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"Global health"

Lital Meir-Gruber, Yossi Manor, Shiraz Gefen-Halevi, Musa Y Hindiyeh, Fernando Mileguir, Roberto Azar, Gill Smollan, Natasha Belausov, Galia Rahav, Ari Shamiss, Ella Mendelson, Nathan Keller
The presence of pan-resistant bacteria worldwide possesses a threat to global health. It is difficult to evaluate the extent of carriage of resistant bacteria in the population. Sewage sampling is a possible way to monitor populations. We evaluated the presence of pan-resistant bacteria in Israeli sewage collected from all over Israel, by modifying the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates. This method enables convenient and fast sewage sampling and detection...
2016: PloS One
I Stefani, M A Asnaghi, J J Cooper-White, S Mantero
Cardiovascular diseases represent a major global health burden, with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Autologous grafts are commonly used to replace damaged or failing blood vessels, however such approaches are hampered by the scarcity of suitable graft tissue, donor site morbidity and poor long-term stability. Tissue engineering has been investigated as a means by which exogenous vessel grafts can be produced, with varying levels of success to date, a result of mismatched mechanical properties of these vessel substitutes and inadequate ex vivo vessel tissue genesis...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Christopher Selleck, James A Larrabee, Jeffrey Harmer, Luke W Guddat, Nataša Mitić, Waleed Helweh, David L Ollis, Whitney R Craig, David L Tierney, Marcelo Monteiro Pedroso, Gerhard Schenk
Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a major threat to global health care. This is largely due to the fact that many pathogens have developed strategies to acquire resistance to antibiotics. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) have evolved to inactivate most of the commonly used β-lactam antibiotics. AIM-1 is one of only a few MBLs from the B3 subgroup that is encoded on a mobile genetic element in a major human pathogen. Here, its mechanism of action was characterised with a combination of spectroscopic and kinetic techniques and compared to that of other MBLs...
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jiangao Zhu, Huiyao Chen, Xiaopei Huang, Songfu Jiang, Yiping Yang
Viral hepatitis remains a global health challenge despite recent progress in the development of more effective therapies. Although virus-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell responses are essential for viral clearance, it remains largely unknown what regulates T cell-mediated viral clearance. Thus, a better understanding of the regulation of anti-viral T cell immunity would be critical for the design of more effective therapies for viral hepatitis. Using a model of adenovirus-induced hepatitis, here we showed that adenoviral infection induced recruitment of Ly6C(hi) monocytes to the liver in a CCR2-dependent manner...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
Kristian Tonby, Ida Wergeland, Nora V Lieske, Dag Kvale, Kjetil Tasken, Anne M Dyrhol-Riise
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) causes a major burden on global health with long and cumbersome TB treatment regimens. Host-directed immune modulating therapies have been suggested as adjunctive treatment to TB antibiotics. Upregulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signaling pathway may cause a dysfunctional immune response that favors survival and replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from patients with latent TB (n = 9) and active TB (n = 33) before initiation of anti-TB chemotherapy...
October 24, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jason Gandhi, Gautam Dagur, Kelly Warren, Noel Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a vastly prevalent metabolic disorder with escalating global health concerns. Particularly when mismanaged, chronic micro- and macrovascular complications may highly impair physiological systems while immunodeficiency disposes us to infection. OBJECTIVE: We investigate infections, localized complications, and neoplasms of the genitourinary system secondary to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus in males and females. METHOD: A comprehensive MEDLINE® search was guided using key words relevant to diabetes mellitus and the genitourinary system...
October 19, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Sabine Iva Franklin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Glenn S Tillotson
Antibiotic resistance has been emerged as a major global health problem. In particular, gram-negative species pose a significant clinical challenge as bacteria develop or acquire more resistance mechanisms. Often, these bacteria possess multiple resistance mechanisms, thus nullifying most of the major classes of drugs. Novel approaches to this issue are urgently required. However, the challenges of developing new agents are immense. Introducing novel agents is fraught with hurdles, thus adapting known antibiotic classes by altering their chemical structure could be a way forward...
