keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Markov

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778607/cost-effectiveness-of-gastric-cancer-screening-according-to-race-and-ethnicity
#1
Monica Saumoy, Yecheskel Schneider, Nicole Shen, Michel Kahaleh, Reem Z Sharaiha, Shailja C Shah
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are marked racial and ethnic differences in noncardia gastric cancer prevalence within the United States (US). Although gastric cancer screening is recommended in regions of high prevalence, screening is not routinely performed in the US. Our objective was to determine whether selected noncardia gastric cancer screening for high-risk races and ethnicities within the US is cost effective. METHODS: We developed a decision analytic Markov model with the base case of a 50-year-old person of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, or Asian race or ethnicity...
May 17, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777833/endocrine-disrupting-activities-and-immunomodulatory-effects-in-lymphoblastoid-cell-lines-of-diclofenac-4-hydroxydiclofenac-and-paracetamol
#2
Ivana Klopčič, Tijana Markovič, Irena Mlinarič-Raščan, Marija Sollner Dolenc
A critical literature review reveals that knowledge of side effects of pharmaceuticals diclofenac and paracetamol is extremely important because of their widespread use and occurrence in the environment. In order to delineate whether these compounds have endocrine activity and influence on the immune system, we assessed the potential endocrine disrupting and immunomodulatory activities of: diclofenac (DIC), its metabolite 4-hydroxydiclofenac (4-HD) and paracetamol (PAR). Herein, we report on their impact on estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR)...
May 16, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776177/sampling-rare-fluctuations-of-discrete-time-markov-chains
#3
Stephen Whitelam
We describe a simple method that can be used to sample the rare fluctuations of discrete-time Markov chains. We focus on the case of Markov chains with well-defined steady-state measures, and derive expressions for the large-deviation rate functions (and upper bounds on such functions) for dynamical quantities extensive in the length of the Markov chain. We illustrate the method using a series of simple examples, and use it to study the fluctuations of a lattice-based model of active matter that can undergo motility-induced phase separation...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776092/mapping-of-uncertainty-relations-between-continuous-and-discrete-time
#4
Davide Chiuchiù, Simone Pigolotti
Lower bounds on fluctuations of thermodynamic currents depend on the nature of time, discrete or continuous. To understand the physical reason, we compare current fluctuations in discrete-time Markov chains and continuous-time master equations. We prove that current fluctuations in the master equations are always more likely, due to random timings of transitions. This comparison leads to a mapping of the moments of a current between discrete and continuous time. We exploit this mapping to obtain uncertainty bounds...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776042/modeling-long-correlation-times-using-additive-binary-markov-chains-applications-to-wind-generation-time-series
#5
Juliane Weber, Christopher Zachow, Dirk Witthaut
Wind power generation exhibits a strong temporal variability, which is crucial for system integration in highly renewable power systems. Different methods exist to simulate wind power generation but they often cannot represent the crucial temporal fluctuations properly. We apply the concept of additive binary Markov chains to model a wind generation time series consisting of two states: periods of high and low wind generation. The only input parameter for this model is the empirical autocorrelation function...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776034/derivation-of-markov-processes-that-violate-detailed-balance
#6
Julian Lee
Time-reversal symmetry of the microscopic laws dictates that the equilibrium distribution of a stochastic process must obey the condition of detailed balance. However, cyclic Markov processes that do not admit equilibrium distributions with detailed balance are often used to model systems driven out of equilibrium by external agents. I show that for a Markov model without detailed balance, an extended Markov model can be constructed, which explicitly includes the degrees of freedom for the driving agent and satisfies the detailed balance condition...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775455/atomic-resolution-mechanism-of-ligand-binding-to-a-solvent-inaccessible-cavity-in-t4-lysozyme
#7
Jagannath Mondal, Navjeet Ahalawat, Subhendu Pandit, Lewis E Kay, Pramodh Vallurupalli
Ligand binding sites in proteins are often localized to deeply buried cavities, inaccessible to bulk solvent. Yet, in many cases binding of cognate ligands occurs rapidly. An intriguing system is presented by the L99A cavity mutant of T4 Lysozyme (T4L L99A) that rapidly binds benzene (~106 M-1s-1). Although the protein has long served as a model system for protein thermodynamics and crystal structures of both free and benzene-bound T4L L99A are available, the kinetic pathways by which benzene reaches its solvent-inaccessible binding cavity remain elusive...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774506/therapeutic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-in-the-treatment-of-eye-diseases
#8
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Valentin Djonov, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Vladislav Volarevic
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were, due to their immunomodulatory and pro-angiogenic characteristics, extensively explored as new therapeutic agents in cell-based therapy of uveitis, glaucoma, retinal and ocular surface diseases.Since it was recently revealed that exosomes play an important role in biological functions of MSCs, herewith we summarized current knowledge about the morphology, structure, phenotype and functional characteristics of MSC-derived exosomes emphasizing their therapeutic potential in the treatment of eye diseases...
