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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329429/racial-disparity-in-life-expectancies-and-life-years-lost-associated-with-multiple-obesity-related-chronic-conditions
#1
Su-Hsin Chang, Yao-Chi Yu, Nils P Carlsson, Xiaoyan Liu, Graham A Colditz
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated racial disparity in life expectancies (LEs) and life years lost (LYL) associated with multiple obesity-related chronic conditions (OCCs). METHODS: Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2008-2012, were used. Four OCCs were studied: diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke. LE for each subpopulation was simulated by Markov modelling. LYL associated with a disease for a subpopulation was computed by taking the difference between LEs for members of that subpopulation without disease and LEs for members of that subpopulation who had that disease...
March 22, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327988/efficacy-and-safety-of-nilotinib-in-patients-with-kit-mutated-metastatic-or-inoperable-melanoma-final-results-from-the-global-single-arm-phase-ii-team-trial
#2
J Guo, R D Carvajal, R Dummer, A Hauschild, A Daud, B C Bastian, S N Markovic, P Queirolo, A Arance, C Berking, V Camargo, D Herchenhorn, T M Petrella, D Schadendorf, W Sharfman, A Testori, S Novick, S Hertle, C Nourry, Q Chen, F S Hodi
Background.: The single-arm, phase II Tasigna Efficacy in Advanced Melanoma (TEAM) trial evaluated the KIT-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with KIT -mutated advanced melanoma without prior KIT inhibitor treatment. Patients and Methods.: Forty-two patients with KIT -mutated advanced melanoma were enrolled and treated with nilotinib 400 mg twice daily. TEAM originally included a comparator arm of dacarbazine (DTIC)-treated patients; the design was amended to a single-arm trial due to an observed low number of KIT -mutated melanomas...
March 6, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323435/quantifying-selection-pressure
#3
Evert Haasdijk, Jacqueline Heinerman
Selection is an essential component of any evolutionary systemand analysing this fundamental force in evolution can provide relevant insights into the evolutionary development of a population. The 1990s and early 2000s saw a substantial number of publications that investigated selection pressure through methods such as takeover time and Markov chain analysis. Over the last decade, however, interest in the analysis of selection in evolutionary computing has waned. The established methods for analysis of selection pressure provide little insight when selection is based in more than comparison of fitness values...
March 21, 2017: Evolutionary Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323355/the-modelled-cost-effectiveness-of-cognitive-dissonance-for-the-prevention-of-anorexia-nervosa-and-bulimia-nervosa-in-adolescent-girls-in-australia
#4
Long Khanh-Dao Le, Jan J Barendregt, Phillipa Hay, Susan M Sawyer, Susan J Paxton, Cathrine Mihalopoulos
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), are prevalent disorders that carry substantial economic and social burden. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the modelled population cost-effectiveness of cognitive dissonance (CD), a school-based preventive intervention for EDs, in the Australian health care context. METHOD: A population-based Markov model was developed to estimate the cost per disability adjusted life-year (DALY) averted by CD relative to no intervention...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321898/a-generalized-mixture-model-applied-to-diabetes-incidence-data
#5
Daiane Aparecida Zuanetti, Luis Aparecido Milan
We present a generalization of the usual (independent) mixture model to accommodate a Markovian first-order mixing distribution. We propose the data-driven reversible jump, a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedure, for estimating the a posteriori probability for each model in a model selection procedure and estimating the corresponding parameters. Simulated datasets show excellent performance of the proposed method in the convergence, model selection, and precision of parameters estimates. Finally, we apply the proposed method to analyze USA diabetes incidence datasets...
March 21, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321524/what-are-the-true-volumes-of-sega-tumors-reliability-of-planimetric-and-popular-semi-automated-image-segmentation-methods
#6
Konrad Stawiski, Joanna Trelińska, Dobromiła Baranska, Iwona Dachowska, Katarzyna Kotulska, Sergiusz Jóźwiak, Wojciech Fendler, Wojciech Młynarski
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability of the standard planimetric methodology of volumetric analysis and three different open-source semi-automated approaches of brain tumor segmentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The volumes of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA) examined by 30 MRI studies of 10 patients from a previous everolimus-related trial (EMINENTS study) were estimated using four methods: planimetric method (modified MacDonald ellipsoid method), ITK-Snap (pixel clustering, geodesic active contours, region competition methods), 3D Slicer (level-set thresholding), and NIRFast (k-means clustering, Markov random fields)...
March 20, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321120/decision-analysis-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-patients-with-myelodysplastic-syndrome-stratified-according-to-the-revised-international-prognostic-scoring-system-ipss-r
#7
M G Della Porta, C H Jackson, E P Alessandrino, M Rossi, A Bacigalupo, M T van Lint, M Bernardi, B Allione, A Bosi, S Guidi, V Santini, L Malcovati, M Ubezio, C Milanesi, E Todisco, M T Voso, P Musto, F Onida, A P Iori, R Cerretti, G Grillo, A Molteni, P Pioltelli, L Borin, E Angelucci, E Oldani, S Sica, C Pascutto, V Ferretti, A Santoro, F Bonifazi, M Cazzola, A Rambaldi
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) represents the only curative treatment for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), but involves non-negligible morbidity and mortality. Crucial questions in clinical decision making include the definition of optimal timing of the procedure and the benefit of cytoreduction before transplant in high risk patients. We carried out a decision analysis on 1728 MDS who received supportive care, transplantation or hypomethylating agents (HMAs). Risk assessment was based on the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R)...
