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Human milk oligosaccharides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544984/histo-blood-group-antigens-as-mediators-of-infections
#1
REVIEW
Julie E Heggelund, Annabelle Varrot, Anne Imberty, Ute Krengel
The critical first step of a microbial infection is usually the attachment of pathogens to host cell glycans. Targets on host tissues are in particular the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are present in rich diversity in the mucus layer and on the underlying mucosa. Recent structural and functional studies have revealed significant new insight into the molecular mechanisms, explaining why individuals with certain blood groups are at increased risk of some infections. The most prominent example of blood-group-associated diseases is cholera, caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513631/paediatrics-are-human-milk-oligosaccharides-the-magic-bullet-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#2
Michael S Caplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505592/human-norovirus-inhibition-by-a-human-milk-oligosaccharide
#3
Anna Koromyslova, Shailesh Tripathi, Vasily Morozov, Horst Schroten, Grant S Hansman
Human noroviruses are the leading cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. Norovirus interactions with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are known to be important for an infection. In this study, we identified the HBGA binding pocket for an emerging GII genotype 17 (GII.17) variant using X-ray crystallography. The GII.17 variant bound the HBGA with an equivalent set of residues as the leading pandemic GII.4 variants. These structural data highlights the conserved nature of HBGA binding site between prevalent GII noroviruses...
May 12, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490677/dietary-human-milk-oligosaccharides-but-not-prebiotic-oligosaccharides-increase-circulating-natural-killer-cell-and-mesenteric-lymph-node-memory-t-cell-populations-in-noninfected-and-rotavirus-infected-neonatal-piglets
#4
Sarah S Comstock, Min Li, Mei Wang, Marcia H Monaco, Theresa B Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon M Donovan
Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have antimicrobial and immunomodulatory actions. It has previously been reported that these oligosaccharides contribute to the reduced duration of rotavirus-induced diarrhea in pigs.Objective: We measured the effects of HMOs and prebiotic oligosaccharides on immune cell populations from noninfected and rotavirus-infected pigs. We hypothesized that dietary HMOs would modulate systemic and gastrointestinal immunity.Methods: Colostrum-deprived newborn pigs were fed formula, formula with 4 g HMOs/L (2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, and free sialic acid), or formula with 3...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469518/relationship-between-exclusive-breastfeeding-and-lower-risk-of-childhood-obesity-a-narrative-review-of-published-evidence
#5
REVIEW
Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Chizoma I Eneh, Ikenna K Ndu
BACKGROUND: The pattern of infant feeding during the first 1000-day period-from conception to the second birthday-has a significant influence on the child's growth trajectory. The relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and lower risk of childhood obesity has elicited much scientific interest, given the fact that this form of malnutrition is becoming a global epidemic. AIM: This narrative review aims to examine the evidence in the literature linking exclusive breastfeeding with reduction in obesity in children...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424182/human-milk-oligosaccharides-vary-among-populations
#6
David S Newburg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423739/sialyllactose-suppresses-angiogenesis-by-inhibiting-vegfr-2-activation-and-tumor-progression
#7
Tae-Wook Chung, Eun-Young Kim, Seok-Jo Kim, Hee-Jung Choi, Se Bok Jang, Keuk-Jun Kim, Sun-Hyung Ha, Fukushi Abekura, Choong-Hwan Kwak, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Ki-Tae Ha
The oligosaccharides in human milk have various biological functions. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the anti-angiogenic action of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are still unclear. Here, we show that siallylactose (SL) found in human milk can inhibit the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) by binding to its VEGF binding site (second and third IgG-like domains), thus blocking downstream signal activation. SL also inhibits growth of VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416607/human-milk-oligosaccharides-inhibit-growth-of-group-b-streptococcus
