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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551869/impact-of-chronic-stress-on-the-spatial-learning-and-gr-pkac-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-the-hippocampus-and-cortex-in-rats-following-cholinergic-depletion
#1
Sun-Young Lee, Woo-Hyun Cho, Yo-Seob Lee, Jung-Soo Han
Studies have shown that the removal of the cholinergic innervation to the hippocampus induces dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and decreases the number of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Subsequent studies have revealed that the loss of cholinergic input to the hippocampus reduces the expression of GRs and activates nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling through interactions with the cytoplasmic catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc). We examined the effects of chronic stress on cognitive status and GR-PKAc-NF-κB signaling in rats with a loss of cholinergic input to the hippocampus and cortex...
May 27, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551759/seeing-a-brain-through-an-other-the-informant-s-share-in-the-diagnosis-of-dementia
#2
Laurence Anne Tessier
This article takes up the neuroscientific assumption of our brains as "solitary" and contrasts this understanding with the description of actual clinical practices. Drawing on observations of clinical consultations and team meetings in a world famous US center for the diagnosis of dementia, I examine how the "informant", a member of the patient's family, participates in the diagnosis process. Based on specific situations in which the informant is judged to be a "bad" one, I inquire as to how clinicians use what they understand of the affective relationships between the patient and the bad informant in order to make a diagnosis...
May 27, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551750/modelling-autistic-neurons-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Annie Kathuria, Carlo Sala, Chiara Verpelli, Jack Price
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects more than 1% of children per current estimates. It has been characterised by the following two core behavioural phenotypes: (1) deficits in social interaction and communication and (2) repetitive behaviours, restricted interests and activities. Due to the complex nature of ASD, there are currently no effective treatments. The reason behind this is the clinical and genetic heterogeneity between affected individuals on the one hand and the lack of understanding of the underpinning pathophysiological mechanisms on the other hand...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551743/effects-of-deltamethrin-on-striatum-and-hippocampus-mitochondrial-integrity-and-the-protective-role-of-quercetin-in-rats
#4
Salim Gasmi, Rachid Rouabhi, Mohamed Kebieche, Samira Boussekine, Aya Salmi, Nadjiba Toualbia, Chahinez Taib, Zina Bouteraa, Hajer Chenikher, Sara Henine, Belgacem Djabri
The present work is to evaluate the neurotoxicity induced by pyrethroid insecticide "Deltamethrin" at 0.32 mg/kg/day in two main regions of the Wistar rat brain (hippocampus and striatum) and the protective effects of Quercetin at 10 mg/kg/day on this toxicity after 90 days of exposure. The assay of brain parameters showed that Deltamethrin caused a significant increase of mitochondrial metabolite level (proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates) and enzyme activity (glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase); a decreased amount of mitochondrial glutathione level and catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities; and an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) acid levels of the two regions...
May 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551706/oral-administration-of-ethanolamine-glycerophospholipid-containing-a-high-level-of-plasmalogen-improves-memory-impairment-in-amyloid-%C3%AE-infused-rats
#5
Shinji Yamashita, Michio Hashimoto, Abdul Md Haque, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Mikio Kinoshita, Osamu Shido, Teruo Miyazawa
Ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn), a major phospholipid in neuronal membranes [60-90 mol% of ethanolamine glycerophospholipid (EtnGpl)], is specifically decreased in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study investigated how PlsEtn administration affects cognitive deficits and lipid composition in an animal model of AD. AD model rats were infused with amyloid-β (Aβ) into the cerebral ventricle and divided into three groups. Control, Egg, and Ascidian groups were then orally administered vehicle, egg yolk EtnGpl (260 μmol as EtnGpl/kg BW/day; 10 μmol as PlsEtn/kg BW/day), or ascidian viscera EtnGpl (260 μmol as EtnGpl/kg BW/day; 209 μmol as PlsEtn/kg BW/day), respectively...
May 27, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551702/alpha-7-nicotinic-receptor-signaling-pathway-participates-in-the-neurogenesis-induced-by-chat-positive-neurons-in-the-subventricular-zone
#6
Jianping Wang, Zhengfang Lu, Xiaojie Fu, Di Zhang, Lie Yu, Nan Li, Yufeng Gao, Xianliang Liu, Chunmao Yin, Junji Ke, Liyuan Li, Mengmeng Zhai, Shiwen Wu, Jiahong Fan, Liang Lv, Junchao Liu, Xuemei Chen, Qingwu Yang, Jian Wang
Choline acetyltransferase-positive (ChAT(+)) neurons within the subventricular zone (SVZ) have been shown to promote neurogenesis after stroke in mice by secreting acetylcholine (ACh); however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Receptors known to bind ACh include the nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs), which are present in the SVZ and have been shown to be important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. In this study, we investigated the neurogenic role of the alpha-7 nAChR (α7 nAChR) in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by using α7 nAChR inhibitor methyllycaconitine...
