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Ionic polymer-metal composites

Yang Chen, Lina Hao, Hui Yang, Jinhai Gao
Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) as a new smart material has been widely concerned in the micromanipulation field. In this paper, a novel two-finger gripper which contains an IPMC actuator and an ultrasensitive force sensor is proposed and fabricated. The IPMC as one finger of the gripper for mm-sized objects can achieve gripping and releasing motion, and the other finger works not only as a support finger but also as a force sensor. Because of the feedback signal of the force sensor, this integrated actuating and sensing gripper can complete gripping miniature objects in millimeter scale...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Seyed M Mirvakili, Ian W Hunter
The area of artificial muscle is a highly interdisciplinary field of research that has evolved rapidly in the last 30 years. Recent advances in nanomaterial fabrication and characterization, specifically carbon nanotubes and nanowires, have had major contributions in the development of artificial muscles. However, what can artificial muscles really do for humans? This question is considered here by first examining nature's solutions to this design problem and then discussing the structure, actuation mechanism, applications, and limitations of recently developed artificial muscles, including highly oriented semicrystalline polymer fibers; nanocomposite actuators; twisted nanofiber yarns; thermally activated shape-memory alloys; ionic-polymer/metal composites; dielectric-elastomer actuators; conducting polymers; stimuli-responsive gels; piezoelectric, electrostrictive, magnetostrictive, and photostrictive actuators; photoexcited actuators; electrostatic actuators; and pneumatic actuators...
December 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Shuya Wei, Snehashis Choudhury, Zhengyuan Tu, Kaihang Zhang, Lynden A Archer
Stable electrochemical interphases play a critical role in regulating transport of mass and charge in all electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems. In state-of-the-art rechargeable lithium ion batteries, they are rarely formed by design but instead spontaneously emerge from electrochemical degradation of electrolyte and electrode components. High-energy secondary batteries that utilize reactive metal anodes (e.g., Li, Na, Si, Sn, Al) to store large amounts of charge by alloying and/or electrodeposition reactions introduce fundamental challenges that require rational design in order to stabilize the interphases...
January 16, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Yayuan Liu, Guangmin Zhou, Kai Liu, Yi Cui
The development of next-generation lithium-based rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost, and improved safety is a great challenge with profound technological significance for portable electronics, electric vehicles, and grid-scale energy storage. Specifically, advanced lithium battery chemistries call for a paradigm shift to electrodes with high Li to host ratio based on a conversion or alloying mechanism, where the increased capacity is often accompanied by drastic volumetric changes, significant bond breaking, limited electronic/ionic conductivity, and unstable electrode/electrolyte interphase...
December 19, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Yanjie Wang, Jiayu Liu, Yetao Zhu, Denglin Zhu, Hualing Chen
Formation of dendritic interfacial electrodes (DIEs) between metal/polymer interfaces has high demands in a variety of areas. By combining impregnation electroplating (IEP) step with impregnation-reduction (IR) step under straightforward conditions, we report a novel method of preparation of dendritic interfacial metal electrodes of palladium, platinum, silver and copper inside an ionomer for ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC) application. The depth of palladium DIEs can be controlled by adjusting the reaction time, and the maximum depth can almost reach up to contact from the both sides of ionomer with a total thickness of 200 μm...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hyuck Sik Wang, Jaehyun Cho, Dae Seok Song, Jong Hyun Jang, Jae Young Jho, Jong Hyuk Park
Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have been proposed as biomimetic actuators that are operable at low applied voltages. However, the bending strain and generating force of the IPMC actuators have generally exhibited a trade-off relationship, whereas simultaneous enhancement of both the qualities is required for their practical applications. Herein, a significant improvement in both the strain and force of the IPMC actuators is achieved by a facile approach, exploiting thickness-controlled ion-exchange membranes and nanodispersed metal electrodes...
July 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yunsong Yan, Tommaso Santaniello, Luca Giacomo Bettini, Chloé Minnai, Andrea Bellacicca, Riccardo Porotti, Ilaria Denti, Gabriele Faraone, Marco Merlini, Cristina Lenardi, Paolo Milani
Electroactive ionic gel/metal nanocomposites are produced by implanting supersonically accelerated neutral gold nanoparticles into a novel chemically crosslinked ion conductive soft polymer. The ionic gel consists of chemically crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) and polyacrylonitrile networks, blended with halloysite nanoclays and imidazolium-based ionic liquid. The material exhibits mechanical properties similar to that of elastomers (Young's modulus ≈ 0.35 MPa) together with high ionic conductivity. The fabrication of thin (≈100 nm thick) nanostructured compliant electrodes by means of supersonic cluster beam implantation (SCBI) does not significantly alter the mechanical properties of the soft polymer and provides controlled electrical properties and large surface area for ions storage...