#8
Ann E Lin, Chloe A Autran, Alexandra Szyszka, Tamara Escajadillo, Mia Huang, Kamil Godula, Anthony R Prudden, Geert-Jan Boons, Amanda L Lewis, Kelly S Doran, Victor Nizet, Lars Bode
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities that guide development of the infant's immune system and shape the composition of normal gut microbiota. In this manner, HMOs help protect against pathogen colonization and reduce risk of infection. In the course of our studies of HMO-microbial interactions, we unexpectedly uncovered a novel HMO property to directly inhibit the growth of GBS, independent of host immunity...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405629/human-norovirus-evolution-in-a-chronically-infected-host
#9
Sylvie Y Doerflinger, Stefan Weichert, Anna Koromyslova, Martin Chan, Christian Schwerk, Ruediger Adam, Stefan Jennewein, Grant S Hansman, Horst Schroten
Typically, human noroviruses cause symptoms of acute gastroenteritis for 2 to 4 days. Often, the virions are shed in stool for several days after the symptoms recede, which in turn can lead to further contamination and transmission. Moreover, a number of reports have considered that chronic norovirus infections, i.e., lasting months and years, might even function as reservoirs for the generation of novel strains that can escape the herd immunity or have modified binding interactions with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs)...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401975/imidazolium-labeled-glycosides-as-probes-to-harness-glycosyltransferase-activity-in-human-breast-milk
#10
I Sittel, M C Galan
Imidazolium-labeled (ITag-) glycosides are used to harness the glycosyltransferase activity directly from human breast milk. The covalently attached ionic labels provide a bifunctional chemical handle that is used to monitor reaction progress by MS, as well as aid in product purification from complex mixtures. The technology is exemplified in the synthesis of biologically relevant oligosaccharide analogs, LacNAc-ITag, ITag-Lewis(x) and ITag-Lewis(a), in a matter of days from human breast milk without having to isolate specific enzymes...
May 3, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392148/molecular-insight-into-evolution-of-symbiosis-between-breast-fed-infants-and-a-member-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-bifidobacterium-longum
#11
Chihaya Yamada, Aina Gotoh, Mikiyasu Sakanaka, Mitchell Hattie, Keith A Stubbs, Ayako Katayama-Ikegami, Junko Hirose, Shin Kurihara, Takatoshi Arakawa, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Shujiro Okuda, Takane Katayama, Shinya Fushinobu
Breast-fed infants generally have a bifidobacteria-rich microbiota with recent studies indicating that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) selectively promote bifidobacterial growth. Bifidobacterium bifidum possesses a glycoside hydrolase family 20 lacto-N-biosidase for liberating lacto-N-biose I from lacto-N-tetraose, an abundant HMO unique to human milk, while Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum has a non-classified enzyme (LnbX). Here, we determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of LnbX and provide evidence for creation of a novel glycoside hydrolase family, GH136...
April 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381523/human-milk-oligosaccharide-composition-predicts-risk-of-necrotising-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants
#12
Chloe A Autran, Benjamin P Kellman, Jae H Kim, Elizabeth Asztalos, Arlin B Blood, Erin C Hamilton Spence, Aloka L Patel, Jiayi Hou, Nathan E Lewis, Lars Bode
OBJECTIVE: Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common and often fatal intestinal disorders in preterm infants. Markers to identify at-risk infants as well as therapies to prevent and treat NEC are limited and urgently needed. NEC incidence is significantly lower in breast-fed compared with formula-fed infants. Infant formula lacks human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), such as disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT), which prevents NEC in neonatal rats. However, it is unknown if DSLNT also protects human preterm infants...
