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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651367/alternative-rna-splicing-associated-with-mammalian-neuronal-differentiation
#1
Jiancheng Liu, Anqi Geng, Xiwei Wu, Ren-Jang Lin, Qiang Lu
Alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) produces multiple isoforms of mRNAs and proteins from a single gene. It is most prevalent in the mammalian brain and is thought to contribute to the formation and/or maintenance of functional complexity of the brain. Increasing evidence has documented the significant changes of AS between different regions or different developmental stages of the brain, however, the dynamics of AS and the possible function of it during neural progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation is less well known...
June 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651250/a-role-for-neuronal-alpha-synuclein-in-gastrointestinal-immunity
#2
Ethan Stolzenberg, Deborah Berry, De Yang, Ernest Y Lee, Alexander Kroemer, Stuart Kaufman, Gerard C L Wong, Joost J Oppenheim, Supti Sen, Thomas Fishbein, Ad Bax, Brent Harris, Denise Barbut, Michael A Zasloff
BACKGROUND: Alpha-synuclein (αS) is a nerve cell protein associated with Parkinson disease (PD). Accumulation of αS within the enteric nervous system (ENS) and its traffic from the gut to the brain are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. αS has no known function in humans and the reason for its accumulation within the ENS is unknown. Several recent studies conducted in rodents have linked αS to immune cell activation in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that αS in the ENS might play a role in the innate immune defenses of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651183/investigating-the-effect-of-different-transducer-stiffness-values-on-the-contactin-complex-detachment-by-steered-molecular-dynamics
#3
Parnian Kianfar, Nabiollah Abolfathi, Navid Zarif Karimi
This study investigated the adhesion behavior of Contactin4 (CNTN4), a member of Immunoglobulin Super Family (Ig-SF) of cell adhesion molecules. Contactin4 plays a crucial role in the formation, maintenance, and plasticity of neuronal networks. Contactin in its complex configuration with protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPRG) was selected for simulation. By utilizing Steered Molecular Dynamics (SMD), the uniaxial force was applied to induce unbinding of the complex, and the force-induced detachment of complex components was probed...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651020/the-nervous-system-of-the-adult-ascidian-ciona-intestinalis-type-a-ciona-robusta-insights-from-transgenic-animal-models
#4
Tomohiro Osugi, Yasunori Sasakura, Honoo Satake
The nervous system of ascidians is an excellent model system to provide insights into the evolutionary process of the chordate nervous system due to their phylogenetic positions as the sister group of vertebrates. However, the entire nervous system of adult ascidians has yet to be functionally and anatomically investigated. In this study, we have revealed the whole dorsal and siphon nervous system of the transgenic adult ascidian of Ciona intestinalis Type A (Ciona robusta) in which a Kaede reporter gene is expressed in a pan-neuronal fashion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650915/the-brainstem-network-controlling-blood-pressure-an-important-role-for-pressor-sites-in-the-caudal-medulla-and-cervical-spinal-cord
#5
Michael G Z Ghali
: Although medullary control of blood pressure (BP) has been extensively studied, the contribution of critical regions, such as pressor sites in the caudal medulla and upper cervical spinal cord and the lateral tegmental field, remains controversial and underappreciated. A series of pressor sites caudal to the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), including the caudal pressor area (CPA) and medullocervical pressor area, play an important role in control of BP. Activation and inhibition of these sites elicits pressor and depressor responses, respectively...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650803/challenges-in-improving-cochlear-implant-performance-and-accessibility
#6
Fan-Gang Zeng
Here I identify two gaps in cochlear implants that have been limiting their performance and acceptance. First, cochlear implant performance has remained largely unchanged, despite the number of publications tripling per decade in the last 30 years. Little has been done so far to address a fundamental limitation in the electrode-to-neuron interface, with the electrode size being a thousand times larger than the neuron diameter while the number of electrodes being a thousand times less. Both the small number and the large size of electrodes produce broad spatial activation and poor pitch resolution that limit current cochlear implant performance...
June 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650631/effect-of-the-biphenyl-neolignan-honokiol-on-a%C3%AE-42-induced-toxicity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-a%C3%AE-42-fibrillation-cholinesterase-activity-dpph-radicals-and-iron-ii-chelation
#7
Srinivas Kantham, Stephen Chan, Gawain McColl, Jared Miles, Suresh Kumar Veliyath, Girdhar Singh Deora, Satish N Dighe, Samira Khabbazi, Marie-Odile Parat, Benjamin P Ross
The biphenyl neolignan honokiol is a neuroprotectant which has been proposed as a treatment for central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The death of cholinergic neurons in AD is attributed to multiple factors, including: accumulation and fibrillation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) within the brain; metal ion toxicity; and oxidative stress. In this study, we used a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans model expressing full length Aβ42 as a convenient in vivo system for examining the effect of honokiol against Aβ-induced toxicity...
