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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941407/targeted-neurogenesis-pathway-based-gene-analysis-identifies-adora2a-associated-with-hippocampal-volume-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Emrin Horgusluoglu-Moloch, Kwangsik Nho, Shannon L Risacher, Sungeun Kim, Tatiana Foroud, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Paul S Aisen, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Simon Lovestone, Andrew Simmons, Michael W Weiner, Andrew J Saykin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients display hippocampal atrophy, memory impairment, and cognitive decline. New neurons are generated throughout adulthood in 2 regions of the brain implicated in AD, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the olfactory bulb. Disruption of this process contributes to neurodegenerative diseases including AD, and many of the molecular players in AD are also modulators of adult neurogenesis. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis in AD have been underexplored...
August 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941398/the-mechanisms-mediating-the-antiepileptic-effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet-and-potential-opportunities-for-improvement-with-metabolism-altering-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Neil A Youngson, Margaret J Morris, Bill Ballard
The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly being used to treat patients with intractable epilepsy. Despite decades of research, the reason for its success, when anticonvulsants have failed, is still not completely understood. There are, however, many candidate mechanisms which can be grouped into those that alter neuronal excitability at the synapse, and those that confer neuroprotection. The molecular underpinning of these mechanisms centres on the shift from glucose- to lipid-based energy generation that accompanies a high fat/low carbohydrate diet...
September 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941357/microrna-in-alzheimer-s-disease-revisited-implications-for-major-neuropathological-mechanisms
#3
Reihaneh Dehghani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) goes far beyond neurotoxicity resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and accumulation of Aβ in the form of the plaque or neurofibrillary tangles are the known primary culprits of AD pathogenesis and target for various regulatory mechanisms. Hyper-phosphorylation of tau, a major component of neurofibrillary tangles, precipitates its aggregation and prevents its clearance. Lipid particles, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein receptors can act in favor or against Aβ and tau accumulation by altering neural membrane characteristics or dynamics of transport across the blood-brain barrier...
September 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938777/role-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-during-the-transition-from-incubation-behavior-to-rearing-behavior-in-the-female-native-thai-chicken
#4
S Namken, P Sinpru, B Kamkrathok, N Sartsoongnoen, Y Chaiseha
It is well documented that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an avian prolactin-releasing factor, regulating the reproductive cycle, that initiates and maintains incubation behavior in avian species. Native Thai chicken has strong maternal behaviors. Thus, it is an excellent animal model to study this phenomenon. Changes in the numbers of VIP neurons within the nucleus inferioris hypothalami (IH) and nucleus infundibuli hypothalami (IN) are associated with maternal behaviors in the native Thai chicken...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938641/potential-independent-action-of-sigma-receptor-ligands-through-inhibition-of-the-kv2-1-channel
#5
Xinying Liu, Yingmei Fu, Huan Yang, Timur Mavlyutov, Jun Li, Christopher R McCurdy, Lian-Wang Guo, Bikash R Pattnaik
The sigma-1 receptor (σ1-R) and sigma-2 receptor (σ2-R) are potential drug targets for treatment of cancer, pain, depression, retinal degeneration and other neuronal diseases. Previous reports show that sigma-1 receptor modulates the activities of multiple channels. We are interested in possible sigma receptor modulation of Kv2.1, a K(+) channel abundant in retinal photoreceptors. We tested the effect of established sigma receptor ligands on Kv2.1 channels which were stably expressed in HEK293 cells. Surprisingly, σ1-R antagonists inhibited Kv2...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938628/mir-144-promotes-%C3%AE-amyloid-accumulation-induced-cognitive-impairments-by-targeting-adam10-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Liqian Sun, Manman Zhao, Jingbo Zhang, Aihua Liu, Wenjun Ji, Youxiang Li, Xinjian Yang, Zhongxue Wu
The dysregulation expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR-144, has been widely documented in TBI. However, little is known about the potential roles of miR-144 in the pathogenesis of TBI. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of miR-144 on cognitive function in vivo and in vitro. The results indicated that inhibition of miR-144 conferred a better neurological outcome after TBI in vivo, as evidenced by reduced lesion volume, alleviated brain edema and increased mNSS, of particular importance, improved cognitive deficits...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938486/the-two-populations-of-kisspeptin-neurons-are-involved-in-the-ram-induced-lh-pulsatile-secretion-and-lh-surge-in-anestrous-ewes
#7
C Fabre-Nys, J Cognié, L Dufourny, M S Ghenim, S Martinet, O Lasserre, D Lomet, R P Millar, S Ohkura, Y Suetomi
Exposure to a ram during spring stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and can induce ovulation in sexually quiescent ewes ("ram effect"). Kisspeptins (Kiss) present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the preoptic area (POA) are potent stimulators of LH secretion. Our aim was to investigate if Kiss neurons mediate the increase in LH secretion during the "ram effect". With double immunofluorescent detection we identified Kiss neurons (Kiss IR) activated (Fos IR) by exposure to a ram for 2h (M2), 12h (M12) or to ewes for 2h (C)...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938481/vesicular-glutamate-transporter-1-knockdown-in-infralimbic-prefrontal-cortex-augments-neuroendocrine-responses-to-chronic-stress-in-male-rats
#8
Brent Myers, Jessica M McKlveen, Rachel Morano, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai, Matia B Solomon, Steven P Wilson, James P Herman
Chronic stress-associated pathologies frequently associate with alterations in the structure and activity of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, the influence of infralimbic cortex (IL) projection neurons on HPA axis activity is unknown, as is the involvement of these cells in chronic stress-induced endocrine alterations. In the current study, a lentiviral-packaged vector coding for a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1) mRNA was microinjected into the IL of male rats...
