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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933705/durability-of-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-and-determinants-for-change-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-the-treat-asia-hiv-observational-database-tahod-lite
#1
Rosario Martinez-Vega, Nicole L De La Mata, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Penh Sun Ly, Kinh Van Nguyen, Tuti P Merati, Thi Thanh Pham, Man Po Lee, Jun Yong Choi, Jeremy L Ross, Oon Tek Ng
BACKGROUND: The durability of first line regimen is important to achieve long term treatment success for the management of HIV infection. Our analysis describes the duration of sequential ART regimens and identifies the determinants leading to treatment change in HIV-positive patients initiating in Asia. METHODS: All HIV-positive adult patients initiating first-line ART in 2003-2013, from eight clinical sites among seven countries in Asia. Patient follow-up was to May 2014...
September 21, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933245/therapy-of-highly-active-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Peter Huppke, Brenda Huppke, David Ellenberger, Kevin Rostasy, Hannah Hummel, Wiebke Stark, Wolfgang Brück, Jutta Gärtner
OBJECTIVE: Study aims were to determine the frequency of highly active disease in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS), the response to natalizumab (NTZ) and fingolimod (FTY) treatment, and the impact of current treatment modalities on the clinical course. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study in the German Center for MS in Childhood and Adolescence. RESULTS: Of 144 patients with first MS manifestation between 2011 and 2015, 41.6% fulfilled the criteria for highly active MS...
September 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932539/optimal-cut-off-value-and-clinical-usefulness-of-the-adherence-starts-with-knowledge-12-in-patients-with-asthma-taking-inhaled-corticosteroids
#3
Masaya Takemura, Masayuki Nishio, Kensuke Fukumitsu, Norihisa Takeda, Hiroya Ichikawa, Takamitsu Asano, Hiroki Tomita, Yoshihiro Kanemitsu, Kosho Yoshikawa, Akio Niimi
BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to inhalation regimens is common in asthmatic patients. The Adherence Starts with Knowledge-12 (ASK-12) survey was developed to detect and address patient-specific barriers to medication adherence. Our objective is to investigate the clinical usefulness of the ASK-12 for assessing and addressing adherence to inhalation therapy in asthma. METHODS: The ASK-12 was administered to 138 asthmatic patients. Using pharmacy-refill data, we examined the cut-off value of the ASK-12 to identify patients who were non-adherent to inhalation regimens and identify factors associated with non-adherence...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931676/protective-humoral-immunity-in-the-cns-requires-peripheral-cd19-dependent-germinal-center-formation-following-coronavirus-encephalomyelitis
#4
Jeffrey R Atkinson, Cornelia C Bergmann
B cell subsets with phenotypes characteristic of naïve, non-isotype-switched, memory (Bmem), and antibody-secreting cells (ASC) accumulate in various models of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, including viral encephalomyelitis. During neurotropic coronavirus JHMV infection infiltration of protective ASC occurs after T cell mediated viral control, and is preceded by accumulation of non-isotype switched IgD(+) and IgM(+) B cells. However, the contribution of peripheral activation events in cervical lymph nodes (CLN) in driving humoral immune responses in the infected CNS is poorly defined...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930649/ph-multistage-responsive-micellar-system-with-charge-switch-and-peg-layer-detachment-for-co-delivery-of-paclitaxel-and-curcumin-to-synergistically-eliminate-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#5
Zhe Yang, Na Sun, Rui Cheng, Chenyang Zhao, Zerong Liu, Xian Li, Jie Liu, Zhongmin Tian
Several studies have demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for replenishing bulk tumor cells, generating new tumors and causing metastasis and relapse. Although combination therapy with multiple chemotherapeutics is considered to be a promising approach for simultaneously eliminating non-CSCs and CSCs, it is difficult to deliver drugs into the inner region of a solid tumor where the CSCs are located due to a lack of capillaries. Here, we synthesized a pH-sensitive polymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-benzoic imine-poly(γ-benzyl-l-aspartate)-b-poly(1-vinylimidazole) block copolymer (PPBV), to develop a pH multistage responsive micellar system for co-delivering paclitaxel and curcumin and synergistically eliminating breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs) and non-bCSCs...
