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cancer science and oncogenesis

Lisa Mirabello, Megan A Clarke, Chase W Nelson, Michael Dean, Nicolas Wentzensen, Meredith Yeager, Michael Cullen, Joseph F Boland, Mark Schiffman, Robert D Burk
Of the ~60 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes that infect the cervicovaginal epithelium, only 12-13 "high-risk" types are well-established as causing cervical cancer, with HPV16 accounting for over half of all cases worldwide. While HPV16 is the most important carcinogenic type, variants of HPV16 can differ in their carcinogenicity by 10-fold or more in epidemiologic studies. Strong genotype-phenotype associations embedded in the small 8-kb HPV16 genome motivate molecular studies to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 13, 2018: Viruses
Christian Cherubini, Simonetta Filippi, Alessandro Loppini
Systems Biology represents nowadays a promising standard framework for natural and human sciences to attack complicated problems involving Life. Here a particular application of such a program is discussed in the case of Cancer, by using a basic toy model for solid tumor spread for framing together two apparently different conceptual leading paradigms of Oncogenesis.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kyle M Schachtschneider, Regina M Schwind, Jordan Newson, Nickolas Kinachtchouk, Mark Rizko, Nasya Mendoza-Elias, Paul Grippo, Daniel R Principe, Alex Park, Nana H Overgaard, Gregers Jungersen, Kelly D Garcia, Ajay V Maker, Laurie A Rund, Howard Ozer, Ron C Gaba, Lawrence B Schook
Despite an improved understanding of cancer molecular biology, immune landscapes, and advancements in cytotoxic, biologic, and immunologic anti-cancer therapeutics, cancer remains a leading cause of death worldwide. More than 8.2 million deaths were attributed to cancer in 2012, and it is anticipated that cancer incidence will continue to rise, with 19.3 million cases expected by 2025. The development and investigation of new diagnostic modalities and innovative therapeutic tools is critical for reducing the global cancer burden...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Amélie Fouqué, Patrick Legembre
CD95 is a plasma membrane receptor that belongs to the TNF receptor family (Itoh and Nagata, J Biol Chem 268(15):10932-10937, 1993; Trauth et al., Science 245(4915):301-305, 1989). Accumulating evidence indicate that this so-called death receptor can also trigger non-apoptotic signaling pathways promoting inflammation and oncogenesis (Barnhart et al., Embo J 23(15):3175-3185, 2004; Chen et al., Nature 465(7297):492-496, 2010; Legembre et al., Cell Cycle 3(10):1235-1239, 2004; Legembre et al., EMBO Rep 5(11):1084-1089, 2004; Malleter et al...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Avrum Spira, Mary L Disis, John T Schiller, Eduardo Vilar, Timothy R Rebbeck, Rafael Bejar, Trey Ideker, Janine Arts, Matthew B Yurgelun, Jill P Mesirov, Anjana Rao, Judy Garber, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Scott M Lippman
Prevention is an essential component of cancer eradication. Next-generation sequencing of cancer genomes and epigenomes has defined large numbers of driver mutations and molecular subgroups, leading to therapeutic advances. By comparison, there is a relative paucity of such knowledge in premalignant neoplasia, which inherently limits the potential to develop precision prevention strategies. Studies on the interplay between germ-line and somatic events have elucidated genetic processes underlying premalignant progression and preventive targets...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nicos Angelopoulos, Justin Stebbing, Yichen Xu, Georgios Giamas, Hua Zhang
Tyrosine kinases (TKs) play an essential role in regulating various cellular activities and dysregulation of TK signaling contributes to oncogenesis. However, less than half of the TKs have been thoroughly studied. Through a combined use of RNAi and stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics, a global functional proteomic landscape of TKs in breast cancer was recently revealed highlighting a comprehensive and highly integrated signaling network regulated by TKs (Stebbing et al...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Shuang-Jiang Li, Da-Li Chen, Wen-Biao Zhang, Cheng Shen, Guo-Wei Che
BACKGROUND: Numbers of studies have investigated the biological functions of decorin (DCN) in oncogenesis, tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. Although many of them aim to highlight the prognostic value of stromal DCN expression in breast cancer, some controversial results still exist and a consensus has not been reached until now. Therefore, our meta-analysis aims to determine the prognostic significance of stromal DCN expression in breast cancer patients. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, the Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched for full-text literatures met out inclusion criteria...
