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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434169/inflammation-immune-activation-and-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv
#1
REVIEW
Corrilynn O Hileman, Nicholas T Funderburg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the differential effects of contemporary antiretrovirals on systemic inflammation as heightened immune activation is linked to important co-morbidities and mortality with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces dramatically systemic inflammation and immune activation, but not to levels synchronous with HIV-uninfected populations. In one ART initiation trial, integrase inhibitors appear to reduce inflammation to a greater degree than non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); however, it is not clear that there are beneficial effects on inflammation resulting from treatment with integrase inhibitors compared to PIs, between PIs and NNRTIs, between specific nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or with maraviroc in ART-naïve patients...
April 22, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433540/er-%C3%AE-36-interactions-with-cytosolic-molecular-network-in-acquired-tamoxifen-resistance
#2
REVIEW
Azin Teymourzadeh, Sepideh Mansouri, Leila Farahmand, Aysooda Hosseinzade, Keivan Majidzadeh-A
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) published data in 2015; breast cancer is the most prevalent and the second leading cause of cancer death among females. As approximately 70% of breast cancer tumor cells are estrogen receptor (ER) positive, primary therapeutic agents such as Anti-estrogens were produced mostly in a way to target this receptor. Anti-estrogen therapies mostly target Estrogen receptor and block its underlying signaling pathways. Nevertheless, resistance to these agents made the condition more complicated...
March 30, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432779/nmdar-independent-hippocampal-long-term-depression-impairment-after-status-epilepticus-in-a-lithium-pilocarpine-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Andrey D Ivanov, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy is usually associated with cognitive decline and memory deficits. Despite numerous existing studies on various animal models, the mechanisms of these deficits remain largely unclear. A specific form of long-term synaptic efficacy changes - long-term depression (LTD) - is thought to play an important role in memory formation and learning. However, extremely little is known about the possible alteration of LTD induction and dynamics after a status epilepticus (SE). In the present work we investigated the acute and delayed effects of lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE on NMDAR-dependent and NMDAR-independent hippocampal LTD in vitro...
April 22, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432754/intraclass-differences-in-the-risk-of-hospitalisazion-for-heart-failure-among-type-2-diabetic-patients-initiating-a-dipeptydil-peptidase-4-inhibitor-or-a-sulphonylurea-results-from-the-osmed-health-db-registry
#4
Gian Paolo Fadini, Stefania Saragoni, Pierluigi Russo, Luca Degli Esposti, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Mario Melazzini, Angelo Avogaro
AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is frequent in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and several glucose-lowering medications may increase HF risk. In the SAVOR-TIMI trial, patients on Saxagliptin experienced a 27% higher risk of hospitalisation for HF (HHF). In a retrospective study on 127,555 patients, we showed that DPP-4i therapy was associated with a lower HHF risk than sulphonylurea (SU) therapy. We herein re-analyzed such data to evaluate intraclass differences among DPP-4i and SU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included T2D patients initiating DPP-4i or SU alone or in combination with metformin...
April 21, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431111/correction-of-abnormal-b-cell-subset-distribution-by-interleukin-6-receptor-blockade-in-polymyalgia-rheumatica
#5
Guillermo Carvajal Alegria, Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec, Yves Renaudineau, Alain Saraux, Jacques-Olivier Pers, Divi Cornec
Objectives.: The aim was to study lymphocyte subsets and circulating cytokines at diagnosis of PMR and after tocilizumab monotherapy. Methods.: Eighteen untreated patients with PMR were included in a prospective study and received 3-monthly tocilizumab infusions without glucocorticoids. Lymphocyte subset distribution was assessed by flow cytometry and serum cytokines were assayed by a 34-cytokine array and ELISA, at baseline and during follow-up. Baseline data were also compared with age- and sex-matched controls...
April 20, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431056/long-term-outcome-of-transvenous-pacemaker-implantation-in-infants-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Laura M Vos, Janneke A E Kammeraad, Matthias W Freund, Andreas C Blank, Johannes M P J Breur
Aim: Evaluation of long-term outcome of transvenous pacemaker (PM) implantation in infants. Methods and Results: A retrospective analysis of all transvenous PM implantations in infants <10 kg between September 1997 and October 2001 was made. Indications for PM implantation, age at implantation, and determinants of long-term outcome including cardiac function, PM function, and PM (system) complications were noted. Seven patients underwent transvenous VVI(R) PM implantation...