September 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929168/long-term-impact-of-ixekizumab-on-psoriasis-itch-severity-results-from-a-phase-iii-clinical-trial-and-long-term-extension
#6
Alexandra B Kimball, Thomas Luger, Alice Gottlieb, Luis Puig, Roland Kaufmann, Russel Burge, Chen-Yen Lin, Gil Yosipovitch
Itching is a prevalent plaque psoriasis symptom. Ixekizumab, an IL-17A antagonist, has demonstrated rapid, significant improvements in itch severity over 12 weeks in Phase III psoriasis trials (UNCOVER-1, UNCOVER-2). We assessed the long-term (through 60 weeks) effect of ixekizumab maintenance therapy (80-mg ixekizumab every 4 weeks [IXEQ4W]) on itch severity, using the Itch Numeric Rating Scale, in psoriasis patients who received ixekizumab, placebo, or etanercept for 12 weeks in the Phase III UNCOVER-3 trial...
September 20, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928941/computational-design-of-molecular-motors-as-nanocircuits-in-leishmaniasis
#7
Dipali Kosey, Shailza Singh
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania major and is spread by the bite of a sandfly .This species infects the macrophages and dendritic cells Due to multi-drug resistance, there is a need for a new therapeutic technique. Recently, a novel molecular motor of Leishmania, Myosin XXI, was classified and characterized. In addition, the drug resistance in this organism has been linked with the overexpression of ABC transporters. Systems biology aims to study the simulation and modeling of natural biological systems whereas synthetic biology deals with building novel and artificial biological parts and devices  Together they have contributed enormously to drug discovery, vaccine design and development, infectious disease detection and diagnostics...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928212/population-and-whole-genome-sequence-based-characterization-of-invasive-group-a-streptococci-recovered-in-the-united-states-during-2015
#8
Sopio Chochua, Ben J Metcalf, Zhongya Li, Joy Rivers, Saundra Mathis, Delois Jackson, Robert E Gertz, Velusamy Srinivasan, Ruth Lynfield, Chris Van Beneden, Lesley McGee, Bernard Beall
Group A streptococci (GAS) are genetically diverse. Determination of strain features can reveal associations with disease and resistance and assist in vaccine formulation. We employed whole-genome sequence (WGS)-based characterization of 1,454 invasive GAS isolates recovered in 2015 by Active Bacterial Core Surveillance and performed conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Predictions were made for genotype, GAS carbohydrate, antimicrobial resistance, surface proteins (M family, fibronectin binding, T, R28), secreted virulence proteins (Sda1, Sic, exotoxins), hyaluronate capsule, and an upregulated nga operon (encodes NADase and streptolysin O) promoter (Pnga3)...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928128/targeting-a-single-alternative-polyadenylation-site-coordinately-blocks-expression-of-androgen-receptor-mrna-splice-variants-in-prostate-cancer
#9
Jamie L Van Etten, Michael Nyquist, Yingming Li, Rendong Yang, Yeung Ho, Rachel Johnson, Olivia Ondigi, Daniel F Voytas, Christine Henzler, Scott M Dehm
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of male cancer deaths due to disease progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Androgen receptor (AR) splice variants including AR-V7 function as constitutively active transcription factors in CRPC cells, thereby promoting resistance to AR-targeted therapies. To date, there are no AR variant-specific treatments for CRPC. Here we report that the splicing of AR variants AR-V7 as well as AR-V1 and AR-V9 is regulated coordinately by a single polyadenylation signal in AR intron 3...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927523/%C3%AE-eta-catenin-n-terminal-domain-an-enigmatic-region-prone-to-cancer-causing-mutations
#10
REVIEW
Mohd Saleem Dar, Paramjeet Singh, Riyaz A Mir, Mohd Jamal Dar
The Wnt/β-catenin is a highly conserved signaling pathway involved in cell fate decisions during various stages of development. Dysregulation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been associated with various diseases including cancer. β-Catenin, the central component of canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is a multi-functional protein playing both structural and signaling roles. β-Catenin is composed of three distinct domains: N-terminal domain, C-terminal domain and a central armadillo repeat domain. N-terminal domain of β-catenin harbours almost all of the cancer causing mutations, thus deciphering its critical structural and functional roles offers great potential in cancer detection and therapy...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927482/treating-depressive-episodes-or-symptoms-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#11
Geeske van Rooijen, Jentien Marloes Vermeulen, Henricus Gerardus Ruhé, Lieuwe de Haan
Depressive episodes or symptoms occur frequently in patients with schizophrenia and may have far-reaching consequences. Despite the high prevalence rate and clinical relevance of this comorbidity, knowledge about treatment options is still limited. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature concerning treatment options for depressive episodes or symptoms in schizophrenia. Based on the current evidence, we present a stepwise treatment approach. The first step is to evaluate the current antipsychotic treatment of psychotic symptoms and consider lowering the dosage, since increased blockade of the dopamine D2 receptors may be associated with a worse subjective sense of well-being and dysphoria...