November 2015: Journal of Thoracic Disease
David J Klinke
Recent clinical successes of immune checkpoint modulators have unleashed a wave of enthusiasm associated with cancer immunotherapy. However, this enthusiasm is dampened by persistent translational hurdles associated with cancer immunotherapy that mirror the broader pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, the challenges associated with drug discovery and development stem from an incomplete understanding of the biological mechanisms in humans that are targeted by a potential drug and the financial implications of clinical failures...
2015: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Dimitrios Iliopoulos
Genetic and epigenetic perturbations are required to transform normal cells into cancer cells. Inflammatory signaling pathways are activated in various cancers, linking chronic inflammation to oncogenesis. However, the molecular circuits that result in sustained activation of these inflammatory factors are not yet well understood. In the 28 January 2014 issue of Science Signaling, Xiang et al. identified a microRNA-mediated anti-inflammatory circuit that is repressed epigenetically in receptor-negative breast cancers...
March 25, 2014: Science Signaling
Jennifer R Devlin, Katherine M Hannan, Pui Y Ng, Megan J Bywater, Jake Shortt, Carleen Cullinane, Grant A McArthur, Ricky W Johnstone, Ross D Hannan, Richard B Pearson
The dysregulation of PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 signalling and/or hyperactivation of MYC are observed in a high proportion of human cancers, and together they form a 'super signalling' network mediating malignancy. A fundamental downstream action of this signalling network is up-regulation of ribosome biogenesis and subsequent alterations in the patterns of translation and increased protein synthesis, which are thought to be critical for AKT/MYC-driven oncogenesis. We have demonstrated that AKT and MYC cooperate to drive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription and ribosome biogenesis, with AKT being essential for rDNA transcription and in vitro survival of lymphoma cells isolated from a MYC-driven model of B-cell lymphoma (Eμ-Myc) [Chan JC et al...
November 2013: FEBS Journal
Tina Chou, Richard S Finn
The development of new agents in oncology has focused on disrupting key pathways in oncogenesis. Both malignant angiogenesis and peptide growth factor signaling have been studied extensively and have been validated for cancer treatment. While antibody-directed therapeutics offer increased specificity, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors often have the ability to hit multiple targets. Brivanib alaninate (BMS582664) is an oral, potent selective inhibitor of both the FGF and VEGF family of receptors. It is a first-in-class FGF/VEGF inhibitor now in late-phase clinical trials...
September 2012: Future Oncology
Adeel Zubair, Marianne Frieri
The purpose of this review article is to highlight articles and new research regarding the link between NF-ĸB and several cancers. This review presents the most up-to-date NF-ĸB research and how it links this important transcription factor with hematology and oncology. It was written by conducting a thorough search of Pubmed as well as several journals such as Cancer, Nature, Science, Cell and those of one of the authors. The articles relating to the link between NF-ĸB and cancer were used to write this review...
February 2013: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Lukas C Amler
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Heterodimerization of human EGF receptor (HER) 2 and HER3, a co-receptor of HER2, plays an important and dominant role in the functionality and transformation of HER-mediated pathways. Understanding the role of HER3 in oncogenesis as well as its place as a target for anticancer therapy is an ongoing area of research. Determination of biomarkers for clinical benefit from agents targeting HER3 is an essential component of translating basic science into real-world effective anticancer therapies, with the aim of ensuring the patients most likely to benefit from such treatments can be identified...
