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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445594/porcine-milk-induces-a-strengthening-of-barrier-function-in-porcine-jejunal-epithelium-in-vitro
#1
Judith Radloff, Silke S Zakrzewski, Robert Pieper, Alexander G Markov, Salah Amasheh
Milk contains a variety of components that have been shown to affect the expression and localization of epithelial tight junction proteins and therefore the intestinal barrier. Thus, we hypothesized that milk would have an effect on intestinal barrier properties, owing to effects on the tight junction in an intraspecies porcine intestinal in vitro model. Jejunal samples of piglets derived from different age groups were analyzed. Transepithelial electrical resistance was recorded employing the Ussing chamber technique...
April 26, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445256/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-ultrasonography-screening-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-metabolic-syndrome-patients
#2
Pochamana Phisalprapa, Siripen Supakankunti, Phunchai Charatcharoenwitthaya, Piyaporn Apisarnthanarak, Aphinya Charoensak, Chaiwat Washirasaksiri, Weerachai Srivanichakorn, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be diagnosed early by noninvasive ultrasonography; however, the cost-effectiveness of ultrasonography screening with intensive weight reduction program in metabolic syndrome patients is not clear. This study aims to estimate economic and clinical outcomes of ultrasonography in Thailand. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness analysis used decision tree and Markov models to estimate lifetime costs and health benefits from societal perspective, based on a cohort of 509 metabolic syndrome patients in Thailand...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444905/the-value-of-a-combined-word-recognition-and-knowledge-measure-to-understand-characteristics-of-our-patients-oral-health-literacy
#3
Kathryn A Atchison, Mark D Macek, Daniela Markovic
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the analysis was to examine the association between sociodemographic and dental understanding and utilization characteristics and lower oral health literacy (HL) and knowledge. METHODS: The cross-sectional Multicenter Oral Health Literacy Research Study (MOHLRS) recruited and interviewed 923 English-speaking, initial care-seeking adults. The questionnaire included participant sociodemographic characteristics, measures of the participant's understanding and utilization of dentistry, and two oral HL measures, the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine and Dentistry (REALM-D) and the Comprehensive Measure of Oral Health Knowledge (CMOHK), which were combined into a new composite HL and knowledge measure, the MOHLR-K...
April 26, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444187/modelling-the-cost-effectiveness-pcsk9-inhibitors-vs-ezetimibe-through-ldl-c-reductions-in-a-norwegian-setting
#4
Max Korman, Torbjørn Wisløff
Aims: Despite the success of statins, there remains unmet clinical need in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. New proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 55-65%. Two PCSK9 inhibitors, evolocumab and alirocumab, were approved for use in Norway but not yet for reimbursement through public national insurance. We aim to explore the cost-effectiveness of these compared to available treatments in a Norwegian setting...
April 21, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443037/analyzing-dyadic-sequence-data-research-questions-and-implied-statistical-models
#5
Peter Fuchs, Fridtjof W Nussbeck, Nathalie Meuwly, Guy Bodenmann
The analysis of observational data is often seen as a key approach to understanding dynamics in romantic relationships but also in dyadic systems in general. Statistical models for the analysis of dyadic observational data are not commonly known or applied. In this contribution, selected approaches to dyadic sequence data will be presented with a focus on models that can be applied when sample sizes are of medium size (N = 100 couples or less). Each of the statistical models is motivated by an underlying potential research question, the most important model results are presented and linked to the research question...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441487/the-isomeric-preference-of-an-atypical-dopamine-transporter-inhibitor-contributes-to-its-selection-of-the-transporter-conformation
#6
Ara M Abramyan, Sebastian Stolzenberg, Zheng Li, Claus J Loland, Frank Noé, Lei Shi
Cocaine, a widely abused psychostimulant, inhibits the dopamine transporter (DAT) by trapping the protein in an outward-open conformation, whereas atypical DAT inhibitors such as benztropine have low abuse liability and prefer less outward-open conformations. Here, we use a spectrum of computational modeling and simulation approaches to obtain the underlying molecular mechanism in atomistic detail. Interestingly, our quantum mechanical calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that a benztropine derivative JHW007 prefers a different stereoisomeric conformation of tropane in binding to DAT compared to that of a cocaine derivative, CFT...
April 25, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441087/using-the-payoff-time-in-decision-analytic-models-a-case-study-for-using-statins-in-primary-prevention
#7
Alexander Thompson, Bruce Guthrie, Katherine Payne
BACKGROUND: The payoff time represents an estimate of when the benefits of an intervention outweigh the costs. It is particularly useful for benefit-harm decision making for interventions that have deferred benefits but upfront harms. The aim of this study was to expand the application of the payoff time and provide an example of its use within a decision-analytic model. METHODS: Three clinically relevant patient vignettes based on varying levels of estimated 10-year cardiovascular risk (10%, 15%, 20%) were developed...