May 18, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774417/first-report-on-the-nationwide-incidence-of-type-1-diabetes-and-ketoacidosis-at-onset-in-children-in-serbia-a-multicenter-study
#9
Rade Vukovic, Maja D Jesic, Ivana Vorgucin, Sandra Stankovic, Nevena Folic, Tatjana Milenkovic, Silvija Sajic, Dragan Katanic, Sasa Zivic, Slavica Markovic, Ivan Soldatovic
Data regarding incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1DM), as well as data on frequency and severity of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the time of T1DM diagnosis is of paramount importance for national and regional healthcare planning. The aim of present multicenter study was to provide the first report regarding nationwide annual incidence rates for T1DM in youth in Serbia, as well as prevalence of DKA at the time of diagnosis. Data on all pediatric patients with newly diagnosed T1DM was retrospectively collected from all 15 regional centers for pediatric diabetes in Serbia during the period 2007-2017...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774392/cost-effectiveness-of-ventricular-assist-device-destination-therapy-for-advanced-heart-failure-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#10
Defne A Magnetta, JaHyun Kang, Peter D Wearden, Kenneth J Smith, Brian Feingold
Destination ventricular assist device therapy (DT-VAD) is well accepted in select adults with medically refractory heart failure (HF) who are not transplant candidates; however, its use in younger patients with progressive diseases is unclear. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of DT-VAD in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients with advanced HF. We created a Markov-state transition model (5-year horizon) to compare survival, costs, and quality of life (QOL) between medical management and DT-VAD in DMD with advanced HF...
May 17, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773967/stochastic-contagion-models-without-immunity-their-long-term-behaviour-and-the-optimal-level-of-treatment
#11
Raimund M Kovacevic
In this paper we analyze two stochastic versions of one of the simplest classes of contagion models, namely so-called SIS models. Several formulations of such models, based on stochastic differential equations, have been recently discussed in literature, mainly with a focus on the existence and uniqueness of stationary distributions. With applicability in view, the present paper uses the Fokker-Planck equations related to SIS stochastic differential equations, not only in order to derive basic facts, but also to derive explicit expressions for stationary densities and further characteristics related to the asymptotic behaviour...
2018: Central European Journal of Operations Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772427/the-dif2ferent-behaviors-of-glyphosate-and-ampa-in-compost-amended-soil
#12
Tomas Erban, Martin Stehlik, Bruno Sopko, Martin Markovic, Marcela Seifrtova, Tatana Halesova, Pavel Kovaricek
The broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate is one of the most widely used pesticides. Both glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), persist in waters; thus, their environmental fates are of interest. We investigated the influence of compost dose, sampling depth, moisture and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks ) on the persistence of these substances. The amounts of AMPA quantified by triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS) using isotopically labeled extraction standards were higher than those of glyphosate and differed among the samples...