May 27, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551320/effects-of-chronic-abdominal-vagal-stimulation-of-small-diameter-neurons-on-brain-metabolism-and-food-intake
#7
Charles-Henri Malbert, Eric Bobillier, Chloé Picq, Jean-Louis Divoux, David Guiraud, Christine Henry
BACKGROUND: Abdominal bilateral vagal stimulation reduces food intake in animals. However, the classical square wave, mA range current generator is poorly effective to evoke action potentials on A∂ and C neurons that represent the majority of vagal neurons at the abdominal level. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: METHODS: The current thresholds for pulsons (S2 & S3) and millisecond pulses (S1) required to trigger action potentials were calculated in 5 anaesthetized pigs using single fibre recording...
April 26, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551275/genetic-analysis-of-vcp-and-wash-complex-genes-in-a-german-cohort-of-sporadic-als-ftd-patients
#8
Matthias Türk, Rolf Schröder, Katharina Khuller, Andreas Hofmann, Carolin Berwanger, Albert C Ludolph, Gabriele Dekomien, Kathrin Müller, Jochen H Weishaupt, Christian T Thiel, Christoph S Clemen
Mutations of the human valosin-containing protein, p97 (VCP) and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homolog (WASH) complex genes cause motor neuron and cognitive impairment disorders. Here, we analyzed a cohort of German patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration comorbidity (ALS/FTD) for VCP and WASH complex gene mutations. Next-generation panel sequencing of VCP, WASH1, FAM21C, CCDC53, SWIP, strumpellin, F-actin capping protein of muscle Z-line alfa 1 (CAPZA1), and CAPZB genes was performed in 43 sporadic ALS/FTD patients...
May 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551109/early-visual-analysis-tool-using-magnetoencephalography-for-treatment-and-recovery-of-neuronal-dysfunction
#9
Waqas Rasheed, Yee Yik Neoh, Nor Hisham Bin Hamid, Faruque Reza, Zamzuri Idris, Tong Boon Tang
Functional neuroimaging modalities play an important role in deciding the diagnosis and course of treatment of neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. This article presents an analytical tool with visualization by exploiting the strengths of the MEG (magnetoencephalographic) neuroimaging technique. The tool automates MEG data import (in tSSS format), channel information extraction, time/frequency decomposition, and circular graph visualization (connectogram) for simple result inspection. For advanced users, the tool also provides magnitude squared coherence (MSC) values allowing personalized threshold levels, and the computation of default model from MEG data of control population...
May 11, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551099/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-plays-an-essential-role-in-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-mediated-neuroprotection-of-dopaminergic-neurons-in-a-mouse-parkinson-s-disease-model
#10
Yuan Liu, Shuai Hao, Beibei Yang, Yi Fan, Xiaodong Qin, Yun Chen, Jun Hu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with an incidence second only to Alzheimer's disease. The main pathological feature of PD is the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Nicotinic receptor agonists are neuroprotective in several PD models and there is considerable evidence that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) are important therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the involvement of α7-nAChRs and underlying signaling mechanisms in PD pathogenesis are unclear...
May 24, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551085/bi-directionally-protective-communication-between-neurons-and-astrocytes-under-ischemia
#11
Xiao-Mei Wu, Christopher Qian, Yu-Fu Zhou, Yick-Chun Yan, Qian-Qian Luo, Wing-Ho Yung, Fa-Li Zhang, Li-Rong Jiang, Zhong Ming Qian, Ya Ke
The extensive existing knowledge on bi-directional communication between astrocytes and neurons led us to hypothesize that not only ischemia-preconditioned (IP) astrocytes can protect neurons but also IP neurons protect astrocytes from lethal ischemic injury. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that neurons have a significant role in protecting astrocytes from ischemic injury. The cultured medium from IP neurons (IPcNCM) induced a remarkable reduction in LDH and an increase in cell viability in ischemic astrocytes in vitro...
May 20, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551012/activation-of-cb2-receptor-system-restores-cognitive-capacity-and-hippocampal-sox2-expression-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Jiang Wu, Mark Hocevar, Joseph F Foss, B Bihua Bie, Mohamed Naguib
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuroinflammation, extensive deposits of amyloid-β aggregates, and loss of memory and cognitive abilities. The brains of patients with AD show increased expression of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) receptors and glial markers. CB2 receptors act as a negative feedback regulator; when activated by a CB2 agonist, they can help limit the extent of the neuroinflammatory response and the subsequent development of neuronal damage in the central nervous system...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550945/pre-birth-sense-of-smell-in-the-wild-boar-the-ontogeny-of-the-olfactory-mucosa
#13
Domenico Fulgione, Martina Trapanese, Maria Buglione, Daniela Rippa, Gianluca Polese, Viviana Maresca, Valeria Maselli
Animals recognize their surrounding environments through the sense of smell by detecting thousands of chemical odorants. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) completely depend on their ability to recognize chemical odorants: to detect food, during scavenging and searching partners, during breeding periods and to avoid potential predators. Wild piglets must be prepared for the chemical universe that they will enter after birth, and they show intense neuronal activity in the olfactory mucosa. With this in mind, we investigated the morpho-functional embryonic development of the olfactory mucosa in the wild boar (in five stages before birth)...
