peptide bond between phospho-(Ser/Thr) and Pro. Pin1 has been linked to the pathogenesis of various human diseases; however, its exact biological functions remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the expression pattern of Pin1 in patients with refractory epilepsy and in a chronic pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model. Using Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis, we found that Pin1 protein was mainly distributed in neurons, demonstrated by colocalization with the dendritic marker, MAP2...
February 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239766/up-regulation-of-gbp2-is-associated-with-neuronal-apoptosis-in-rat-brain-cortex-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Qi Miao, Meihong Ge, Lili Huang
Guanylate binding protein 2 (GBP2) is one member of GBP family. Recently, GBP2 has been proposed to be a novel target of anti-cancer drugs. However, the role of GBP2 in the traumatic brain injury (TBI) is very limited. In this study, we sought to define GBP2's role in brain injury. GBP2 protein levels were significantly increased in the brain 3 days after injury, suggesting a functional role for GBP2 in TBI. Neuronal cells overexpressing GBP2 exhibited up-regulation of co-location of GBP2 and NeuN following TBI, suggesting that GBP2 potentiates the neuron apoptosis...
February 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239676/intact-ventral-striatal-prediction-error-signaling-in-medicated-schizophrenia-patients
#7
Adam J Culbreth, Andrew Westbrook, Ziye Xu, Deanna M Barch, James A Waltz
BACKGROUND: Midbrain dopaminergic neurons code a computational quantity, reward prediction error (RPE), which has been causally related to learning. Recently, this insight has been leveraged to link phenomenological and biological levels of understanding in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. However, results have been mixed, possibly due to small sample sizes. Here we present results from two studies with relatively large Ns to assess VS RPE in schizophrenia. METHODS: In the current study we analyzed data from two independent studies, involving a total of 87 chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 61 controls...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239660/%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-blockade-rescues-hypoglossal-motor-defense-against-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#8
Gang Song, Chi-Sang Poon
Decreased noradrenergic excitation of hypoglossal motoneurons during sleep causing hypotonia of pharyngeal dilator muscles is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a widespread disease for which treatment options are limited. Previous OSA drug candidates targeting various excitatory/inhibitory receptors on hypoglossal motoneurons have proved unviable in reactivating these neurons, particularly during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. To identify a viable drug target, we show that the repurposed α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine potently reversed the depressant effect of REM sleep on baseline hypoglossal motoneuron activity (a first-line motor defense against OSA) in rats...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239568/expression-of-hepatitis-b-virus-surface-antigens-induces-defective-gonad-phenotypes-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Yi-Yin Chen, Li-Wei Lee, Wei-Ning Hong, Szecheng J Lo
AIM: To test whether a simple animal, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), can be used as an alternative model to study the interaction between hepatitis B virus antigens (HBsAg) and host factors. METHODS: Three plasmids that were able to express the large, middle and small forms of HBsAgs (LHBsAg, MHBsAg, and SHBsAg, respectively) driven by a ubiquitous promoter (fib-1) and three that were able to express SHBsAg driven by different tissue-specific promoters were constructed and microinjected into worms...
February 12, 2017: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239529/morphological-relationship-between-the-superior-cervical-ganglion-and-cervical-nerves-in-japanese-cadaver-donors
#10
Kazuyuki Mitsuoka, Takeshi Kikutani, Iwao Sato
INTRODUCTION: There are various communications between the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves. However, little information exists concerning the origin of these sympathetic ganglion branches at the superior, middle, and inferior regions of the human SCG. The aim of this study was to describe the human SCG in a morphometric manner with the communication with cranial and cervical nerves and supply. METHODS: This study characterized 72 SCG samples from 54 elderly Japanese human cadavers (30 males, 24 females; 65-100 years old)...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239517/cortical-interactions-during-the-resolution-of-information-processing-demands-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Kristina Denisova, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Suzanne Goh, Yuankai Huo, Bradley S Peterson
INTRODUCTION: Our flexible and adaptive interactions with the environment are guided by our individual representation of the physical world, estimated through sensation and evaluation of available information against prior knowledge. When linking sensory evidence with higher-level expectations for action, the central nervous system (CNS) in typically developing (TD) individuals relies in part on distributed and interacting cortical regions to communicate neuronal signals flexibly across the brain...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239515/reduced-interneuronal-dendritic-arborization-in-ca1-but-not-in-ca3-region-of-mice-subjected-to-chronic-mild-stress
#12
Javier Gilabert-Juan, Clara Bueno-Fernandez, Esther Castillo-Gomez, Juan Nacher
INTRODUCTION: Chronic stress induces dendritic atrophy and decreases spine density in excitatory hippocampal neurons, although there is also ample evidence indicating that the GABAergic system is altered in the hippocampus after this aversive experience. Chronic stress causes dendritic remodeling both in excitatory neurons and interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. METHODS: In order to know whether it also has an impact on the structure and neurotransmission of hippocampal interneurons, we have analyzed the dendritic arborization, spine density, and the expression of markers of inhibitory synapses and plasticity in the hippocampus of mice submitted to 21 days of mild restrain stress...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239455/the-underlying-mechanism-of-prodromal-pd-insights-from-the-parasympathetic-nervous-system-and-the-olfactory-system
#13
REVIEW
Shu-Ying Liu, Piu Chan, A Jon Stoessl