April 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427525/precision-medicine-for-early-breast-cancer-radiotherapy-opening-up-new-horizons
#7
REVIEW
Jacques Bernier
So far most efforts put forth to test the value of predictive and prognostic tools in the field of breast radiotherapy remained globally disappointing, or at least below the convincing levels reached for systemic therapy. Nevertheless the addition of predictive tools to the clinical armament tends to prevail over the use of the sole prognostic factors, also in radiotherapy. A number of predictive assays, clinically validated or not, have recently elicited significant associations between molecular profiles and tumor biological aggressiveness and/or radiosensitivity levels...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426675/indicators-of-suboptimal-biologic-therapy-over-time-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-and-crohn-s-disease-in-the-united-states
#8
Haridarshan Patel, Trevor Lissoos, David T Rubin
This study assessed the occurrence of indicators for suboptimal biologic therapy among ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients over time in the United States (US). Data from a large US claims database (2005-2013) were used to retrospectively identify patients with diagnosed with either UC or CD who were new biologic users. Indicators of suboptimal biologic therapy included: dose escalation during the maintenance phase, discontinuation of the initial biologic, switch to another biologic within 90 days following the last day of supply of the initial biologic, augmentation with a non-biologic systemic therapy, UC- or CD-related surgery, UC- or CD-related urgent care, and development of fistula (for CD only)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425296/medium-to-long-term-persistence-with-non-vitamin-k-oral-anticoagulants-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-australian-experience
#9
Leon A Simons, Michael Ortiz, S Ben Freedman, Benjamin J Waterhouse, David Colquhoun
OBJECTIVE: Long-term anticoagulant therapy with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is essential to prevent thromboembolic complications, especially ischemic stroke. This study examines medium-term persistence in AF patients using a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant drug (NOAC). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed national Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme records December 2013 through September 2016 for initial prescription of a NOAC in a 10% random sample of concessional patients...
April 20, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424623/notch-signaling-in-ischemic-damage-and-fibrosis-evidence-and-clues-from-the-heart
#10
REVIEW
Silvia Nistri, Chiara Sassoli, Daniele Bani
Notch signaling is a major intercellular coordination mechanism highly conserved throughout evolution. In vertebrates, Notch signaling is physiologically involved in embryo development, including mesenchymal cell commitment, formation of heart tissues and angiogenesis. In post-natal life, Notch signaling is maintained as a key mechanism of cell-cell communication and its dysregulations have been found in pathological conditions such as ischemic and fibrotic diseases. In the heart, Notch takes part in the protective response to ischemia, being involved in pre- and post-conditioning, reduction of reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and myocardial damage, and cardiomyogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423398/treatment-restarting-after-discontinuation-of-adjuvant-hormone-therapy-in-breast-cancer-patients
#11
Wei He, Karin E Smedby, Fang Fang, Henrik Olsson, Sara Margolin, Per Hall, Kamila Czene
Background: Over half of breast cancer patients discontinue their adjuvant hormone therapy, permanently or temporarily. We aimed to identify predictors of treatment restarting after discontinuation of adjuvant hormone therapy and to test the hypothesis that treatment restarting is associated with better breast cancer outcomes. Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study by linking data from the Stockholm-Gotland Breast Cancer Register, the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, and a self-reported questionnaire...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419947/efficacy-and-safety-of-eslicarbazepine-acetate-in-elderly-patients-with-focal-epilepsy-case-series
#12
A Gómez-Ibáñez, J M Serratosa, E Guillamón, M Garcés, B G Giráldez, M Toledo, J Salas-Puig, F J López-González, J Rodríguez-Uranga, A Castillo, J A Mauri, J L Camacho, E López-Gomáriz, P Giner, N Torres, J Palau, A Molins, V Villanueva
PURPOSE: Eslicarbazepine-acetate (ESL) is a third generation antiepileptic drug licensed as adjunctive therapy in adults with focal seizures. Efficacy and safety of ESL have been established in real-life setting. However, data about outcomes in elderly patients are scarce. Primary endpoint was to evaluate outcomes of ESL in elderly patients. METHOD: This was a retrospective survey that included patients >65years with focal seizures who started ESL between January 2010 and July 2012 at 12 Spanish Hospitals...
April 7, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419723/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-alk-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-in-korea
#13
Sung Hee Lim, Kyung Ah Yoh, Jong Seok Lee, Myung-Ju Ahn, Yu Jung Kim, Se Hyun Kim, Jie Zhang, Dony Patel, Elyse Swallow, Andrew Kageleiry, Philip Galebach, Dongyeol Lee, Karen Stein, Ravi Degun, Keunchil Park
AIM: This study aimed to describe characteristics, treatment patterns and survival among Korean patients diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)+ non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: A retrospective patient chart review was conducted in major cancer centers in Korea in 2014-2015. Participating physicians reviewed patient charts and reported characteristics, treatment patterns, clinician-defined progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of ALK+ locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients...
April 16, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419394/use-of-corticosteroids-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-diabetic-macular-edema-who-have-a-suboptimal-response-to-anti-vegf-recommendations-of-an-expert-panel
#14
Carl D Regillo, David G Callanan, Diana V Do, Howard F Fine, Nancy M Holekamp, Baruch D Kuppermann, Michael A Singer, Rishi P Singh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Guidance on the use of corticosteroids in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) is lacking. This study aimed to develop a clinically recommended treatment paradigm for DME with emphasis on the role of corticosteroids. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An expert panel of nine retinal specialists in the United States developed consensus recommendations for DME treatment through a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: The panelists typically use intravitreal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonists as first-line treatment of DME and switch patients with an inadequate response to anti-VEGF therapy (failure of best-corrected visual acuity to improve to 20/40 or better because of edema after three to six monthly injections, or a less-than-50% reduction in excess macular thickness after three to four monthly injections) to intravitreal corticosteroid treatment...