June 26, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650520/immature-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-derived-from-floor-plate-method-improve-cell-transplantation-therapy-efficacy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Lifeng Qiu, Mei-Chih Liao, Allen K Chen, Shunhui Wei, Shaoping Xie, Shaul Reuveny, Zhi Dong Zhou, Walter Hunziker, Eng King Tan, Steve K W Oh, Li Zeng
Recent reports have indicated human embryonic stem cells-derived midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons as proper cell resources for use in Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. Nevertheless, no detailed and systematic study has been conducted to identify which differentiation stages of mDA cells are most suitable for transplantation in PD therapy. Here, we transplanted three types of mDA cells, DA progenitors (differentiated in vitro for 16 days [D16]), immature DA neurons (D25), and DA neurons (D35), into PD mice and found that all three types of cells showed high viability and strong neuronal differentiation in vivo...
June 26, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650477/video-rate-volumetric-ca-2-imaging-across-cortex-using-seeded-iterative-demixing-sid-microscopy
#9
Tobias Nöbauer, Oliver Skocek, Alejandro J Pernía-Andrade, Lukas Weilguny, Francisca Martínez Traub, Maxim I Molodtsov, Alipasha Vaziri
Light-field microscopy (LFM) is a scalable approach for volumetric Ca(2+) imaging with high volumetric acquisition rates (up to 100 Hz). Although the technology has enabled whole-brain Ca(2+) imaging in semi-transparent specimens, tissue scattering has limited its application in the rodent brain. We introduce seeded iterative demixing (SID), a computational source-extraction technique that extends LFM to the mammalian cortex. SID can capture neuronal dynamics in vivo within a volume of 900 × 900 × 260 μm located as deep as 380 μm in the mouse cortex or hippocampus at a 30-Hz volume rate while discriminating signals from neurons as close as 20 μm apart, at a computational cost three orders of magnitude less than that of frame-by-frame image reconstruction...
June 26, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650461/a-light-and-calcium-gated-transcription-factor-for-imaging-and-manipulating-activated-neurons
#10
Wenjing Wang, Craig P Wildes, Tanyaporn Pattarabanjird, Mateo I Sanchez, Gordon F Glober, Gillian A Matthews, Kay M Tye, Alice Y Ting
Activity remodels neurons, altering their molecular, structural, and electrical characteristics. To enable the selective characterization and manipulation of these neurons, we present FLARE, an engineered transcription factor that drives expression of fluorescent proteins, opsins, and other genetically encoded tools only in the subset of neurons that experienced activity during a user-defined time window. FLARE senses the coincidence of elevated cytosolic calcium and externally applied blue light, which together produce translocation of a membrane-anchored transcription factor to the nucleus to drive expression of any transgene...
June 26, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650460/a-calcium-and-light-gated-switch-to-induce-gene-expression-in-activated-neurons
#11
Dongmin Lee, Jung Ho Hyun, Kanghoon Jung, Patrick Hannan, Hyung-Bae Kwon
Despite recent advances in optogenetics, it remains challenging to manipulate gene expression in specific populations of neurons. We present a dual-protein switch system, Cal-Light, that translates neuronal-activity-mediated calcium signaling into gene expression in a light-dependent manner. In cultured neurons and brain slices, we show that Cal-Light drives expression of the reporter EGFP with high spatiotemporal resolution only in the presence of both blue light and calcium. Delivery of the Cal-Light components to the motor cortex of mice by viral vectors labels a subset of excitatory and inhibitory neurons related to learned lever-pressing behavior...
June 26, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650318/tandem-hnrnp-a1-rna-recognition-motifs-act-in-concert-to-repress-the-splicing-of-survival-motor-neuron-exon-7
#12
Irene Beusch, Pierre Barraud, Ahmed Moursy, Antoine Cléry, Frédéric Hai-Trieu Allain
HnRNP A1 regulates many alternative splicing events by the recognition of splicing silencer elements. Here, we provide the solution structures of its two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) in complex with short RNA. In addition, we show by NMR that both RRMs of hnRNP A1 can bind simultaneously to a single bipartite motif of the human intronic splicing silencer ISS-N1, which controls survival of motor neuron exon 7 splicing. RRM2 binds to the upstream motif and RRM1 to the downstream motif. Combining the insights from the structure with in cell splicing assays we show that the architecture and organization of the two RRMs is essential to hnRNP A1 function...
June 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650316/the-na-ca-2-k-exchanger-nckx4-is-required-for-efficient-cone-mediated-vision
#13
Frans Vinberg, Tian Wang, Alicia De Maria, Haiqing Zhao, Steven Bassnett, Jeannie Chen, Vladimir J Kefalov
Calcium (Ca(2+)) plays an important role in the function and health of neurons. In vertebrate cone photoreceptors, Ca(2+) controls photoresponse sensitivity, kinetics, and light adaptation. Despite the critical role of Ca(2+) in supporting the function and survival of cones, the mechanism for its extrusion from cone outer segments is not well understood. Here, we show that the Na(+)/Ca(2+), K(+) exchanger NCKX4 is expressed in zebrafish, mouse, and primate cones. Functional analysis of NCKX4-deficient mouse cones revealed that this exchanger is essential for the wide operating range and high temporal resolution of cone-mediated vision...