September 2010: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
P K Lim, S A Patel, L A Gregory, P Rameshwar
Implantation of adult human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat neural disorders shows promise. Depending on their microenvironment, MSCs could potentially be used for the repair and/or replacement of neurons in traumatic brain injury or the treatment of Parkinson's disease. This cross-disciplinary review incorporates aspects of neuroscience, stem cell biology, cancer biology and immunology to discuss interactions between inflammatory mediators and MSCs. We first discuss the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in neurological development...
2010: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Richard L Piekarz, Susan E Bates
More than 60 years after the first description of differentiation in cell culture and 40 years after the synthesis of 5-azacytidine, epigenetic therapies have been added to the anticancer armamentarium. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors such as 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or 5-azacytidine have been approved in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), whereas the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) including vorinostat, romidepsin, panobinostat, belinostat, and entinostat have been shown to be active in cutaneous and peripheral T-cell lymphoma...
June 15, 2009: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
S Chakŭrov
One of the most serious problems of urology as specialized surgery is the oncological diseases. A large part of the scientific research is dedicated to their basic research, diagnostics and treatment as the results are then presented at the big international forums each year. The new achievements in the investigations of urological diseases excite special interest and mark the stages of the actual progress of the respective science. The overview is a panorama of the newest and at the same time most significant achievements of the science of urology in this field in 2006 presented at the biggest international congresses - the Congress of the European Association of Urology, the Annual Meeting of the American urologists and the Congress of the American Society of Clinical Oncology - ASCO...
2007: Khirurgiia
Haifan Lin
Dr. Haifan Lin is professor of Cell Biology at Yale University, where he studies the mechanism of stem cell self-renewal in fruit flies, mice, and human cancer cells. Recently named director of the Yale Stem Cell Center, Dr. Lin has made seminal contributions to the stem cell field, most notably his demonstration of the stem cell niche theory using the fruit fly model, his discovery of the PIWI/AGO gene family that is essential for stem cell division in diverse organisms, and his recent finding of a group of small RNAs called PIWI-interacting, or piRNAs, which may play a crucial role in stem cell proliferation and germline development...
December 2006: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
A Haslberger, F Varga, H Karlic
Interactions between adaptative and selective processes are illustrated in the model of recursive causality as defined in Rupert Riedl's systems theory of evolution. One of the main features of this theory also termed as theory of evolving complexity is the centrality of the notion of 'recursive' or 'feedback' causality - 'the idea that every biological effect in living systems, in some way, feeds back to its own cause'. Our hypothesis is that "recursive" or "feedback" causality provides a model for explaining the consequences of interacting genetic and epigenetic mechanisms which are known to play a key role in development of cancer...
2006: Medical Hypotheses
Silvia Benvenuti, Sabrina Arena, Alberto Bardelli
It is now widely accepted that cancer is a genetic disease and that alterations in the DNA sequence underlie the development of every neoplasm. The identification of mutated genes that are causally implicated in oncogenesis ('cancer genes') has been a major goal in medical sciences for the last two decades. The availability of the human genome sequence coupled to the introduction of high throughput sequencing technologies has created an unprecedented opportunity in this field. It is now possible to perform mutational studies of entire cancer genomes thus providing a complete description of mutations underlying human oncogenesis...
March 21, 2005: FEBS Letters
Martin L Read, Rachel Spice, Alan L Parker, Sohaib Mir, Ann Logan
The 2004 European Society of Gene Therapy (ESGT) meeting took place at Tampere Hall in Finland and highlighted advances in a variety of topics, including cancer, zinc-fingers, stem cells, small interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA, and recent developments of non-viral and viral vectors. This meeting was attended by 513 participants from 32 countries, and included 106 oral and 224 poster presentations. One of the aims of this meeting was to take a critical look at gene therapy and the prospects for the future. Se-veral presentations reported on RNA-based technologies, such as siRNA, as potential new classes of therapeutics against a wide range of diseases and for use in expression libraries to identify functional genes involved in biological phenotypes...
January 2005: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
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