April 5, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377082/comparative-analysis-of-native-and-permethylated-human-milk-oligosaccharides-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#13
Stéphanie Oursel, Sophie Cholet, Christophe Junot, François Fenaille
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) represent the third most abundant components of milk after lactose and lipids. HMOs are indigestible by the suckling infant but can act as prebiotics and have significant biological functions regarding the organism defense against pathogens (such as bacteria or viruses) by preventing interactions with their receptors. Although constituted of only five distinct monosaccharide building blocks, HMOs are highly structurally diverse compounds with many co-existing structural isomers...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356278/what-s-normal-oligosaccharide-concentrations-and-profiles-in-milk-produced-by-healthy-women-vary-geographically
#14
Michelle K McGuire, Courtney L Meehan, Mark A McGuire, Janet E Williams, James Foster, Daniel W Sellen, Elizabeth W Kamau-Mbuthia, Egidioh W Kamundia, Samwel Mbugua, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice, Linda J Kvist, Gloria E Otoo, Sarah L Brooker, William J Price, Bahman Shafii, Caitlyn Placek, Kimberly A Lackey, Bianca Robertson, Susana Manzano, Lorena Ruíz, Juan M Rodríguez, Rossina G Pareja, Lars Bode
Background: Human milk is a complex fluid comprised of myriad substances, with one of the most abundant substances being a group of complex carbohydrates referred to as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). There has been some evidence that HMO profiles differ in populations, but few studies have rigorously explored this variability.Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that HMO profiles differ in diverse populations of healthy women. Next, we examined relations between HMO and maternal anthropometric and reproductive indexes and indirectly examined whether differences were likely related to genetic or environmental variations...
May 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347843/engineered-n-acetylhexosamine-active-enzymes-in-glycoscience
#15
REVIEW
Kristýna Slámová, Pavla Bojarová
BACKGROUND: In recent years, enzymes modifying N-acetylhexosamine substrates have emerged in numerous theoretical studies as well as practical applications from biology, biomedicine, and biotechnology. Advanced enzyme engineering techniques converted them into potent synthetic instruments affording a variety of valuable glycosides. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review presents the diversity of engineered enzymes active with N-acetylhexosamine carbohydrates: from popular glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases to less known oxidases, epimerases, kinases, sulfotransferases, and acetylases...
March 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346936/differential-establishment-of-bifidobacteria-in-the-breastfed-infant-gut
#16
Zachery T Lewis, David A Mills
The composition of an infant's gut microbiome can impact their immediate and long-term health. Bifdobacteria play a major role in structuring the gut microbiome of breastfed infants due to their ability to consume oligosaccharides found in human milk. However, recent studies have revealed that bifidobacteria are often absent in the gut microbiome of breastfed infants in some locations. This lack of colonization may be due either to differences in the environmental conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of uncolonized infants which prohibit the growth of bifidobacteria or a dearth of sources from which infants may acquire these specialized bacterial species...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346933/summary-on-human-milk-oligosaccharides
#17
Philip M Sherman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346932/regulatory-aspects-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides
#18
Seppo Salminen
Human milk oligosaccharides are key components of human milk and appear in various compositions and concentrations in all human milks. In regulatory sense human milk oligosaccharides are classified as novel foods or novel food ingredients requiring safety assessment. In addition, if any health messages are intended to be used also health claim regulations apply. This chapter reviews the regulatory settings and studies human milk oligosaccharides are required to fulfill to be able to enter markets in European Union or United States or elsewhere...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346931/compositional-analysis-and-metabolism-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-in-infants
#19
Clemens Kunz, Silvia Rudloff
It is a great success that biotechnological means are available today to produce amounts of single human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in a purity which allows performing metabolic and functional studies even in humans. As recent data indicate that there is a link between the Lewis blood group and the secretor status of an individual and certain inflammatory diseases, this review will also focus on the metabolic fate of secretor- and Lewis blood group-specific components. We conclude that there is no simple urinary or fecal excretion pattern of HMOs, although the pattern in urine often reflects the mother's secretor/nonsecretor status...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345865/human-milk-oligosaccharide-specificities-of-human-galectins-comparison-of-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-and-glycan-microarray-screening-results
#20
Km Shams-Ud-Doha, Elena N Kitova, Pavel I Kitov, Yves St-Pierre, John S Klassen
The affinities of thirty-two free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) for four human galectin proteins, a stable mutant of hGal1 (hGal-1), a C-terminal fragment of hGal-3 (hGal-3C), hGal-7, and an N-terminal fragment of hGal-9 (hGal-9N), were measured using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The binding data show that each of the four galectins recognize the majority of the HMOs tested (hGal-1 binds thirty-two HMOs, hGal-3C binds twenty-six, hGal-7 binds thirty-one, and hGal-9N binds twenty-six)...
April 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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