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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077628/the-creatininase-homolog-mfte-from-mycobacterium-smegmatis-catalyzes-a-peptide-cleavage-reaction-in-the-biosynthesis-of-a-novel-ripp
#1
Nathan A Bruender, Vahe Bandarian
Most ribosomally-synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP) natural products are processed by tailoring enzymes to create complex natural products that are still recognizably peptide-based. However, some tailoring enzymes dismantle the peptide en route to synthesis of small molecules. The biosynthesis of a small-molecule natural product of as yet unknown structure, mycofactocin, is thought to be synthesized in this way, via the mft gene cluster found in many strains of Mycobacteria. This cluster harbors at least six genes, which appear to be conserved across species...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059275/development-and-characterization-of-high-suppression-and-high-%C3%A3-tendue-narrowband-spectral-filters
#2
Adam Kinos, Qian Li, Lars Rippe, Stefan Kröll
The present work addresses critical issues in constructing high suppression, narrowband spectral filters in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals, mainly targeting the application of ultrasound optical tomography but is also applicable for areas such as quantum memories, self-filtering of laser frequencies, and other applications relying on high absorption in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. The polarization of light transmitted through a highly absorbing crystal is experimentally analyzed. Additionally, an existing wave propagation method is used to simulate beam propagation through a spectral hole to study the high étendue requirements of ultrasound optical tomography...
December 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057678/afs-identification-and-quantification-of-species-composition-by-metagenomic-sequencing
#3
Yongchao Liu, Fabian Ripp, Rene Koeppel, Hanno Schmidt, Sören Lukas Hellmann, Mathias Weber, Christopher Felix Krombholz, Bertil Schmidt, Thomas Hankeln
: DNA-based methods to detect and quantify taxon composition in biological materials are often based on species-specific polymerase chain reaction, limited to detecting species targeted by the assay. Next-generation sequencing overcomes this drawback by untargeted shotgun sequencing of whole metagenomes at affordable cost. Here we present AFS, a software pipeline for quantification of species composition in food. AFS uses metagenomic shotgun sequencing and sequence read counting to infer species proportions...
January 5, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051889/race-ethnicity-in-medical-education-an-analysis-of-a-question-bank-for-step-1-of-the-united-states-medical-licensing-examination
#4
Kelsey Ripp, Lundy Braun
: Phenomenon: There is growing concern over racial/ethnic bias in clinical care, yet how best to reduce bias remains challenging, in part because the sources of bias in medical education are poorly understood. One possible source is the routinized use of race/ethnicity in lectures, assessment, and preparatory materials, including question banks for licensing examinations. Because students worldwide use question banks to prepare for the United States Medical Licensing Examination, we examined how race/ethnicity was used in one of the most commonly recommended question banks...
January 4, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009976/ammosamides-unveil-novel-biosynthetic-machinery
#5
Dominic A Colosimo, John B MacMillan
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Jordan and Moore (2016) present a thorough biosynthetic analysis of ammosamides, a bacterial natural product. The work highlights the previously unknown overlap between two natural products families: pyrroloquinoline alkaloids and ribosomally synthesized posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs).
December 22, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005705/denervation-of-the-distal-renal-arterial-branches-vs-conventional-main-renal-artery-treatment-a-randomized-controlled-trial-for-treatment-of-resistant-hypertension
#6
Stanislav E Pekarskiy, Andrei E Baev, Victor F Mordovin, Galina V Semke, Tatyana M Ripp, Alla U Falkovskaya, Valeria A Lichikaki, Ekaterina S Sitkova, Irina V Zubanova, Sergei V Popov
BACKGROUND: Effective treatment of uncontrolled hypertension using catheter-based percutaneous renal denervation may depend strongly on the anatomic strategy applied when delivering therapy. We hypothesized that concentering renal denervation treatment in the distal region of the artery would improve clinical response. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled, and parallel group study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02667912)...