March 21, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320669/regularized-speaker-adaptation-of-kl-hmm-for-dysarthric-speech-recognition
#8
Myungjong Kim, Younggwan Kim, Joohong Yoo, Jun Wang, Hoirin Kim
This paper addresses the problem of recognizing the speech uttered by patients with dysarthria, which is a motor speech disorder impeding the physical production of speech. Patients with dysarthria have articulatory limitation, and therefore, they often have trouble in pronouncing certain sounds, resulting in undesirable phonetic variation. Modern automatic speech recognition systems designed for regular speakers are ineffective for dysarthric sufferers due to the phonetic variation. To capture the phonetic variation, Kullback-Leibler divergence based hidden Markov model (KL-HMM) is adopted, where the emission probability of state is parametrized by a categorical distribution using phoneme posterior probabilities obtained from a deep neural network-based acoustic model...
March 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320661/fast-unsupervised-bayesian-image-segmentation-with-adaptive-spatial-regularisation
#9
Marcelo Pereyra, Stephen McLaughlin
This paper presents a new Bayesian estimation technique for hidden Potts-Markov random fields with unknown regularisation parameters, with application to fast unsupervised K-class image segmentation. The technique is derived by first removing the regularisation parameter from the Bayesian model by marginalisation, followed by a small-variance-asymptotic (SVA) analysis in which the spatial regularisation and the integer-constrained terms of the Potts model are decoupled. The evaluation of this SVA Bayesian estimator is then relaxed into a problem that can be computed efficiently by iteratively solving a convex total-variation denoising problem and a least-squares clustering (K-means) problem, both of which can be solved straightforwardly, even in high-dimensions, and with parallel computing techniques...
March 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320309/correlated-duplications-and-losses-in-the-evolution-of-palmitoylation-writer-and-eraser-families
#10
Stijn Wittouck, Vera van Noort
BACKGROUND: Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) change protein properties. Each PTM type is associated with domain families that apply the modification (writers), remove the modification (erasers) and bind to the modified sites (readers) together called toolkit domains. The evolutionary origin and diversification remains largely understudied, except for tyrosine phosphorylation. Protein palmitoylation entails the addition of a palmitoyl fatty acid to a cysteine residue. This PTM functions as a membrane anchor and is involved in a range of cellular processes...
March 20, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319394/a-network-of-conformational-transitions-in-the-apo-form-of-ndm-1-enzyme-revealed-by-md-simulation-and-a-markov-state-model
#11
Kaifu Gao, Yunjie Zhao
New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is a novel β-Lactamase enzyme that confers enteric bacteria with nearly complete resistance to all β-lactam antibiotics, so raises a formidable and global threat to human health. However, the binding mechanism between apo-NDM-1 and antibiotics as well as related conformational changes remains poorly understood, which largely hinders the overcoming of its antibiotic resistance. In our study, long-time conventional molecular dynamics simulation and Markov state models were applied to reveal both dynamical and conformational landscape of apo-NDM-1: the MD simulation demonstrates that the loop L3, which is responsible for antibiotic binding, is the most flexible and undergoes dramatic conformational changes; moreover, the Markov state model built from the simulation maps four metastable states including open, semi-open and closed conformations of the loop L3 as well as frequent transitions between the states...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319275/mrf-ann-a-machine-learning-approach-for-automated-er-scoring-of-breast-cancer-immunohistochemical-images
#12
T Mungle, S Tewary, D K DAS, I Arun, B Basak, S Agarwal, R Ahmed, S Chatterjee, C Chakraborty
Molecular pathology, especially immunohistochemistry, plays an important role in evaluating hormone receptor status along with diagnosis of breast cancer. Time-consumption and inter-/intraobserver variability are major hindrances for evaluating the receptor score. In view of this, the paper proposes an automated Allred Scoring methodology for estrogen receptor (ER). White balancing is used to normalize the colour image taking into consideration colour variation during staining in different labs. Markov random field model with expectation-maximization optimization is employed to segment the ER cells...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315907/can-preoperative-cea-and-ca19-9-serum-concentrations-suggest-metastatic-disease-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#13
Milica Stojkovic Lalosevic, Sanja Stankovic, Mirjana Stojkovic, Velimir Markovic, Ivan Dimitrijevic, Jovan Lalosevic, Jelena Petrovic, Marija Brankovic, Aleksandra Pavlovic Markovic, Zoran Krivokapic
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the efficiency of preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate cancer antigen (CA19-9) levels for diagnosing synchronous liver metastases and lymph node in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 300 patients with histologically diagnosed CRC were included in this study between May 2014 and March 2015. The data were obtained prospectively from patient's medical records: medical history, demographics, tumor location, differentiation (grade), depth of the tumor (T), lymph node metastases (N), distant metastases (M), lymphatics, venous and perineural invasion, and disease stage...