March 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437473/molecular-simulations-and-markov-state-modeling-reveal-the-structural-diversity-and-dynamics-of-a-theophylline-binding-rna-aptamer-in-its-unbound-state
#8
Becka M Warfield, Peter C Anderson
RNA aptamers are oligonucleotides that bind with high specificity and affinity to target ligands. In the absence of bound ligand, secondary structures of RNA aptamers are generally stable, but single-stranded and loop regions, including ligand binding sites, lack defined structures and exist as ensembles of conformations. For example, the well-characterized theophylline-binding aptamer forms a highly stable binding site when bound to theophylline, but the binding site is unstable and disordered when theophylline is absent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437451/predicting-explorative-motor-learning-using-decision-making-and-motor-noise
#9
Xiuli Chen, Kieran Mohr, Joseph M Galea
A fundamental problem faced by humans is learning to select motor actions based on noisy sensory information and incomplete knowledge of the world. Recently, a number of authors have asked whether this type of motor learning problem might be very similar to a range of higher-level decision-making problems. If so, participant behaviour on a high-level decision-making task could be predictive of their performance during a motor learning task. To investigate this question, we studied performance during an explorative motor learning task and a decision-making task which had a similar underlying structure with the exception that it was not subject to motor (execution) noise...
April 24, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436914/a-time-variant-log-linear-learning-approach-to-the-set-k-cover-problem-in-wireless-sensor-networks
#10
Changhao Sun
Toward the global optimality of the SET K-COVER problem in wireless sensor networks, we view each sensor node as a rational player and propose a time variant log-linear learning algorithm (TVLLA) that relies on local information only. By defining the local utility as the normalized area covered by one node alone, we formulate the problem as a spatial potential game. The resulting optimal Nash equilibria correspond to the optimal partition. Such equilibria are obtained by designing a time varying parameter β that approaches infinity with time...
April 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436865/video-anomaly-detection-with-compact-feature-sets-for-online-performance
#11
Roberto Leyva, Victor Sanchez, Chang-Tsun Li
Over the past decade, video anomaly detection has been explored with remarkable results. However, research on methodologies suitable for online performance is still very limited. In this paper, we present an online framework for video anomaly detection. The key aspect of our framework is a compact set of highly descriptive features, which is extracted from a novel cell structure that helps to define support regions in a coarse-to-fine fashion. Based on the scene's activity, only a limited number of support regions are processed, thus limiting the size of the feature set...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435964/kinetics-of-co2-diffusion-in-human-carbonic-anhydrase-a-study-using-molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-the-markov-state-model
#12
Gong Chen, Xian Kong, Diannan Lu, Jianzhong Wu, Zheng Liu
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, in combination with the Markov-state model (MSM), were applied to probe CO2 diffusion from an aqueous solution into the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCA-II), an enzyme useful for enhanced CO2 capture and utilization. The diffusion process in the hydrophobic pocket of hCA-II was illustrated in terms of a two-dimensional free-energy landscape. We found that CO2 diffusion in hCA-II is a rate-limiting step in the CO2 diffusion-binding-reaction process. The equilibrium distribution of CO2 shows its preferential accumulation within a hydrophobic domain in the protein core region...
April 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435861/origin-of-an-ancient-hormone-receptor-couple-revealed-by-resurrection-of-an-ancestral-estrogen
#13
Gabriel V Markov, Juliana Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Delphine Pitrat, Isabelle M L Billas, François Bonneton, Dino Moras, Jens Hasserodt, Guillaume Lecointre, Vincent Laudet
The origin of ancient ligand/receptor couples is often analyzed via reconstruction of ancient receptors and, when ligands are products of metabolic pathways, they are not supposed to evolve. However, because metabolic pathways are inherited by descent with modification, their structure can be compared using cladistic analysis. Using this approach, we studied the evolution of steroid hormones. We show that side-chain cleavage is common to most vertebrate steroids, whereas aromatization was co-opted for estrogen synthesis from a more ancient pathway...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435123/is-having-similar-eye-movement-patterns-during-face-learning-and-recognition-beneficial-for-recognition-performance-evidence-from-hidden-markov-modeling
#14
Tim Chuk, Antoni B Chan, Janet Hsiao
The hidden Markov model (HMM)-based approach for eye movement analysis is able to reflect individual differences in both spatial and temporal aspects of eye movements. Here we used this approach to understand the relationship between eye movements during face learning and recognition, and its association with recognition performance. We discovered holistic (i.e., mainly looking at the face center) and analytic (i.e., specifically looking at the two eyes in addition to the face center) patterns during both learning and recognition...