Neurodegeneration of Parkinson's disease (PD) starts in an insidious manner, 30-50% of dopaminergic neurons have been lost in the substantia nigra before clinical diagnosis. Prodromal stage of the disease, during which the disease pathology has started but is insufficient to result in clinical manifestations, offers a valuable window for disease-modifying therapies. The most focused underlying mechanisms linking the pathological pattern and clinical characteristics of prodromal PD are the prion hypothesis of alpha-synuclein and the selective vulnerability of neurons...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239444/locomotory-control-in-amphioxus-larvae-new-insights-from-neurotransmitter-data
#14
EDITORIAL
Thurston Lacalli, Simona Candiani
Amphioxus larvae have a midbrain-level locomotory control center whose overall organization is known from serial TEM reconstructions. How it functions has been a puzzle, owing to uncertainty as to the transmitters used by each class of neurons, but this has recently become clearer. We summarize what is now known, and correct past misconceptions: The large paired neurons at the core of the control center are glutamatergic, and hence excitatory, the commissural neurons are GABAergic, hence probably inhibitory, and both motoneurons and ipsilateral projection neurons are cholinergic, suggesting that the latter, a class of interneurons, may be derived evolutionarily from the former...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239358/a-background-of-a-volatile-plant-compound-alters-neural-and-behavioral-responses-to-the-sex-pheromone-blend-in-a-moth
#15
Fabienne Dupuy, Angéla Rouyar, Nina Deisig, Thomas Bourgeois, Denis Limousin, Marie-Anne Wycke, Sylvia Anton, Michel Renou
Recognition of intra-specific olfactory signals within a complex environment of plant-related volatiles is crucial for reproduction in male moths. Sex pheromone information is detected by specific olfactory receptor neurons (Phe-ORNs), highly abundant on the male antenna. The information is then transmitted to the pheromone processing macroglomerular complex (MGC) within the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe, where it is processed by local interneurons and projection neurons. Ultimately a behavioral response, orientation toward the pheromone source, is elicited...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239353/transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-channel-expression-on-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-from-rheumatoid-arthritic-patients-and-correlation-with-pain-and-disability
#16
Ione Pereira, Saulo J F Mendes, Domingos M S Pereira, Thayanne F Muniz, Valderlane L P Colares, Cinara R A V Monteiro, Mahiba M R de S Martins, Marcos A G Grisotto, Valério Monteiro-Neto, Sílvio G Monteiro, João B Calixto, Susan D Brain, Elizabeth S Fernandes
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer from pain and joint disability. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel expressed on sensory neurones and non-neuronal cells mediates pain transduction and inflammation and it has been implicated in RA. However, there is little information on the contribution of TRPA1 for human disease. Here, we investigated the expression of TRPA1 on peripheral blood leukocytes and the circulating levels of its endogenous activators 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in RA patients treated or not with the anti-rheumatic leflunomide (LFN) or the anti-TNFα adalimumab (ADA)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239347/hearing-dysfunction-in-xpa-deficient-mice
#17
Hitomi Shinomiya, Daisuke Yamashita, Takeshi Fujita, Eiji Nakano, Go Inokuchi, Shingo Hasegawa, Naoki Otsuki, Chikako Nishigori, Ken-Ichi Nibu
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare recessive heredity disease caused by DNA repair impairment characterized by photosensitivity and neurologic symptoms in half of the cases. There are eight subtypes of XP: XP-A-XP-G and XP variant. Among eight subtypes, XP complementation group A (XP-A) display the lowest DNA repair ability and the severest cutaneous and neurologic symptoms. While its pathogenesis of skin symptoms have been well-studied, that of neurological symptoms, including sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239346/parallel-steps-large-scale-stochastic-spatial-reaction-diffusion-simulation-with-high-performance-computers
#18
Weiliang Chen, Erik De Schutter
Stochastic, spatial reaction-diffusion simulations have been widely used in systems biology and computational neuroscience. However, the increasing scale and complexity of models and morphologies have exceeded the capacity of any serial implementation. This led to the development of parallel solutions that benefit from the boost in performance of modern supercomputers. In this paper, we describe an MPI-based, parallel operator-splitting implementation for stochastic spatial reaction-diffusion simulations with irregular tetrahedral meshes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239341/adeno-associated-viral-vectors-serotype-8-for-cell-specific-delivery-of-therapeutic-genes-in-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Diego Pignataro, Diego Sucunza, Lucia Vanrell, Esperanza Lopez-Franco, Iria G Dopeso-Reyes, Africa Vales, Mirja Hommel, Alberto J Rico, Jose L Lanciego, Gloria Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have become highly promising tools for research and clinical applications in the central nervous system (CNS). However, specific delivery of genes to the cell type of interest is essential for the success of gene therapy and therefore a correct selection of the promoter plays a very important role. Here, AAV8 vectors carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) as reporter gene under the transcriptional control of different CNS-specific promoters were used and compared with a strong ubiquitous promoter...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239340/dopamine-induced-changes-in-g%C3%AE-olf-protein-levels-in-striatonigral-and-striatopallidal-medium-spiny-neurons-underlie-the-genesis-of-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-parkinsonian-mice
#20
Ryoma Morigaki, Shinya Okita, Satoshi Goto
The dopamine precursor, l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), exerts powerful therapeutic effects but eventually generates l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). LID has a close link with deregulation of striatal dopamine/cAMP signaling, which is integrated by medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Olfactory type G-protein α subunit (Gαolf), a stimulatory GTP-binding protein encoded by the GNAL gene, is highly concentrated in the striatum, where it positively couples with dopamine D1 (D1R) receptor and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) to increase intracellular cAMP levels in MSNs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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