May 17, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550793/acute-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist-treatment-enhances-extinction-memory-in-male-rats
#14
L Y Maeng, M B Taha, K K Cover, S S Glynn, M Murillo, K Lebron-Milad, M R Milad
Leuprolide acetate (LEU), also known as Lupron, is commonly used to treat prostate cancer in men. As a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonist, it initially stimulates the release of gonadal hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol. This surge eventually suppresses these hormones, preventing the further growth and spread of cancer cells. Individuals receiving this treatment often report anxiety and cognitive changes, but LEU's effects on the neural mechanisms that are involved in anxiety during the trajectory of treatment are not well known...
May 17, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550637/breaking-bad-the-structure-and-function-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-epilepsy
#15
Hadas Han, Aniv Mann, Dana Ekstein, Sara Eyal
Epilepsy is a neurological disease with variable etiology and clinical manifestation, affecting more than 50 million people worldwide. Although the ultimate precipitators of seizures are neurons, it is becoming evident that epileptic activity is associated with changes in the function of other cell types, including those consisting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and regulating its permeability. The interrelationships between impaired BBB function and epilepsy are complex, as BBB dysfunction may both lead to seizures and be induced by epileptic activity...
May 26, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550532/drug-induced-hsp90-inhibition-alleviates-pain-in-monoarthritic-rats-and-alters-the-expression-of-new-putative-pain-players-at-the-drg
#16
Diana Sofia Marques Nascimento, Catarina Soares Potes, Miguel Luz Soares, António Carlos Ferreira, Marzia Malcangio, José Manuel Castro-Lopes, Fani Lourença Moreira Neto
Purinergic receptors (P2XRs) have been widely associated with pain states mostly due to their involvement in neuron-glia communication. Interestingly, we have previously shown that satellite glial cells (SGC), surrounding dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, become activated and proliferate during monoarthritis (MA) in the rat. Here, we demonstrate that P2X7R expression increases in ipsilateral DRG after 1 week of disease, while P2X3R immunoreactivity decreases. We have also reported a significant induction of the activating transcriptional factor 3 (ATF3) in MA...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550530/rtms-ameliorates-ptsd-symptoms-in-rats-by-enhancing-glutamate-transmission-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-acc-via-the-pten-akt-signalling-pathway
#17
Gaohua Liu, Dayun Feng, Jian Wang, Haifeng Zhang, Zhengwu Peng, Min Cai, Jing Yang, Ruiguo Zhang, Huaning Wang, Shengxi Wu, Qingrong Tan
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a novel physiological therapy that has been adopted to clinically treat psychiatric disorders. Our previous study indicated the potential therapeutic effect of rTMS on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the exact molecular mechanism is elusive. Currently, using the single prolonged stress (SPS) rat model for PTSD, we investigated the glutamatergic transmission and neural plasticity changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) after SPS induction and explored the protective effects and mechanism of rTMS treatment...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550523/morphological-evaluation-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-expressing-the-l132c-t159c-chr2-mutant-transgene-in-young-adult-cynomolgus-monkeys
#18
Wenyao Wang, Yan Nan, Zhuo-Hua Pan, Mingliang Pu
To characterize recombinant AAV2 (rAAV2)-mediated expression of L132C/T159C ChR2 mutant in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of young adult cynomolgus monkeys. rAAV2 vectors carrying a fusion construct of the ChR2 mutant and GFP (ChR2-GFP) were delivered to the vitreous chamber by intravitreal injection. Expression patterns of the ChR2 mutant in RGCs were examined by immunohistochemical methods three months after injection. The RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) was used as an RGC specific marker to differentiate RGCs from other retinal neurons and non-neuronal cells...
May 25, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550404/development-of-an-imaging-system-for-in-vivo-real-time-monitoring-of-neuronal-activity-in-deep-brain-of-free-moving-rats
#19
Norio Iijima, Shinji Miyamoto, Keisuke Matsumoto, Ken Takumi, Yoichi Ueta, Hitoshi Ozawa
We have newly developed a system that allows monitoring of the intensity of fluorescent signals from deep brains of rats transgenically modified to express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) via an optical fiber. One terminal of the optical fiber was connected to a blue semiconductor laser oscillator/green fluorescence detector. The other terminal was inserted into the vicinity of the eGFP-expressing neurons. Since the optical fiber was vulnerable to twisting stresses caused by animal movement, we also developed a cage in which the floor automatically turns, in response to the turning of the rat's head...
May 26, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550314/adaptive-stochastic-resonance-for-unknown-and-variable-input-signals
#20
Patrick Krauss, Claus Metzner, Achim Schilling, Christian Schütz, Konstantin Tziridis, Ben Fabry, Holger Schulze
All sensors have a threshold, defined by the smallest signal amplitude that can be detected. The detection of sub-threshold signals, however, is possible by using the principle of stochastic resonance, where noise is added to the input signal so that it randomly exceeds the sensor threshold. The choice of an optimal noise level that maximizes the mutual information between sensor input and output, however, requires knowledge of the input signal, which is not available in most practical applications. Here we demonstrate that the autocorrelation of the sensor output alone is sufficient to find this optimal noise level...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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