April 20, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434864/sensorimotor-representations-in-cerebellar-granule-cells-in-larval-zebrafish-are-dense-spatially-organized-and-non-temporally-patterned
#15
Laura D Knogler, Daniil A Markov, Elena I Dragomir, Vilim Štih, Ruben Portugues
A fundamental question in neurobiology is how animals integrate external sensory information from their environment with self-generated motor and sensory signals in order to guide motor behavior and adaptation. The cerebellum is a vertebrate hindbrain region where all of these signals converge and that has been implicated in the acquisition, coordination, and calibration of motor activity. Theories of cerebellar function postulate that granule cells encode a variety of sensorimotor signals in the cerebellar input layer...
April 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434387/cost-utility-of-biological-treatment-sequences-for-luminal-crohn-s-disease-in-europe
#16
Fanni Rencz, László Gulácsi, Márta Péntek, Krisztina B Gecse, Axel Dignass, Jonas Halfvarson, Fernando Gomollón, Petra Baji, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Péter L Lakatos, Valentin Brodszky
OBJECTIVES: To compare the cost-effectiveness of treatment sequences with available biologics, including adalimumab (ADA), biosimilar infliximab (bsIFX), originator infliximab (IFX) and vedolizumab (VEDO) for luminal Crohn's disease in nine European countries. METHODS: A Markov-model was constructed to simulate five-year medical costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Data on clinical efficacy were obtained from randomised controlled trials. Country-specific unit costs, discount rates and a third-party payer perspective were applied...
April 24, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434023/developing-a-statistically-powerful-measure-for-quartet-tree-inference-using-phylogenetic-identities-and-markov-invariants
#17
Jeremy G Sumner, Amelia Taylor, Barbara R Holland, Peter D Jarvis
Recently there has been renewed interest in phylogenetic inference methods based on phylogenetic invariants, alongside the related Markov invariants. Broadly speaking, both these approaches give rise to polynomial functions of sequence site patterns that, in expectation value, either vanish for particular evolutionary trees (in the case of phylogenetic invariants) or have well understood transformation properties (in the case of Markov invariants). While both approaches have been valued for their intrinsic mathematical interest, it is not clear how they relate to each other, and to what extent they can be used as practical tools for inference of phylogenetic trees...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433383/screening-for-chronic-kidney-disease-in-canadian-indigenous-peoples-is-cost-effective
#18
Thomas W Ferguson, Navdeep Tangri, Zhi Tan, Matthew T James, Barry D A Lavallee, Caroline D Chartrand, Lorraine L McLeod, Allison B Dart, Claudio Rigatto, Paul V J Komenda
Canadian indigenous (First Nations) have rates of kidney failure that are 2- to 4-fold higher than the non-indigenous general Canadian population. As such, a strategy of targeted screening and treatment for CKD may be cost-effective in this population. Our objective was to assess the cost utility of screening and subsequent treatment for CKD in rural Canadian indigenous adults by both estimated glomerular filtration rate and the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. A decision analytic Markov model was constructed comparing the screening and treatment strategy to usual care...
April 19, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433026/variational-koopman-models-slow-collective-variables-and-molecular-kinetics-from-short-off-equilibrium-simulations
#19
Hao Wu, Feliks Nüske, Fabian Paul, Stefan Klus, Péter Koltai, Frank Noé
Markov state models (MSMs) and master equation models are popular approaches to approximate molecular kinetics, equilibria, metastable states, and reaction coordinates in terms of a state space discretization usually obtained by clustering. Recently, a powerful generalization of MSMs has been introduced, the variational approach conformation dynamics/molecular kinetics (VAC) and its special case the time-lagged independent component analysis (TICA), which allow us to approximate slow collective variables and molecular kinetics by linear combinations of smooth basis functions or order parameters...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432981/hidden-markov-model-and-chapman-kolmogrov-for-protein-structures-prediction-from-images
#20
Md Sarwar Kamal, Linkon Chowdhury, Mohammad Ibrahim Khan, Amira S Ashour, João Manuel R S Tavares, Nilanjan Dey
Protein structure prediction and analysis are more significant for living organs to perfect asses the living organ functionalities. Several protein structure prediction methods use neural network (NN). However, the Hidden Markov model is more interpretable and effective for more biological data analysis compared to the NN. It employs statistical data analysis to enhance the prediction accuracy. The current work proposed a protein prediction approach from protein images based on Hidden Markov Model and Chapman Kolmogrov equation...
April 13, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
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