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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922613/the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-mainland-china-2001-2015-a-systematic-review
#1
Guijun Ning, Xuxia Wang, Dan Wu, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children younger than 5 years and provide evidence for further cost-effectiveness analyses for vaccine development, diagnostic strategies and empirical treatments. METHODS: The literature review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Web-of Science, and the Chinese databases Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922566/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-chronic-endobronchial-infections-in-childhood
#2
Kim M Hare, Amanda J Leach, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Keith Grimwood
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the latter causes considerable morbidity and, in some populations, premature death in children and adults. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is another chronic endobronchial infection associated with substantial morbidity...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922451/low-medical-morbidity-and-mortality-after-acute-courses-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-a-population-based-sample
#3
D M Blumberger, D P Seitz, N Herrmann, J G Kirkham, R Ng, C Reimer, P Kurdyak, A Gruneir, M J Rapoport, Z J Daskalakis, B H Mulsant, S N Vigod
BACKGROUND: To determine event rates for specific medical events and mortality among individuals receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). METHOD: Population-based cohort study using health administrative data of acute ECT treatments delivered in Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2011. We measured the following medical event rates, per 10 000 ECT treatments, up to 7 and 30 days post-treatment: stroke, seizure, acute myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, pneumonia, pulmonary embolus, deep vein thrombosis, gastrointestinal bleeding, falls, hip fracture, and mortality...
September 18, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922054/economic-burden-of-pneumococcal-infections-in-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age
#4
Mehmet Ceyhan, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Basak Hacibedel, Egemen Ozbilgili
The present study aimed to determine the cost of childhood pneumococcal infections under 5 years of age and to provide further data for future health economy studies. Electronic medical records of children diagnosed with meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae and all-cause pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM) between January 2013-April 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Direct costs for the treatments of hospitalized patients (pneumonia and pneumococcal meningitis) including costs of healthcare services consisted of costs of hospital bed, examination, laboratory analyses, scanning methods, consultation, vascular access procedures, and infusion and intravenous treatments...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920493/construction-and-evaluation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-of-tedizolid-phosphate-loaded-cationic-liposomes
#5
Zhenlei Yang, Liu Tian, Jingjing Liu, Guihua Huang
Firstly, The SA-TDZA-Lips were prepared by reverse-phase evaporation method. Then, the drug release behavior was evaluated by dynamic membrane dialysis in vitro and the preliminary safety was evaluated by hemolysis method. Finally, with Tedizolid phosphate injection (TDZA-Inj) and tedizolid phosphate loaded liposomes (TDZA-Lips) as the control groups, the pharmacokinetic characteristic and tissues distribution of SA-TDZA-Lips were evaluated after intravenous injection. As a result, the stearylamine modified tedizolid phosphate liposomal delivery system was constructed successfully and the particle size was (194...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919718/extended-infusion-versus-intermittent-infusion-of-imipenem-in-the-treatment-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#6
Mohamed M Ibrahim, Tarek Fouad Tammam, Mohy El Deen Ebaed, Hatem A Sarhan, Gamal F Gad, Amal K Hussein
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation support can be the main source of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP is a serious infection that may be associated with dangerous gram-negative bacteria mainly, and it leads to an increase in the mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). Imipenem is one of the strongest antibiotics now available for treating VAP which is associated with gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, and it belongs to beta-lactam antibiotic group (carbapenem). OBJECTIVE: This study tried to investigate the efficacy of imipenem against VAP when it was infused within 180 min versus the efficacy when it was infused within 30-60 min...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918415/treatment-options-and-barriers-to-case-management-of-neonatal-pneumonia-in-india-a-protocol-for-a-scoping-review
#7
N Sreekumaran Nair, Leslie Edward Lewis, Shruti Murthy, Myron Anthony Godinho, Theophilus Lakiang, Bhumika T Venkatesh
INTRODUCTION: India contributes to the highest neonatal deaths globally. Case management is said to be the cornerstone of pneumonia control. Much of the published evidence focuses on children aged 1 to 59 months. This scoping review, thus, aims to identify the treatment options for and barriers to case management of neonatal pneumonia in India. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol is part of a series of three reviews on neonatal pneumonia in India. Studies addressing treatment of or barriers to case management of neonatal pneumonia in Indian context, published in English in peer-reviewed and indexed journals will be eligible for inclusion...