April 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Christian Reitz, Di Wang, Daniela Stoeckel, Andre Beck, Thomas Leichtweiss, Horst Hahn, Torsten Brezesinski
Mesostructured nonsilicate materials, particularly mixed-metal oxides, are receiving much attention in recent years because of their potential for numerous applications. Via the polymer-templating method, perovskite-type lanthanum strontium manganese oxide (La1-xSrxMnO3, LSMO, with x ≈ 0.15 to 0.30) with a continuous 3D cubic network of 23 nm pores is prepared in thin-film form for the first time. Characterization results from grazing incidence X-ray scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and electron microscopy and tomography show that the dip-coated sol-gel-derived films are of high quality in terms of both composition and morphology and that they are stable to over 700 °C...
July 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xuechen Liang, Yukun Deng, Xiaopeng Pei, Kankan Zhai, Kun Xu, Ying Tan, Xinyuan Gong, Pixin Wang
We developed tough, rapid-recovery composite hydrogels that are fabricated via core-shell microgel covalent bonding and Fe(3+) dynamic metal coordination cross-linking. First, core-shell microgels are used as cross-linking agents and initiators to prepare homogeneous hydrogel networks with rapid recovery in the absence of an organic cross-linking agent. The toughness and recoverability of the composite hydrogels can be improved by adding the dynamic reversibility of ionic cross-linking. Owing to the synergistic effect of microgel covalent bonding, Fe(3+) coordination cross-linking, and H-bond cross-linking, the multi-cross-linked composite hydrogels exhibit excellent toughness and a fast recovery rate...
March 22, 2017: Soft Matter
Kai Ke, Petra Pötschke, Shanglin Gao, Brigitte Voit
Conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPNCs) have emerged as potential alternatives for metallic foil sensors and semiconductor strain gauges. The simultaneous achievement of high piezoresistive sensitivity and large strain ranges for CPNCs currently presents a great challenge and solving this challenge may extend the applications of CPNCs with self-diagnosis capabilities to many structural health-monitoring (SHM) systems. This paper reports a facile strategy for fabricating highly piezoresistive and tough poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based CPNCs by tuning the interactions between the polymer matrix and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) using an ionic liquid (IL) as an interface linker/modifier...
February 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tetsuya Horiuchi, Toshifumi Mihashi, Takashi Fujikado, Tetsuro Oshika, Kinji Asaka
Surgeons treat cataracts by replacing the clouded lens with an intraocular lens (IOL), but patients are required to wear reading glasses for tasks requiring near vision. We suggest a new voltage-controlled accommodating IOL made of an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuator to change focus. An in vitro experiment was conducted where an actuator was placed inside the eye and moved with applied voltage. The lens attached to the actuator was deformed by its movement to change the patient's focus. The results showed that this system can accommodate a change of approximately 0...
October 3, 2016: Optics Express
Qiang Ma, Xingguo Qi, Bo Tong, Yuheng Zheng, Wenfang Feng, Jin Nie, Yongsheng Hu, Hong Li, Xuejie Huang, Liquan Chen, Zhi-Bin Zhou
Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) would be promising candidates for application in high-energy rechargeable lithium (Li) batteries to replace the conventional organic liquid electrolytes, in terms of the enhanced safety and excellent design flexibility. Herein, we report novel perfluorinated sulfonimide salt-based SPEs, composed of lithium (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)(n-nonafluorobutanesulfonyl)imide (Li[(CF3SO2)(n-C4F9SO2)N, LiTNFSI) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), which exhibit relatively efficient ionic conductivity (e...
October 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhihao Li, Jianling Zhang, Tian Luo, Xiuniang Tan, Chengcheng Liu, Xinxin Sang, Xue Ma, Buxing Han, Guanying Yang
The emulsification of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for the two immiscible phases of water and ionic liquid (IL) was investigated for the first time. It was found that Ni-BDC (BDC = 1,4-dicarboxybenzene) can emulsify water and ILs and favor the formation of high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) under certain experimental conditions. The microstructures of the HIPEs were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy using a fluorescent dye Rhodamine B, which proves that the HIPEs are the IL-in-water type...
October 11, 2016: Soft Matter
Jin Zheng, Mingxue Tang, Yan-Yan Hu
Polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are emerging as a promising solution to deliver high ionic conductivity, optimal mechanical properties, and good safety for developing high-performance all-solid-state rechargeable batteries. Composite electrolytes have been prepared with cubic-phase Li7 La3 Zr2 O12 (LLZO) garnet and polyethylene oxide (PEO) and employed in symmetric lithium battery cells. By combining selective isotope labeling and high-resolution solid-state Li NMR, we are able to track Li ion pathways within LLZO-PEO composite electrolytes by monitoring the replacement of (7) Li in the composite electrolyte by (6) Li from the (6) Li metal electrodes during battery cycling...