June 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650315/transient-acidosis-while-retrieving-a-fear-related-memory-enhances-its-lability
#14
Jianyang Du, Margaret P Price, Rebecca J Taugher, Daniel Grigsby, Jamison J Ash, Austin C Stark, Md Zubayer Hossain Saad, Kritika Singh, Juthika Mandal, John A Wemmie, Michael J Welsh
Attenuating the strength of fearful memories could benefit people disabled by memories of past trauma. Pavlovian conditioning experiments indicate that a retrieval cue can return a conditioned aversive memory to a labile state. However, means to enhance retrieval and render a memory more labile are unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting synaptic signaling during retrieval would increase memory lability. To enhance synaptic transmission, mice inhaled CO2 to induce an acidosis and activate acid sensing ion channels...
June 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650218/bilateral-surgical-damage-of-the-central-tegmental-tract-resulting-in-bilateral-hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration-an-mri-case-report
#15
Silvia Lana, Chiara Ganazzoli, Girolamo Crisi
Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare trans-synaptic neuronal degeneration of the inferior olivary nucleus caused by an injury to the dentato-rubro-olivary connection, also known as Guillain-Mollaret triangle. It leads to hypertrophy of the affected nucleus rather than atrophy and is characterized by hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. Unilateral and bilateral cases are described. We present a case of a 70-year-old patient affected by a tumor inside the fourth ventricle who suffered from diplopia and right seventh cranial nerve palsy...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650104/alzheimer-s-disease-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-link-from-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-to-neurodegeneration
#16
REVIEW
Eduardo Rojas-Gutierrez, Guadalupe Muñoz-Arenas, Samuel Treviño, Blanca Espinosa, Raúl Chavez, Karla Rojas, Gonzalo Flores, Alfonso Díaz, Jorge Guevara
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality among the aging population. AD diagnosis is made post-mortem, and the two pathologic hallmarks, particularly evident in the end stages of the illness, are amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Currently, there is no curative treatment for AD. Additionally, there is a strong relation between oxidative stress, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and AD. The high levels of circulating lipids and glucose imbalances amplify lipid peroxidation that gradually diminishes the antioxidant systems, causing high levels of oxidative metabolism that affects cell structure, leading to neuronal damage...
June 26, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649993/kappa-opioid-receptor-activation-in-dopamine-neurons-disrupts-behavioral-inhibition
#17
Antony D Abraham, Harrison M Fontaine, Allisa J Song, Mackenzie M Andrews, Madison A Baird, Brigitte L Kieffer, Benjamin B Land, Charles Chavkin
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system has been previously implicated in the regulation of cognition, but the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms underlying KOR-mediated cognitive disruption are unknown. Here, we used an operational test of cognition involving timing and behavioral inhibition and found that systemic KOR activation impairs performance of male and female C57BL/6 mice in the differential reinforcement of low response rates (DRL) task. Systemic KOR antagonism also blocked stress-induced disruptions of DRL performance...
June 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649992/a-key-role-for-neurotensin-in-chronic-stress-induced-anxiety-like-behaviour-in-rats
#18
Catherine P Normandeau, Ana Paula Ventura Silva, Emily R Hawken, Staci Angelis, Calvin Sjaarda, Xudong Liu, José Miguel Pêgo, Éric C Dumont
Chronic stress is a major cause of anxiety disorders that can be reliably modeled pre-clinically, providing insight into alternative therapeutic targets for this mental health illness. Neuropeptides have been targeted in the past to no avail possibly due to our lack of understanding of their role in pathological models. In this study we use a rat model of chronic stress-induced anxiety-like behaviours and hypothesized that neuropeptidergic modulation of synaptic transmission would be altered in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis (BNST), a brain region suspected to contribute to anxiety disorders...
June 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649723/distribution-and-female-reproductive-state-differences-in-orexigenic-and-anorexigenic-neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-mouth-brooding-african-cichlid-fish-astatotilapia-burtoni
#19
Danielle T Porter, David A Roberts, Karen P Maruska
Integration of reproduction and metabolism is necessary for species survival. While the neural circuits controlling energy homeostasis are well-characterized, the signals controlling the relay of nutritional information to the reproductive axis are less understood. The cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni is ideal for studying the neural regulation of feeding and reproduction because females cycle between a feeding gravid state and a period of forced starvation while they brood developing young inside their mouths...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649695/neuronal-aromatase-expression-in-pain-processing-regions-of-the-medullary-and-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn
#20
May Tran, Julia A Kuhn, João M Bráz, Allan I Basbaum
In both acute and chronic pain conditions, women tend to be more sensitive than men. This sex difference may be regulated by estrogens, such as estradiol, that are synthesized in the spinal cord and brainstem and act locally to influence pain processing. To identify a potential cellular source of local estrogen, here we examined the expression of aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. Our studies focused on primary afferent neurons and on their central targets in the spinal cord and medulla as well as in the nucleus of the solitary tract, the target of nodose ganglion-derived visceral afferents...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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