2016: Infectious Diseases
Trevor Peter, Dennis Ellenberger, Andrea A Kim, Debrah Boeras, Tsehaynesh Messele, Teri Roberts, Wendy Stevens, Ilesh Jani, Alash'le Abimiku, Nathan Ford, Zachary Katz, John N Nkengasong
Scaling up access to HIV viral load testing for individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy in low-resource settings is a global health priority, as emphasised by research showing the benefits of suppressed viral load for the individual and the whole population. Historically, large-scale diagnostic test implementation has been slow and incomplete because of service delivery and other challenges. Building on lessons from the past, in this Personal View we propose a new framework to accelerate viral load scale-up and ensure equitable access to this essential test...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Maud Lemoine, Mark R Thursz
Despite effective and safe HBV vaccine and antiviral therapies, HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma remains a major cause of deaths in young adults in Africa. Barriers to control the burden of HBV infection and HCC are multiple. In comparison to other major infectious diseases, hepatitis B virus infection and liver diseases have received remarkably little attention from the global health community. Improving birth dose vaccine coverage and implementing screening and treatment interventions are urgently needed...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Stephen R Welch, Lisa Wiggleton Guerrero, Ayan K Chakrabarti, Laura K McMullan, Mike Flint, Gregory R Bluemling, George R Painter, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou, César G Albariño
Lassa virus (LASV) and Ebola virus (EBOV) infections are important global health issues resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. While several promising drug and vaccine trials for EBOV are ongoing, options for LASV infection are currently limited to ribavirin treatment. A major factor impeding the development of antiviral compounds to treat these infections is the need to manipulate the virus under BSL-4 containment, limiting research to a few institutes worldwide. Here we describe the development of a novel LASV minigenome assay based on the ambisense LASV S segment genome, with authentic terminal untranslated regions flanking a ZsGreen (ZsG) fluorescent reporter protein and a Gaussia princeps luciferase (gLuc) reporter gene...
October 19, 2016: Antiviral Research
Julio Frenk, Octavio Gómez-Dantés
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Lancet
Graeme D Smith, Angela Kydd
Globally, health and social care is facing extraordinary challenges due to changing patterns of disease, changing expectations of patients, financial restrictions and an ever-increasing ageing population. It is estimated that globally, the number of people aged 60 and over will increase from 900 million in 2015 to 1400 million by 2030 and 2100 million by 2050 (Kinsella & Philips 2005). If these predictions do materialize, figures could rise up to 3200 million by 2100 (WHO, 2016). This article is protected by copyright...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Anik Goulet, Raphael Lencucha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Alan F Cowman, Julie Healer, Danushka Marapana, Kevin Marsh
Malaria has been a major global health problem of humans through history and is a leading cause of death and disease across many tropical and subtropical countries. Over the last fifteen years renewed efforts at control have reduced the prevalence of malaria by over half, raising the prospect that elimination and perhaps eradication may be a long-term possibility. Achievement of this goal requires the development of new tools including novel antimalarial drugs and more efficacious vaccines as well as an increased understanding of the disease and biology of the parasite...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Ishfaq Ahmad Ganaie, Samar Husain Naqvi, Swatantra Kumar Jain, Saima Wajid
Breast cancer is a major global health concern, appealing for precise prognostic approaches. Thus, the need is to have studies focusing on the identification and recognition of preliminary events leading to the disease. The present study reports the tracing of precancerous progression and serum proteomic analysis in a breast cancer model developed as a result of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) administration. Mammary gland histological changes of prime importance were examined by histopathology, and immunohistochemical analysis with Ki-67 was performed to monitor enhanced cell proliferation, right from the onset of hyperplasia till neoplasia...
October 20, 2016: Protoplasma
Yingxue Yu, Xuehua Sun, Jinyang Gu, Chang Yu, Yankai Wen, Yueqiu Gao, Qiang Xia, Xiaoni Kong
Liver fibrosis is a global health problem and previous studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in fibrogenesis. Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset) 7 (Park7) also called DJ-1 has an essential role in modulating cellular ROS levels. DJ-1 therefore may play functions in liver fibrogenesis and modulation of DJ-1 may be a promising therapeutic approach. Here, wild-type (WT) and DJ-1 knockout (DJ-1 KO) mice were administrated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to induce liver fibrosis or acute liver injury...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
The Lancet Global Health
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
Li Zhou, Ji Wen, Zhao Huang, Edouard C Nice, Canhua Huang, Haiyuan Zhang, Qifu Li
Liver cancer is a major global health problem being the sixth most common cancer and the third cause of cancer-related death, with HCC representing more than 90% of primary liver cancers. Mounting evidence suggests that, compared with their normal counterparts, many types of cancer cell have increased levels of ROS. Therefore, cancer cells need to combat high levels of ROS, especially at early stages of tumour development. Recent studies have revealed that ROS-mediated regulation of redox-sensitive proteins (redox sensors) is involved in the pathogenesis and/or progression of many human diseases, including cancer...
October 20, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
John R Broughton, Herenia P Lawrence, Lisa Jamieson
: Early childhood caries is a global health issue for Indigenous populations. The study, "Reducing disease burden and health inequalities arising from chronic dental disease among Indigenous children: an early childhood caries intervention," is being conducted in Australia, Canada, and Aotearoa/New Zealand. OBJECTIVE: To conduct the research in New Zealand using a kaupapa Māori (Māori philosophy) approach. METHODS: This is a mixed-method study incorporating quantitative and qualitative data whilst acknowledging Māori cultural practices by the utilization of Te Whare Tapa Whā, a model for Māori health and well-being...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
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