May 4, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771738/prediction-of-transfer-among-multiple-states-of-blood-pressure-based-on-markov-model-an-18-year-cohort-study
#13
Yunfeng Wang, Zhimin Ma, Chaonan Xu, ZiKun Wang, Xinghua Yang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the rules of transition between normotension, prehypertension and hypertension states and to establish a prediction model for the incidence of prehypertension and hypertension. METHODS: Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1991 to 2009 were used as training data to develop the model. Data of the year 2011 were used for model validation. The multistate Markov model was developed using the msm package in R software...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771664/guided-policy-exploration-for-markov-decision-processes-using-an-uncertainty-based-value-of-information-criterion
#14
Isaac J Sledge, Matthew S Emigh, Jose C Principe
Reinforcement learning in environments with many action-state pairs is challenging. The issue is the number of episodes needed to thoroughly search the policy space. Most conventional heuristics address this search problem in a stochastic manner. This can leave large portions of the policy space unvisited during the early training stages. In this paper, we propose an uncertainty-based, information-theoretic approach for performing guided stochastic searches that more effectively cover the policy space. Our approach is based on the value of information, a criterion that provides the optimal tradeoff between expected costs and the granularity of the search process...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771380/dbcan2-a-meta-server-for-automated-carbohydrate-active-enzyme-annotation
#15
Han Zhang, Tanner Yohe, Le Huang, Sarah Entwistle, Peizhi Wu, Zhenglu Yang, Peter K Busk, Ying Xu, Yanbin Yin
Complex carbohydrates of plants are the main food sources of animals and microbes, and serve as promising renewable feedstock for biofuel and biomaterial production. Carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) are the most important enzymes for complex carbohydrate metabolism. With an increasing number of plant and plant-associated microbial genomes and metagenomes being sequenced, there is an urgent need of automatic tools for genomic data mining of CAZymes. We developed the dbCAN web server in 2012 to provide a public service for automated CAZyme annotation for newly sequenced genomes...
May 16, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771338/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-an-adherence-promotion-intervention-for-children-with-leukemia-a-markov-model-based-simulation
#16
Meghan E McGrady, Mark H Eckman, Maureen M O'Brien, Ahna L H Pai
Objective: Improving medication adherence among children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) has the potential to reduce relapse rates but requires an investment in resources. An economic evaluation is needed to understand the potential costs and benefits of delivering adherence-promotion interventions (APIs) as part of standard clinical care. Methods: A Markov decision analytic model was used to simulate the potential incremental cost-effectiveness per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) to be gained from an API for children with B-ALL in first continuous remission compared with treatment as usual (TAU, no intervention)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770257/toeplitz-inverse-covariance-based-clustering-of-multivariate-time-series-data
#17
David Hallac, Sagar Vare, Stephen Boyd, Jure Leskovec
Subsequence clustering of multivariate time series is a useful tool for discovering repeated patterns in temporal data. Once these patterns have been discovered, seemingly complicated datasets can be interpreted as a temporal sequence of only a small number of states, or clusters . For example, raw sensor data from a fitness-tracking application can be expressed as a timeline of a select few actions ( i.e. , walking, sitting, running). However, discovering these patterns is challenging because it requires simultaneous segmentation and clustering of the time series...
August 2017: KDD: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769636/molecular-details-of-dimerization-kinetics-reveal-negligible-populations-of-transient-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptor-homodimers-at-physiological-concentrations
#18
Derya Meral, Davide Provasi, Diego Prada-Gracia, Jan Möller, Kristen Marino, Martin J Lohse, Marta Filizola
Various experimental and computational techniques have been employed over the past decade to provide structural and thermodynamic insights into G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPCR) dimerization. Here, we use multiple microsecond-long, coarse-grained, biased and unbiased molecular dynamics simulations (a total of ~4 milliseconds) combined with multi-ensemble Markov state models to elucidate the kinetics of homodimerization of a prototypic GPCR, the µ-opioid receptor (MOR), embedded in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/cholesterol lipid bilayer...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768661/unravelling-changing-interspecific-interactions-across-environmental-gradients-using-markov-random-fields
#19
Nicholas J Clark, Konstans Wells, Oscar Lindberg
Inferring interactions between co-occurring species is key to identify processes governing community assembly. Incorporating interspecific interactions in predictive models is common in ecology, yet most methods do not adequately account for indirect interactions (where an interaction between two species is masked by their shared interactions with a third) and assume interactions do not vary along environmental gradients. Markov random fields (MRF) overcome these limitations by estimating interspecific interactions, while controlling for indirect interactions, from multispecies occurrence data...
May 16, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765629/reliability-modelling-and-analysis-of-a-multi-state-element-based-on-a-dynamic-bayesian-network
#20
Zhiqiang Li, Tingxue Xu, Junyuan Gu, Qi Dong, Linyu Fu
This paper presents a quantitative reliability modelling and analysis method for multi-state elements based on a combination of the Markov process and a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN), taking perfect repair, imperfect repair and condition-based maintenance (CBM) into consideration. The Markov models of elements without repair and under CBM are established, and an absorbing set is introduced to determine the reliability of the repairable element. According to the state-transition relations between the states determined by the Markov process, a DBN model is built...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
keyword
keyword
10335
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"