Read by QxMD icon Read


Lucia Russo, Paola Russo, Constantinos I Siettos
Based on complex network theory, we propose a computational methodology which addresses the spatial distribution of fuel breaks for the inhibition of the spread of wildland fires on heterogeneous landscapes. This is a two-level approach where the dynamics of fire spread are modeled as a random Markov field process on a directed network whose edge weights are determined by a Cellular Automata model that integrates detailed GIS, landscape and meteorological data. Within this framework, the spatial distribution of fuel breaks is reduced to the problem of finding network nodes (small land patches) which favour fire propagation...
2016: PloS One
Gregory F Guzauskas, Kathleen F Villa, Geertrui F Vanhove, Vicki L Fisher, David L Veenstra
PURPOSE: To estimate the risk-benefit trade-off of a pediatric-inspired regimen versus hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (hyper-CVAD) for first-line treatment of adolescents/young adult (AYA; ages 16-39 years) patients with Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS: Patient outcomes were simulated using a 6-state Markov model, including complete response (CR), no CR, first relapse, second CR, second relapse, and death...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
S Banerjee, P Gunda, R F Drake, K Hamed
BACKGROUND: Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs) are the standard of care for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The present analysis aimed to determine the cost effectiveness of NUCs in Chinese healthcare settings. METHODS: A Markov model was used to simulate two therapeutic strategies for a hypothetical patient cohort diagnosed with hepatitis B e antigen-positive CHB, unwilling or unable to receive interferon therapy, and about to start treatment with any NUC. The first strategy included NUC monotherapy without sequencing (telbivudine [LDT], entecavir [ETV], tenofovir [TDF], lamivudine [LAM], adefovir dipivoxil [ADV], and combination therapies of either LDT and ADV or LDT and TDF, followed by best supportive care [BSC])...
2016: SpringerPlus
Sibel Halfon, Alev Çavdar, Franco Orsucci, Gunter K Schiepek, Silvia Andreassi, Alessandro Giuliani, Giulio de Felice
Aim: Even though there is substantial evidence that play based therapies produce significant change, the specific play processes in treatment remain unexamined. For that purpose, processes of change in long-term psychodynamic play therapy are assessed through a repeated systematic assessment of three children's "play profiles," which reflect patterns of organization among play variables that contribute to play activity in therapy, indicative of the children's coping strategies, and an expression of their internal world...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
J Stevanović, L A de Jong, B S Kappelhoff, E P Dvortsin, M Voorhaar, M J Postma
BACKGROUND: Dabigatran was proven to have similar effect on the prevention of recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and a lower risk of bleeding compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA). The aim of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness (CE) of dabigatran for the treatment and secondary prevention in patients with VTE compared to VKAs in the Dutch setting. METHODS: Previously published Markov model was modified and updated to assess the CE of dabigatran and VKAs for the treatment and secondary prevention in patients with VTE from a societal perspective in the base-case analysis...
2016: PloS One
Narayanan Viswanath
In this study, the expected time required to eradicate HIV-1 completely was found as the conditional absorbing time in a finite state space continuous-time Markov chain model. The Markov chain has two absorbing states: one corresponds to HIV eradication and another representing the possible disaster. This method allowed us to calculate the expected eradication time by solving systems of linear equations. To overcome the challenge of huge dimension of the problem, we applied a novel stop and resume technique...
October 20, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Nantachai Sornkarn, Thrishantha Nanayakkara
When humans are asked to palpate a soft tissue to locate a hard nodule, they regulate the stiffness, speed, and force of the finger during examination. If we understand the relationship between these behavioral variables and haptic information gain (transfer entropy) during manual probing, we can improve the efficacy of soft robotic probes for soft tissue palpation, such as in tumor localization in minimally invasive surgery. Here, we recorded the muscle co-contraction activity of the finger using EMG sensors to address the question as to whether joint stiffness control during manual palpation plays an important role in the haptic information gain...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Marissa J Carter, Adrienne M Gilligan, Curtis R Waycaster, Kathleen Schaum, Caroline E Fife
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness (from a payer's perspective) of adding clostridial collagenase ointment (CCO) to selective debridement compared with selective debridement alone (non-CCO) in the treatment of stage IV pressure ulcers among patients identified from the US Wound Registry. METHODS: A 3-state Markov model was developed to determine costs and outcomes between the CCO and non-CCO groups over a 2-year time horizon...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Economics
Fuming Fang, Takahiro Shinozaki, Yasuo Horiuchi, Shingo Kuroiwa, Sadaoki Furui, Toshimitsu Musha
Eye motion-based human-machine interfaces are used to provide a means of communication for those who can move nothing but their eyes because of injury or disease. To detect eye motions, electrooculography (EOG) is used. For efficient communication, the input speed is critical. However, it is difficult for conventional EOG recognition methods to accurately recognize fast, sequentially input eye motions because adjacent eye motions influence each other. In this paper, we propose a context-dependent hidden Markov model- (HMM-) based EOG modeling approach that uses separate models for identical eye motions with different contexts...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Yousef Sakieh, Abdolrassoul Salmanmahiny, Seyed Hamed Mirkarimi
Continuous surface of urbanization suitability, as an input to many urban growth models (UGM), has a significant role on a proper calibration process. The present study evaluates and compares the simulation success of the Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC) model through multiple methods. For this, a series of mapping algorithms are applied ranging from empirical methods such as multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) to statistical algorithms without spatially explicit suitability mapping rules such as logistic regression (LR) and multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network and finally statistical and spatially explicit rule-based methods such as SLEUTH-Genetic Algorithm (SLEUTH-GA) model...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sun-Kyeong Park, Seung-Hoo Park, Min-Young Lee, Ji-Hyun Park, Jae-Hong Jeong, Eui-Kyung Lee
PURPOSE: In south Korea, the price of biologics has been decreasing owing to patent expiration and the availability of biosimilars. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a treatment strategy initiated with etanercept (ETN) compared with leflunomide (LFN) after a 30% reduction in the medication cost of ETN in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX-IR). METHODS: A cohort-based Markov model was designed to evaluate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of treatment sequence initiated with ETN (A) compared with 2 sequences initiated with LFN: LFN-ETN sequence (B) and LFN sequence (C)...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Tamara Gajšt, Tine Bizjak, Andreja Palatinus, Svitlana Liubartseva, Andrej Kržan
Plastics are the most common material of marine litter and have become a global pollution concern. They are persistent in the environment where they gradually degrade into increasingly smaller particles-microplastics (MP). Our study presents results of sea-surface monitoring for MP in the Slovenian part of the Trieste Bay in the Northern Adriatic Sea. In 17 trawls conducted over a 20-month period we found a high average concentration of 406×10(3)MPparticles/km(2). Over 80% of the particles were identified as polyethylene...