September 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916385/bacterial-pneumonia-in-older-adults
#8
REVIEW
Oryan Henig, Keith S Kaye
The incidence of pneumonia increases with age, and is particularly high in patients who reside in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Mortality rates for pneumonia in older adults are high and have not decreased in the last decade. Atypical symptoms and exacerbation of underlying illnesses should trigger clinical suspicion of pneumonia. Risk factors for multidrug-resistant organisms are more common in older adults, particularly among LTCF residents, and should be considered when making empiric treatment decisions...
September 12, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915998/predictors-of-humoral-response-to-recommended-vaccines-in-hiv-infected-adults
#9
Olga Tsachouridou, Eirini Christaki, Lemonia Skoura, Adamantini Georgiou, Sideris Nanoudis, Dimitra Vasdeki, Maria-Anna Ntziovara, Georgia Kotoreni, Evropi Forozidou, Paraskevi Tsoukra, Georgios Germanidis, Symeon Metallidis
Humoral response to vaccination has been found to be inadequate in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We retrospectively assessed antibody responses to three routinely recommended vaccines, against hepatitis B, hepatitis A and S. pneumoniae, in HIV-infected individuals. Data regarding age at HIV diagnosis, years of infection, sex, nationality, HIV mode of transmission, CD4 cell count, nadir CD4 count, plasma viral load, HIV stage, insurance status, educational level and treatment with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) were collected...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#10
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915392/impact-of-antibiotic-therapy-in-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-data-from-the-infauci-study
#11
J M Pereira, J Gonçalves-Pereira, O Ribeiro, J P Baptista, F Froes, J A Paiva
Antibiotic therapy (AT) is the cornerstone of the management of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the best treatment strategy is far from being established. To evaluate the impact of different aspects of AT on the outcome of critically ill patients with CAP, we performed a post hoc analysis of all CAP patients enrolled in a prospective, observational, multicentre study. Of the 502 patients included, 76% received combination therapy, mainly a β-lactam with a macrolide (80%). AT was inappropriate in 16% of all microbiologically documented CAP (n=177)...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914846/-analysis-of-the-efficiency-of-antimicrobial-treatment-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-clinical-practice
#12
O V Zhukova, O V Ruina, S V Kononova, T M Konyshkina
AIM: To analyze actual drug consumption based on the defined daily dose (DDD analysis) and to analyze the utilization of drugs based on their proportion of the total defined daily doses (DU90% analysis) for the antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in clinical practice at a hospital in Russia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigation materials were the data of 117 case histories of male (51.3%) and female (48.7%) patients hospitalized with CAP at Nizhny Novgorod City Clinical Hospital Five in 2015...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913784/managing-wastes-as-green-resources-cigarette-butt-synthesized-pesticides-are-highly-toxic-to-malaria-vectors-with-little-impact-on-predatory-copepods
#13
Kadarkarai Murugan, Udaiyan Suresh, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Rajapandian Rajaganesh, Mathath Roni, Al Thabiani Aziz, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Kuppusamy Sathishkumar, Aruliah Rajasekar, Suresh Kumar, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Akon Higuchi, Giovanni Benelli
The development of novel mosquito control tools is a key prerequisite to build effective and reliable Integrated Vector Management strategies. Here, we proposed a novel method using cigarette butts for the synthesis of Ag nanostructures toxic to young instars of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, chloroquine (CQ)-resistant malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and microbial pathogens. The non-target impact of these nanomaterials in the aquatic environment was evaluated testing them at sub-lethal doses on the predatory copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913565/a-retrospective-analysis-of-ramucirumab-monotherapy-in-previously-treated-japanese-patients-with-advanced-or-metastatic-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#14
Satoshi Murahashi, Daisuke Takahari, Takeru Wakatsuki, Naoki Fukuda, Takashi Ichimura, Mariko Ogura, Masato Ozaka, Eiji Shinozaki, Izuma Nakayama, Tomohiro Matsushima, Hiroki Osumi, Keisho Chin, Kensei Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: The REGARD trial demonstrated that ramucirumab monotherapy improved both overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) compared with best supportive care plus placebo as second-line treatment for patients with advanced gastric cancer. However, the efficacy and safety of ramucirumab monotherapy for previously treated Japanese patients with advanced gastric cancer remains unknown. METHODS: Previously treated Japanese patients with advanced gastric cancer who received ramucirumab monotherapy between June 2015 and March 2016 at the Cancer Institute Hospital were enrolled in the study...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912822/a-rare-case-of-cavitary-lesion-of-the-lung-caused-by-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#15