September 20, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926732/multifunctional-mesoporous-zro2-encapsulated-upconversion-nanoparticles-for-mild-nir-light-activated-synergistic-cancer-therapy
#12
Lili Feng, Shili Gai, Fei He, Yunlu Dai, Chongna Zhong, Piaoping Yang, Jun Lin
Desirable nanosystem that could not only deliver drugs safely and effectively into tumor sites, but also be expected to serve as photosensitizer to realize the photodynamic therapeutic function, would be of great significance in the synergistic cancer therapy. To perform this task, a multifunctional nanosystem has been developed for markedly enhanced cancer therapeutic efficacy by loading chemotherapy agent (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX) and photosensitive drug chlorin e6 (Ce6) into the channels of mesoporous zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) layer which coats on Nd(3+)-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)...
September 13, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926730/impact-of-evolocumab-treatment-on-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-levels-in-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemic-patients-withdrawing-from-regular-apheresis
#13
Masa-Aki Kawashiri, Atsushi Nohara, Toshinori Higashikata, Hayato Tada, Chiaki Nakanishi, Hirofumi Okada, Tetsuo Konno, Kenji Sakata, Kenshi Hayashi, Akihiro Inazu, Hiroshi Mabuchi, Masakazu Yamagishi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis has been used to treat refractory hyperlipidemia such as familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Evolocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor used in clinical settings, can reduce LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by >70%. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of evolocumab on withdrawal from regular LDL apheresis in patients with heterozygous FH (HeFH). METHODS: Eleven patients with HeFH undergoing biweekly LDL apheresis were enrolled and were subsequently switched to a biweekly subcutaneous injection of 140 mg of evolocumab...
September 9, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926641/impact-of-monotherapy-on-hiv-1-reservoir-immune-activation-and-co-infection-with-epstein-barr-virus
#14
Maria Raffaella Petrara, Anna Maria Cattelan, Lolita Sasset, Riccardo Freguja, Francesco Carmona, Silvia Sanavia, Marisa Zanchetta, Paola Del Bianco, Anita De Rossi
OBJECTIVES: Although monotherapy (mART) effectiveness in maintaining viral suppression and CD4 cell count has been extensively examined in HIV-1-infected patients, its impact on HIV-1 reservoir, immune activation, microbial translocation and co-infection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is unclear. METHODS: This retrospective study involved 32 patients who switched to mART; patients were studied at baseline, 48 and 96 weeks after mART initiation. Thirty-two patients who continued combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) over the same period of time were included in the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923869/the-impact-of-vancomycin-area-under-the-concentration-time-curve-guided-dosing-on-vancomycin-associated-nephrotoxicity-a-quasi-experiment
#15
Natalie A Finch, Evan J Zasowski, Kyle P Murray, Ryan P Mynatt, Jing J Zhao, Raymond Yost, Jason M Pogue, Michael J Rybak
Background: Evidence suggests maintaining vancomycin trough concentrations between 15 and 20 mg/L, as currently recommended, is frequently unnecessary to achieve the daily area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24h) target of ≥ 400 mg*h/L. Many patients with trough concentrations in this range have AUC24h in excess of the therapeutic threshold and within the exposure range associated with nephrotoxicity. Based on this, the Detroit Medical Center switched from trough concentration to AUC-guided dosing to minimize potentially unnecessary vancomycin exposure...