February 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998080/structure-of-the-lasso-peptide-isopeptidase-identifies-a-topology-for-processing-threaded-substrates
#7
Jonathan R Chekan, Joseph D Koos, Chuhan Zong, Mikhail O Maksimov, A James Link, Satish K Nair
Lasso peptides are a class of bioactive ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), with a threaded knot structure that is formed by an isopeptide bond attaching the N-terminus of the peptide to a side chain carboxylate. Some lasso peptide biosynthetic clusters harbor an enzyme that specifically hydrolyzes the isopeptide bond to yield the linear peptide. We describe here the 2.4 Å resolution structure of a lasso peptide isopeptidase revealing a topologically novel didomain architecture consisting of an open β-propeller appended to an α/β hydrolase domain...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974597/what-is-the-appropriate-upper-limit-for-added-sugars-consumption
#8
James M Rippe, John L Sievenpiper, Kim-Anne Lê, John S White, Roger Clemens, Theodore J Angelopoulos
Dramatic increases in obesity and diabetes have occurred worldwide over the past 30 years. Some investigators have suggested that these increases may be due, in part, to increased added sugars consumption. Several scientific organizations, including the World Health Organization, the Scientific Advisory Council on Nutrition, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee 2015, and the American Heart Association, have recommended significant restrictions on upper limits of sugars consumption. In this review, the scientific evidence related to sugars consumption and its putative link to various chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome is examined...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966282/enzyme-from-an-uncultivated-sponge-bacterium-catalyzes-s-methylation-in-a-ribosomal-peptide
#9
Maximilian Helf, Aurelia Jud, Jörn Piel
Amino acid modifications are essential for the structural diversity and bioactivity of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide natural products (RiPPs). A particularly large and virtually untapped pool of unusual RiPPs and associated modifying enzymes is provided by uncultivated bacteria. An example is the chemically rich sponge symbiont 'Candidatus Entotheonella factor' that produces the hypermodified polytheonamides of the poorly studied proteusin RiPP family. In addition to the polytheonamide genes, 'E...
December 14, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934015/the-b12-radical-sam-enzyme-poyc-catalyzes-valine-c%C3%AE-methylation-during-polytheonamide-biosynthesis
#10
Aubérie Parent, Alain Guillot, Alhosna Benjdia, Gwladys Chartier, Jérôme Leprince, Olivier Berteau
Genomic and metagenomic investigations have recently led to the delineation of a novel class of natural products called ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs). RiPPs are ubiquitous among living organisms and include pharmaceutically relevant compounds such as antibiotics and toxins. A prominent example is polytheonamide A, which exhibits numerous post-translational modifications, some of which were unknown in ribosomal peptides until recently. Among these post-translational modifications, C-methylations have been proposed to be catalyzed by two putative radical S-adenosylmethionine (rSAM) enzymes, PoyB and PoyC...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933322/silicone-disclosing-material-used-after-ceramic-surface-treatment-reduces-bond-strength
#11
Sara Fraga, Sara Cioccari Oliveira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha Pereira, Pieter Beekman, Marília Pivetta Rippe, Cornelis J Kleverlaan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a silicone disclosing procedure performed at different timepoints on the shear bond strength (SBS) of cements (self-adhesive composite cement, self-etch composite cement, resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cement) to different substrates (zirconia, lithium disilicate, bovine dentin). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The substrate/cement combinations were assigned to two groups (n = 15) according to the timepoint, at which the vinyl polyether silicone disclosing agent was applied: after (experimental groups, EXP) or before (control groups, CTRL) specific micromechanical treatments of the substrate surface...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913416/mutagenesis-of-nosm-leader-peptide-reveals-important-elements-in-nosiheptide-biosynthesis
#12
Liang Jin, Xuri Wu, Yanjiu Xue, Yue Jin, Shuzhen Wang, Yijun Chen
: Nosiheptide, a typical member of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), exhibits potent activity against multi-drug resistant Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. The precursor peptide of nosiheptide (NosM) is comprised of a leader peptide with 37 amino acids and a core peptide containing 13 amino acids. To pinpoint essential elements in the leader peptide for nosithpetide biosynthesis, a collection of mutants with unique sequence features, including N- and C-terminal motifs, peptide length as well as specific sites in the leader peptide, was generated by mutagenesis in vivo The effects of various mutants on nosiheptide biosynthesis were evaluated...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905614/methanobactins-from-genome-to-function
#13
Laura M K Dassama, Grace E Kenney, Amy C Rosenzweig
Methanobactins (Mbns) are ribosomally produced, post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP) natural products that bind copper with high affinity using nitrogen-containing heterocycles and thioamide groups. In some methanotrophic bacteria, Mbns are secreted under conditions of copper starvation and then re-internalized as a copper source for the enzyme particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). Genome mining studies have led to the identification and classification of operons encoding the Mbn precursor peptide (MbnA) as well as a number of putative transport, regulatory, and biosynthetic proteins...