September 26, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Sama M Al-Jubouri, Nicholas A Curry, Stuart M Holmes
A hierarchical structured composite made from clinoptilolite supported on date stones carbon is synthesized using two techniques. The composites are manufactured by fixing a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) to the porous surface of date stones carbon or by direct hydrothermal synthesis on to the surface to provide a supported high surface area ion-exchange material for metal ion removal from aqueous streams. The fixing of the clinoptilolite is achieved using sucrose and citric acid as a binder. The composites and pure clinoptilolite were compared to test the efficacy for the removal of Sr(2+) ions from an aqueous phase...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Tiesheng Wang, Meisam Farajollahi, Yeon Sik Choi, I-Ting Lin, Jean E Marshall, Noel M Thompson, Sohini Kar-Narayan, John D W Madden, Stoyan K Smoukov
Electromechanical coupling in electroactive polymers (EAPs) has been widely applied for actuation and is also being increasingly investigated for sensing chemical and mechanical stimuli. EAPs are a unique class of materials, with low-moduli high-strain capabilities and the ability to conform to surfaces of different shapes. These features make them attractive for applications such as wearable sensors and interfacing with soft tissues. Here, we review the major types of EAPs and their sensing mechanisms. These are divided into two classes depending on the main type of charge carrier: ionic EAPs (such as conducting polymers and ionic polymer-metal composites) and electronic EAPs (such as dielectric elastomers, liquid-crystal polymers and piezoelectric polymers)...
August 6, 2016: Interface Focus
Hang T T Le, Duc Tung Ngo, Ramchandra S Kalubarme, Guozhong Cao, Choong-Nyeon Park, Chan-Jin Park
A composite gel polymer electrolyte (CGPE) based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) polymer that includes Al-doped Li0.33La0.56TiO3 (A-LLTO) particles covered with a modified SiO2 (m-SiO2) layer was fabricated through a simple solution-casting method followed by activation in a liquid electrolyte. The obtained CGPE possessed high ionic conductivity, a large electrochemical stability window, and interfacial stability-all superior to that of the pure gel polymer electrolyte (GPE). In addition, under a highly polarized condition, the CGPE effectively suppressed the growth of Li dendrites due to the improved hardness of the GPE by the addition of inorganic A-LLTO/m-SiO2 particles...
August 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shivaiah Vaddypally, Ian G McKendry, Warren Tomlinson, Joseph P Hooper, Michael J Zdilla
The first synthetic manganese tetrazene complexes are described as a redox pair comprising anionic [Mn(N4 Ad2 )2 ](-) (1) and neutral Mn(N4 Ad2 )2 (2) complexes (N4 Ad2 =[Ad-N-N=N-N-Ad](2-) ). Compound 1 is obtained in two forms as lithium salts, one as a cationic Li2 Mn cluster, and one as a Mn-Li 1D ionic polymer. Compound 1 is electronically described as a Mn(III) center with two [N4 Ad2 ](2-) ligands. The one-electron oxidized 2 is crystalized in two morphologies, one as pure 2 and one as an acetonitrile adduct...
July 18, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Emmanuel Gibon, Derek F Amanatullah, Florence Loi, Jukka Pajarinen, Akira Nabeshima, Zhenyu Yao, Moussa Hamadouche, Stuart B Goodman
Joint replacement is a commonly performed, highly successful orthopaedic procedure, for which surgeons have a large choice of different materials and implant designs. The materials used for joint replacement must be both biologically acceptable to minimize adverse local tissue reactions, and robust enough to support weight bearing during common activities of daily living. Modern joint replacements are made from metals and their alloys, polymers, ceramics, and composites. This review focuses on the biological response to the different biomaterials used for joint replacement...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Kun Kelvin Fu, Yunhui Gong, Jiaqi Dai, Amy Gong, Xiaogang Han, Yonggang Yao, Chengwei Wang, Yibo Wang, Yanan Chen, Chaoyi Yan, Yiju Li, Eric D Wachsman, Liangbing Hu
Beyond state-of-the-art lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology with metallic lithium anodes to replace conventional ion intercalation anode materials is highly desirable because of lithium's highest specific capacity (3,860 mA/g) and lowest negative electrochemical potential (∼3.040 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode). In this work, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, a 3D lithium-ion-conducting ceramic network based on garnet-type Li6.4La3Zr2Al0.2O12 (LLZO) lithium-ion conductor to provide continuous Li(+) transfer channels in a polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based composite...
June 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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