September 18, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923482/the-optimal-regulation-mode-of-bcl-2-apoptotic-switch-revealed-by-bistability-analysis
#16
Zhiyong Yin, Hong Qi, Lili Liu, Zhen Jin
In most cell types, apoptosis occurs by the mitochondrial outer membrane permeability (MOMP)-mediated pathway, which is controlled by Bcl-2 family proteins (often referred to as Bcl-2 apoptotic switch). These proteins, which display a range of bioactivities, can be divided into four types: effectors, inhibitors, activators and sensitizers. Although the complex interactions among Bcl-2 family members have been studied intensively, a unifying hypothesis for the mechanism they use to regulate MOMP remains elusive...
September 15, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921900/efficacy-and-safety-of-switching-from-basal-insulin-to-once-daily-insulin-idegasp-in-japanese-patients-with-inadequately-controlled-type-2-diabetes-a-4-week-randomized-open-label-treat-to-target-study
#17
Yoshio Nagai, Ami Nishine, Eriko Hashimoto, Taiga Nakayama, Yosuke Sasaki, Mariko Murakami, Satoshi Ishii, Hiroyuki Kato, Yasushi Tanaka
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: A prospective, 4-week, single-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, treat-to-target study was performed to develop an algorithm for safe and effective switching from basal insulin to once-daily insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to continue their current basal insulin therapy (n=10) or to switch to IDegAsp on a 1: 1 unit basis (n=10)...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920957/klf4-dependent-perivascular-cell-plasticity-mediates-pre-metastatic-niche-formation-and-metastasis
#18
Meera Murgai, Wei Ju, Matthew Eason, Jessica Kline, Daniel W Beury, Sabina Kaczanowska, Markku M Miettinen, Michael Kruhlak, Haiyan Lei, Jack F Shern, Olga A Cherepanova, Gary K Owens, Rosandra N Kaplan
A deeper understanding of the metastatic process is required for the development of new therapies that improve patient survival. Metastatic tumor cell growth and survival in distant organs is facilitated by the formation of a pre-metastatic niche that is composed of hematopoietic cells, stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). Perivascular cells, including vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and pericytes, are involved in new vessel formation and in promoting stem cell maintenance and proliferation. Given the well-described plasticity of perivascular cells, we hypothesized that perivascular cells similarly regulate tumor cell fate at metastatic sites...
September 18, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920426/methotrexate-camptothecin-prodrug-nanoassemblies-as-a-versatile-nanoplatform-for-biomodal-imaging-guided-self-active-targeted-and-synergistic-chemotherapy
#19
Yang Li, Jinyan Lin, Jinyuan Ma, Liang Song, Huirong Lin, Bowen Tang, Dengyue Chen, Guanghao Su, Shefang Ye, Xuan Zhu, Fang-Hong Luo, Zhenqing Hou
"All-in-one" carrier-free-based nano-multi-drug self-delivery system could combine triple advantages of small molecules, nanoscale characteristics, and synergistic combination therapy together. Researches have showed that dual-acting small molecular methotrexate (MTX) could target and kill the folate receptors-overexpressing cancer cells. Inspired by this mechanism, a novel collaborative "early-phase tumor-selective targeting and late-phase synergistic anticancer" approach was developed for the self-assembly of chemotherapeutic drug-drug conjugate, which showed various advantages of more simplicity, efficiency, and flexibility over the conventional approach that was only based on single or combination cancer chemotherapy...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919998/reciprocal-influence-of-b-cells-and-tumor-macro-and-microenvironments-in-the-apc-min-model-of-colorectal-cancer
#20
Francesca Mion, Stefania Vetrano, Silvia Tonon, Viviana Valeri, Andrea Piontini, Alessia Burocchi, Luciana Petti, Barbara Frossi, Alessandro Gulino, Claudio Tripodo, Mario P Colombo, Carlo E Pucillo
One of the most fascinating aspects of the immune system is its dynamism, meant as the ability to change and readapt according to the organism needs. Following an insult, we assist to the spontaneous organization of different immune cells which cooperate, locally and at distance, to build up an appropriate response. Throughout tumor progression, adaptations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion and metastasis to distal organs, but also to dramatic changes in the activity and composition of the immune system...
2017: Oncoimmunology
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