April 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418888/significance-of-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-metastasis-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-its-potential-as-a-target-for-anti-metastasis-therapy
#15
Bin Li, Wen Wen Xu, Alfred King Y Lam, Yang Wang, Hui-Fang Hu, Xin Yuan Guan, Yan Ru Qin, Nassim Saremi, Sai Wah Tsao, Qing-Yu He, Annie L M Cheung
Metastasis is the most lethal hallmark of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The aim of the study is to identify key signaling pathways that control metastasis in ESCC. Highly invasive ESCC sublines (designated I3 cells) were established through three rounds of selection of cancer cells invading through matrigel-coated chambers. Gene expression profile of one of the I3 sublines was compared with that of its parental cell line using cDNA microarray analysis. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of the differentially expressed genes (both upregulated and downregulated) indicated that genes associated with cellular movement and the AKT pathway were associated with increased cancer cell invasiveness...
March 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418769/persistency-of-neutralizing-anti-interferon-%C3%AE-antibodies-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-treated-with-subcutaneous-interferon-%C3%AE-depends-on-antibody-titers-igg-subclasses-and-affinity-maturation
#16
Irena Dujmovic, Harald Hegen, Pedro Paz, Ed Croze, Florian Deisenhammer
Neutralizing antibodies may affect interferon (IFN)-β treatment efficacy, but mechanisms of neutralizing anti-drug antibody (ADA) evolution are not fully elucidated. We investigated the relationship between ADA titers, IgG subclass profile, and binding affinity with the development and persistency of neutralizing ADA in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with subcutaneous IFN-β. A total of 94 patients, who had blood sampling at months 6, 12, 24, and 36 during IFN-β therapy, were included into this retrospective study and stratified to the following: non-neutralizing, transient, and persistent neutralizing ADA status...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417318/patient-and-healthcare-professionals-preference-for-brenzys-vs-enbrel-autoinjector-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-randomized-crossover-simulated-use-study
#17
Marc Egeth, Jennifer Soosaar, Peter Nash, Denis Choquette, Ricardo Infante, Dena Rosen Ramey, Sevag Sahakian, Angela Lai, Jin Ju Kim, David Wu
INTRODUCTION: Brenzys was developed as an etanercept biosimilar of Enbrel. The aim of this study was to assess preference and perceived ease of use for the new Brenzys autoinjector compared to the currently available marketed Enbrel MYCLIC autoinjector (Australia) and Enbrel SureClick autoinjector (Canada) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Because RA affects manual dexterity, ease of use of an autoinjector is a particularly important consideration in developing effective self-delivery of long-term courses of therapy...
April 17, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416974/major-determinants-for-the-selecting-antithrombotic-therapies-in-patients-with-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-in-japan-japaf-study
#18
Koichi Kusakawa, Kouji H Harada, Tatsuo Kagimura, Akio Koizumi
BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulants (OACs) can help prevent stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). The aim of this study was to characterize the use of OACs other than direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) for NVAF. METHODS: Patients with NVAF taking antithrombotics other than DTIs were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Patient demographics and medication history were collected, and the patients were classified as taking antiplatelet monotherapy (AP), anticoagulant monotherapy (AC), or combination therapy (AP+AC)...
April 2017: Journal of Arrhythmia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416959/predictive-factors-for-switched-egfr-tki-retreatment-in-patients-with-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Byoung Soo Kwon, Ji Hyun Park, Woo Sung Kim, Joon Seon Song, Chang-Min Choi, Jin Kyung Rho, Jae Cheol Lee
BACKGROUND: Third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-TKIs) have proved efficacious in treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with acquired resistance resulting from the T790M mutation. However, since almost 50% patients with the acquired resistance do not harbor the T790M mutation, retreatment with first- or second-generation EGFR-TKIs may be a more viable therapeutic option. Here, we identified positive response predictors to retreatment, in patients who switched to a different EGFR-TKI, following initial treatment failure...
April 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416665/hippo-pathway-mediates-resistance-to-cytotoxic-drugs
#20
Taranjit S Gujral, Marc W Kirschner
Chemotherapy is widely used for cancer treatment, but its effectiveness is limited by drug resistance. Here, we report a mechanism by which cell density activates the Hippo pathway, which in turn inactivates YAP, leading to changes in the regulation of genes that control the intracellular concentrations of gemcitabine and several other US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved oncology drugs. Hippo inactivation sensitizes a diverse panel of cell lines and human tumors to gemcitabine in 3D spheroid, mouse xenografts, and patient-derived xenograft models...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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