March 20, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315055/determination-of-heavy-metals-in-muscle-tissue-of-six-fish-species-with-different-feeding-habits-from-the-danube-river-belgrade-public-health-and-environmental-risk-assessment
#14
Dragoljub A Jovanović, Radmila V Marković, Vlado B Teodorović, Dragan S Šefer, Milena P Krstić, Stamen B Radulović, Jelena S Ivanović Ćirić, Jelena M Janjić, Milan Ž Baltić
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of heavy metals/metalloids (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Fe, Zn, As) in the muscle tissue of fish from the Danube River (two locations: Zemun and Grocka). For the purpose of heavy metal determination in fish muscle, 120 samples of six different fish species, Prussian carp, barbel, bream, carp, pike perch, and catfish were collected. For determining heavy metals, we used microwave oven digestion and atomic absorption spectrometer methods. The highest average content of Pb (0...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314056/joint-modeling-of-zero-inflated-panel-count-and-severity-outcomes
#15
E Juarez-Colunga, G L Silva, C B Dean
Panel counts are often encountered in longitudinal, such as diary, studies where individuals are followed over time and the number of events occurring in time intervals, or panels, is recorded. This article develops methods for situations where, in addition to the counts of events, a mark, denoting a measure of severity of the events, is recorded. In many situations there is an association between the panel counts and their marks. This is the case for our motivating application that studies the effect of two hormone therapy treatments in reducing counts and severities of vasomotor symptoms in women after hysterectomy/ovariectomy...
March 17, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306515/decentralized-safety-concept-for-closed-loop-controlled-intensive-care
#16
Jan Kühn, Christian Brendle, André Stollenwerk, Martin Schweigler, Stefan Kowalewski, Thorsten Janisch, Rolf Rossaint, Steffen Leonhardt, Marian Walter, Rüdger Kopp
This paper presents a decentralized safety concept for networked intensive care setups, for which a decentralized network of sensors and actuators is realized by embedded microcontroller nodes. It is evaluated for up to eleven medical devices in a setup for automated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) therapy. In this contribution we highlight a blood pump supervision as exemplary safety measure, which allows a reliable bubble detection in an extracorporeal blood circulation. The approach is validated with data of animal experiments including 35 bubbles with a size between 0...
March 17, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302164/cost-effectiveness-of-cerebrospinal-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Spencer A W Lee, Luciano A Sposato, Vladimir Hachinski, Lauren E Cipriano
BACKGROUND: Accurate and timely diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important for prompt initiation of treatment in patients with AD and to avoid inappropriate treatment of patients with false-positive diagnoses. METHODS: Using a Markov model, we estimated the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis in a cohort of patients referred to a neurologist or memory clinic with suspected AD who remained without a definitive diagnosis of AD or another condition after neuroimaging...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301529/applying-diffusion-based-markov-chain-monte-carlo
#18
Radu Herbei, Rajib Paul, L Mark Berliner
We examine the performance of a strategy for Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) developed by simulating a discrete approximation to a stochastic differential equation (SDE). We refer to the approach as diffusion MCMC. A variety of motivations for the approach are reviewed in the context of Bayesian analysis. In particular, implementation of diffusion MCMC is very simple to set-up, even in the presence of nonlinear models and non-conjugate priors. Also, it requires comparatively little problem-specific tuning. We implement the algorithm and assess its performance for both a test case and a glaciological application...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301424/joint-estimation-of-cd4-progression-and-survival-in-untreated-individuals-with-hiv-1-infection-a-pooled-analysis-of-data-from-25-countries
#19
T D Mangal
OBJECTIVE: We compiled the largest dataset of seroconverter cohorts to date from 25 countries across Africa, North America, Europe, and SE/E. Asia to simultaneously estimate transition rates between CD4 stages and death, in ART-naive HIV-1 infected individuals. DESIGN: A hidden Markov model incorporating a misclassification matrix was used to represent natural short-term fluctuations and measurement errors in CD4 counts. Covariates were included to estimate the transition rates and survival probabilities for each subgroup...
March 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300600/ethanolic-extracts-of-inula-viscosa-salix-alba-and-quercus-calliprinos-negatively-affect-the-development-of-the-entomopathogenic-nematode-heterorhabditis-bacteriophora-a-model-to-compare-gastro-intestinal-nematodes-developmental-effect
#20
Velayudhan Satheeja Santhi, Liora Salame, Levana Dvash, Hussein Muklada, Hassan Azaizeh, Raghda Mreny, Safaa Awwad, Alex Markovics, Serge Yan Landau, Itamar Glazer
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora can represent a model system for herbal medication against gastro-intestinal strongylid parasites in determining the recovery and development due to their unique parasitic infectious cycle. The fact that plant extracts impair nematode development is known but their differential impact on stages of the life cycle of H. bacteriophora has never been investigated. We examined the developmental stages resumed from eggs, young juveniles (J1-3), infective juveniles (IJs), young and adult hermaphrodites of H...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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