July 25, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938472/dopamine-neuron-restricted-leptin-receptor-lepr-signaling-reduces-some-aspects-of-food-reward-but-exacerbates-the-obesity-of-lepr-deficient-male-mice
#9
Maggie C Evans, Greg M Anderson
The contribution of leptin-induced modulation of dopamine neurons to feeding behavior and energy homeostasis remains unclear. Midbrain dopamine neurons regulate the reward value of food, and direct leptin administration to the midbrain reduces food intake. However, selective deletion of leptin receptors (Lepr) from dopamine neurons has no effect on body weight, food intake or hedonic responses, either suggesting leptin acts indirectly or demonstrating sufficient compensation occurs to mask any direct leptin-dopamine effects...
August 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938464/sex-differences-in-steroid-receptor-co-expression-and-circadian-timed-activation-of-kisspeptin-and-rfrp-3-neurons-may-contribute-to-the-sexually-dimorphic-basis-of-the-lh-surge
#10
Matthew C Poling, Elena Y Luo, Alexander S Kauffman
In rodents, the ovulation-inducing LH surge is sexually dimorphic, occurring only in females, but the reasons for this sex difference are unclear. Two neuropeptides, kisspeptin and RFRP-3, are hypothesized to regulate the GnRH/LH surge. In females, both these systems show circadian changes coincident with the LH surge, but whether males show similar temporal changes under comparable hormonal conditions is unknown. Here, we evaluated circadian time (CT)-dependent changes in gene expression and neuronal activation of Kiss1 and Rfrp neurons of female and male mice given identical LH surge-inducing estrogen regimens...
August 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938422/prepubertal-development-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-neuron-activity-is-altered-by-sex-age-and-prenatal-androgen-exposure
#11
Eden A Dulka, Suzanne M Moenter
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons regulate reproduction though pulsatile hormone release. Disruption of GnRH release as measured via LH pulses occurs in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in young hyperandrogenemic girls. In adult prenatally androgenized (PNA) mice, which exhibit many aspects of PCOS, increased LH is associated with increased GnRH neuron action potential firing. How GnRH neuron activity develops over the prepubertal period and whether or not this is altered by sex or prenatal androgen treatment are unknown...
September 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938405/short-term-high-fat-diet-increases-leptin-activation-of-cart-neurons-and-advances-puberty-in-female-mice
#12
Jade Cabestre Venancio, Lisandra Oliveira Margatho, Rodrigo C Rorato, Roberta Ribeiro Costa Rosales, Lucas Kniess Debarba, Ricardo Coletti, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, Carol F Elias, Lucila Leico K Elias
Leptin is a permissive factor for puberty initiation, participating as a metabolic cue in the activation of the kisspeptin (Kiss1)-gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal circuitry however, it has no direct effect on Kiss1 neurons. Leptin acts on hypothalamic CART neurons, participating in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We investigated the influence of a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) on the effect of leptin on puberty timing. Kiss1-hrGFP female mice received a HFD or regular diet (RD) after weaning at postnatal day 21 (PN21) and were studied at PN28 and PN32...