December 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869143/genome-mining-unveils-widespread-natural-product-biosynthetic-capacity-in-human-oral-microbe-streptococcus-mutans
#14
Liwei Liu, Tingting Hao, Zhoujie Xie, Geoff P Horsman, Yihua Chen
Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen causing human dental caries. As a Gram-positive bacterium with a small genome (about 2 Mb) it is considered a poor source of natural products. Due to a recent explosion in genomic data available for S. mutans strains, we were motivated to explore the natural product production potential of this organism. Bioinformatic characterization of 169 publically available genomes of S. mutans from human dental caries revealed a surprisingly rich source of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827899/relationship-between-added-sugars-consumption-and-chronic-disease-risk-factors-current-understanding
#15
REVIEW
James M Rippe, Theodore J Angelopoulos
Added sugars are a controversial and hotly debated topic. Consumption of added sugars has been implicated in increased risk of a variety of chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as cognitive decline and even some cancers. Support for these putative associations has been challenged, however, on a variety of fronts. The purpose of the current review is to summarize high impact evidence including systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in an attempt to provide an overview of current evidence related to added sugars and health considerations...
November 4, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810731/surface-micro-morphology-phase-transformation-and-mechanical-reliability-of-ground-and-aged-monolithic-zirconia-ceramic
#16
L F Guilardi, G K R Pereira, A Gündel, M P Rippe, L F Valandro
This study aimed to determine the effects of grinding and low temperature aging on the biaxial flexural strength, structural reliability (Weibull analysis), surface topography, roughness analysis, and phase transformation (t→m) of an yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramic. Ceramic discs (15.0×1.2±0.2mm, VITA In-Ceram YZ) were prepared and randomly assigned into six groups according to 2 factors (n=30): 'grinding' (Ctrl - without treatment, as-sintered; Xfine - grinding with extra fine diamond bur - 30µm; Coarse - grinding by coarse diamond bur - 151µm), and 'aging' (without or with aging: Ctrl(LTD); Xfine(LTD); Coarse(LTD))...
January 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800552/lasso-peptide-biosynthetic-protein-larb1-binds-both-leader-and-core-peptide-regions-of-the-precursor-protein-lara
#17
Wai Ling Cheung, Maria Y Chen, Mikhail O Maksimov, A James Link
Lasso peptides are a member of the superclass of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs). Like all RiPPs, lasso peptides are derived from a gene-encoded precursor protein. The biosynthesis of lasso peptides requires two enzymatic activities: proteolytic cleavage between the leader peptide and the core peptide in the precursor protein, accomplished by the B enzymes, and ATP-dependent isopeptide bond formation, accomplished by the C enzymes. In a subset of lasso peptide biosynthetic gene clusters from Gram-positive organisms, the B enzyme is split between two proteins...
October 26, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795312/an-aminotransferase-is-responsible-for-the-deamination-of-the-n-terminal-leucine-and-required-for-formation-of-oxazolone-ring-a-in-methanobactin-of-methylosinus-trichosporium-ob3b
#18
Wenyu Gu, Bipin S Baral, Alan A DiSpirito, Jeremy D Semrau
: Gene expression in methanotrophs has been shown to be affected by the availability of a variety of metals, most notably copper-regulating expression of alternative forms of methane monooxygenase. A copper-binding compound, or chalkophore, called methanobactin plays a key role in copper uptake in methanotrophs. Methanobactin is a ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide (RiPP) with two heterocyclic rings with an associated thioamide for each ring, formed from X-Cys dipeptide sequences that bind copper...
January 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777674/the-effect-of-burnout-on-medical-errors-and-professionalism-in-first-year-internal-medicine-residents
#19
Jason Kwah, Jennifer Weintraub, Robert Fallar, Jonathan Ripp
BACKGROUND : Burnout is a common issue in internal medicine residents, and its impact on medical errors and professionalism is an important subject of investigation. OBJECTIVE : To evaluate differences in medical errors and professionalism in internal medicine residents with and without burnout. METHODS : A single institution observational cohort study was conducted between June 2011 and July 2012. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory to generate subscores for the following 3 domains: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and sense of personal accomplishment...
October 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777075/influences-on-the-frequency-and-type-of-community-pharmacy-services
#20
William R Doucette, Julia J Rippe, Caroline A Gaither, David H Kreling, David A Mott, Jon C Schommer
OBJECTIVES: To describe services provided by community pharmacies and to identify factors associated with services being provided in community pharmacies. DESIGN: Cross-sectional national mail survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Pharmacists actively practicing in community pharmacies (independent, chain, mass merchandisers, and supermarkets). OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency and type of pharmacy services available in a community pharmacy, including medication therapy management, immunization, adjusting medication therapy, medication reconciliation, disease state management, health screening or coaching, complex nonsterile compounding, and point-of-care testing...
January 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
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