Muhammad Kashif, Rizwan Ahmed Dudekula, Misbahuddin Khaja
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical bacterium that most commonly causes upper respiratory tract infections, but it can also cause pneumonia, referred to as "walking pneumonia." Although cavitary lesions are present in a wide variety of infectious and noninfectious processes, those attributable to M. pneumoniae are extremely uncommon; thus, to date, epidemiological studies are lacking. Here, we present a rare case of a 20-year-old male, referred to us from a psychiatric facility for evaluation of a cough, who was found to have a cavitary lesion in the right upper lobe...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912729/multiplicity-of-mathematical-modeling-strategies-to-search-for-molecular-and-cellular-insights-into-bacteria-lung-infection
#16
REVIEW
Martina Cantone, Guido Santos, Pia Wentker, Xin Lai, Julio Vera
Even today two bacterial lung infections, namely pneumonia and tuberculosis, are among the 10 most frequent causes of death worldwide. These infections still lack effective treatments in many developing countries and in immunocompromised populations like infants, elderly people and transplanted patients. The interaction between bacteria and the host is a complex system of interlinked intercellular and the intracellular processes, enriched in regulatory structures like positive and negative feedback loops. Severe pathological condition can emerge when the immune system of the host fails to neutralize the infection...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912622/local-and-systemic-immune-responses-to-influenza-a-virus-infection-in-pneumonia-and-encephalitis-mouse-models
#17
Yoshiharu Nagaoka, Nobuyuki Nosaka, Mutsuko Yamada, Masato Yashiro, Yosuke Washio, Kenji Baba, Tsuneo Morishima, Hirokazu Tsukahara
OBJECTIVE: To compare local and systemic profiles between different disease pathologies (pneumonia and encephalitis) induced by influenza A virus (IAV). METHODS: An IAV pneumonia model was created by intranasal inoculation of C57BL/6 mice with influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus. Lung lavage and blood collection were performed on day 3 after IAV inoculation. Similarly, an IAV encephalitis mouse model was created by direct intracranial IAV inoculation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood collection were conducted according to the same schedule...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912409/-a-case-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-during-adjuvant-dose-dense-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#18
Noriko Sagawa, Norie Abe, Tomohiko Ishimine, Hisamitsu Zaha
A 47-year-old woman received adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. On the 13th day of 4 courses of dose-dense AC therapy, she developed a fever. She was orally administered an antibioticfor febrile neutropenia treatment. She showed no improvement of symptoms and gradually presented with new symptoms, including a non-productive cough and dyspnea. After admission, she underwent a further examination, and was provided a diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia. It is reported that patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumors are less likely to develop opportunistic infections...
September 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911957/a-double-blind-randomized-experimental-study-on-the-use-of-igm-enriched-polyclonal-immunoglobulins-in-an-animal-model-of-pneumonia-developing-shock
#19
Rosanna Vaschetto, Nausicaa Clemente, Aline Pagni, Teresa Esposito, Federico Longhini, Francesca Mercalli, Elena Boggio, Renzo Boldorini, Annalisa Chiocchetti, Umberto Dianzani, Paolo Navalesi
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe pneumonia often develop septic shock. IgM-enriched immunoglobulins have been proposed as a potential adjuvant therapy for septic shock. While in vitro data are available on the possible mechanisms of action of IgM-enriched immunoglobulins, the results of the in vivo experimental studies are non-univocal and, overall, unconvincing. We designed this double blinded randomized controlled study to test whether IgM-enriched immunoglobulins administered as rescue treatment in a pneumonia model developing shock, could either limit lung damage and/or contain systemic inflammatory response...
September 8, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910514/pharmacokinetics-of-single-dose-ceftaroline-fosamil-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#20
Jennifer Le, John S Bradley, Sara Hingtgen, Shannon Skochko, Nanette Black, Ronald N Jones, Meerana Lim, Edmund V Capparelli
BACKGROUND: Single-dose pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of ceftaroline fosamil with population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling for staphylococcal pneumonia was performed in children with CF. METHODS: Subjects between 6 and 18 years old were evaluated in this phase 1, open-label, single-dose, prospective study using 10 mg/kg (up to 600 mg). Non-compartmental analysis and population-based PK analyses with Monte Carlo simulation (for doses 8-20 mg/kg every 8 h, infused over 1-4 h) were conducted...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
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