October 19, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Alexander L Colonna, Nickolas R Byrge, Scott D Nelson, Richard E Nelson, Michael C Hunter, Raminder Nirula
BACKGROUND: The current management paradigm for recurrent adhesive small bowel obstruction (SBO) is nonoperative. Rates of recurrence differ based on time interval between and number of previous occurrences. Optimal time to intervene has not been determined. METHODS: We constructed a Markov model to evaluate costs and quality of life on a hypothetical cohort of 40-year-old patients after their first episode of medical management for postoperative SBO. We estimated a relative risk reduction of ...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Inmaculada Hernandez, Kenneth J Smith, Yuting Zhang
INTRODUCTION: The comparative cost-effectiveness of all oral anticoagulants approved up to date has not been evaluated from the US perspective. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of edoxaban 60mg, apixaban 5mg, dabigatran 150mg, dabigatran 110mg, rivaroxaban 20mg and warfarin in stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation patients at high-risk of bleeding (defined as HAS-BLED score≥3). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We constructed a Markov state-transition model to evaluate lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) with each of the six treatments from the perspective of US third-party payers...
October 15, 2016: Thrombosis Research
Trishal Boodhna, David P Crabb
BACKGROUND: Chronic open angle glaucoma (COAG) is an age-related eye disease causing irreversible loss of visual field (VF). Health service delivery for COAG is challenging given the large number of diagnosed patients requiring lifelong periodic monitoring by hospital eye services. Yet frequent examination better determines disease worsening and speed of VF loss under treatment. We examine the cost-effectiveness of increasing frequency of VF examinations during follow-up using a health economic model...
October 22, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Ashleigh A McGirr, Kevin L Schwartz, Upton Allen, Melinda Solomon, Beate Sander
Background Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at higher risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, which can lead to a decline in lung function. A monoclonal antibody, palivizumab (PMB), effectively prevents RSV hospitalizations; however, the high cost of PMB, approximately C$10,000 per patient per RSV season, limits its widespread use. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PMB prophylaxis in CF children less than 2 years of age from the Canadian healthcare payer's perspective. Methods In 2014, a Markov cohort model of CF disease and infant RSV infections in the Canadian setting was developed based on literature data...
October 21, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Vujica Markovic, Dragan Vukovic, Aleksandra Radosavljevic, Ivan Marjanovic
PURPOSE: To investigate the possible association between acquired ectropion uveae and blunt trauma to the eye. We present 3 cases of acquired ectropion uveae that occurred after blunt trauma to the eye. There are no previously published data on possible association of these conditions. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with ectropion uveae and eye injury at University Eye Hospital over a 10-year period (2006-2016). We analyzed medical records and clinical findings...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Hyundoo Jeong, Xiaoning Qian, Byung-Jun Yoon
BACKGROUND: Comparative analysis of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks provides an effective means of detecting conserved functional network modules across different species. Such modules typically consist of orthologous proteins with conserved interactions, which can be exploited to computationally predict the modules through network comparison. RESULTS: In this work, we propose a novel probabilistic framework for comparing PPI networks and effectively predicting the correspondence between proteins, represented as network nodes, that belong to conserved functional modules across the given PPI networks...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Yasin Gocgun
We study radiation therapy scheduling problem where dynamically and stochastically arriving patients of different types are scheduled to future days. Unlike similar models in the literature, we consider cancellation of treatments. We formulate this dynamic multi-appointment patient scheduling problem as a Markov Decision Process (MDP). Since the MDP is intractable due to large state and action spaces, we employ a simulation-based approximate dynamic programming (ADP) approach to approximately solve our model...
October 20, 2016: Health Care Management Science
Ishita Mukherjee, Abhijit Chakraborty, Saikat Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: An active immune surveillance and a range of barriers to infection allow the host to effectively eliminate microbial pathogens. However, pathogens may use diverse strategies to subdue such host defences. For instance, one such mechanism is the use of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins by pathogens (microbial) to cause infection. In this study, we aimed at identifying novel virulence factor(s) in Leishmania donovani, based on the possibility of lateral gene transfers of bacterial virulence factor(s) to L...
October 21, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"