September 4, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938398/long-term-recordings-of-arcuate-nucleus-kisspeptin-neurons-reveal-patterned-activity-that-is-modulated-by-gonadal-steroids-in-male-mice
#13
Charlotte Vanacker, Manuel Ricu Moya, R Anthony DeFazio, Michael L Johnson, Suzanne M Moenter
Pulsatile release of GnRH is key to fertility. Pulse frequency is modulated by gonadal steroids and likely arises subsequent to coordination of GnRH neuron firing activity. The source of rhythm generation and the site of steroid feedback remain critical unanswered questions. Arcuate neurons that synthetize kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin (KNDy neurons) may be involved in both of these processes. We tested the hypotheses that action potential firing in KNDy neurons is episodic and that gonadal steroids regulate this pattern...
July 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938340/paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-prognostic-insights-and-outlooks
#14
Alicia K Au, Robert S B Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Prognostication of outcome following TBI is challenging in this population and likely requires complex, multimodal models to achieve clinically relevant accuracy. This review highlights injury characteristics, physiological indicators, biomarkers and neuromonitoring modalities predictive of outcome that may be integrated for future development of sensitive and specific prognostic models...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938181/cortical-inhibitory-interneurons-control-sensory-processing
#15
REVIEW
Katherine C Wood, Jennifer M Blackwell, Maria Neimark Geffen
Inhibitory and excitatory neurons form intricate interconnected circuits in the mammalian sensory cortex. Whereas the function of excitatory neurons is largely to integrate and transmit information within and between brain areas, inhibitory neurons are thought to shape the way excitatory neurons integrate information, and they exhibit context-specific and behavior-specific responses. Over the last few years, work across sensory modalities has begun unraveling the function of distinct types of cortical inhibitory neurons in sensory processing, identifying their contribution to controlling stimulus selectivity of excitatory neurons and modulating information processing based on the behavioral state of the subject...
September 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938161/the-diverse-actions-of-astrocytes-during-synaptic-development
#16
REVIEW
Alexandra P Bosworth, Nicola J Allen
In the developing brain, cortical circuits are established through a complex process of synaptogenesis, maturation, and synaptic pruning. Astrocytes carry out diverse functions during each of these stages to facilitate the formation of complex networks. Recent work has begun to demonstrate that these heterogeneous roles during excitatory synaptic development are determined by the astrocyte population, brain region, and neuron type. This review will focus on current findings which highlight cell type specific mechanisms of excitatory synaptogenesis, as well as multiple mechanisms engaged by astrocytes to facilitate synaptic maturation and pruning...
September 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938130/learning-in-the-machine-the-symmetries-of-the-deep-learning-channel
#17
Pierre Baldi, Peter Sadowski, Zhiqin Lu
In a physical neural system, learning rules must be local both in space and time. In order for learning to occur, non-local information must be communicated to the deep synapses through a communication channel, the deep learning channel. We identify several possible architectures for this learning channel (Bidirectional, Conjoined, Twin, Distinct) and six symmetry challenges: (1) symmetry of architectures; (2) symmetry of weights; (3) symmetry of neurons; (4) symmetry of derivatives; (5) symmetry of processing; and (6) symmetry of learning rules...
September 5, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938084/the-evolving-understanding-of-dopamine-neurons-in-the-substantia-nigra-and-ventral-tegmental-area
#18
Stephanie C Gantz, Christopher P Ford, Hitoshi Morikawa, John T Williams
In recent years, the population of neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) has been examined at multiple levels. The results indicate that the projections, neurochemistry, and receptor and ion channel expression in this cell population vary widely. This review centers on the intrinsic properties and synaptic regulation that control the activity of dopamine neurons. Although all dopamine neurons fire action potentials in a pacemaker pattern in the absence of synaptic input, the intrinsic properties that underlie this activity differ considerably...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938081/sleep-in-insects
#19
Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Sleep is essential for proper brain function in mammals and insects. During sleep, animals are disconnected from the external world; they show high arousal thresholds and changed brain activity. Sleep deprivation results in a sleep rebound. Research using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has helped us understand the genetic and neuronal control of sleep. Genes involved in sleep control code for ion channels, factors influencing neurotransmission and neuromodulation, and proteins involved in the circadian clock...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938009/altering-neuronal-excitability-to-preserve-network-connectivity-in-a-computational-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Willem de Haan, Elisabeth C W van Straaten, Alida A Gouw, Cornelis J Stam
Neuronal hyperactivity and hyperexcitability of the cerebral cortex and hippocampal region is an increasingly observed phenomenon in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). In later stages, oscillatory slowing and loss of functional connectivity are ubiquitous. Recent evidence suggests that neuronal dynamics have a prominent role in AD pathophysiology, making it a potentially interesting therapeutic target. However, although neuronal activity can be manipulated by various (non-)pharmacological means, intervening in a highly integrated system that depends on complex dynamics can produce counterintuitive and adverse effects...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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