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Human milk oligosaccharides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630345/synthesis-of-asymmetrical-multiantennary-human-milk-oligosaccharides
#1
Anthony R Prudden, Lin Liu, Chantelle J Capicciotti, Margreet A Wolfert, Shuo Wang, Zhongwei Gao, Lu Meng, Kelley W Moremen, Geert-Jan Boons
Despite mammalian glycans typically having highly complex asymmetrical multiantennary architectures, chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis has almost exclusively focused on the preparation of simpler symmetrical structures. This deficiency hampers investigations into the biology of glycan-binding proteins, which in turn complicates the biomedical use of this class of biomolecules. Herein, we describe an enzymatic strategy, using a limited number of human glycosyltransferases, to access a collection of 60 asymmetric, multiantennary human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which were used to develop a glycan microarray...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620481/tolerability-and-safety-of-the-intake-of-bovine-milk-oligosaccharides-extracted-from-cheese-whey-in-healthy-human-adults
#2
Jennifer T Smilowitz, Danielle G Lemay, Karen M Kalanetra, Elizabeth L Chin, Angela M Zivkovic, Melissa A Breck, J Bruce German, David A Mills, Carolyn Slupsky, Daniela Barile
Mechanistic research suggests a unique evolutionary relationship between complex milk oligosaccharides and cognate bifidobacteria enriched in breast-fed infants. Bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) were recently identified as structurally and functionally similar to human milk oligosaccharides. The present single-blind three-way crossover study is the first to determine the safety and tolerability of BMO consumption by healthy human participants (n 12) and its effects on faecal microbiota and microbial metabolism...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614672/composition-and-variation-of-macronutrients-immune-proteins-and-human-milk-oligosaccharides-in-human-milk-from-nonprofit-and-commercial-milk-banks
#3
Laura Meredith-Dennis, Gege Xu, Elisha Goonatilleke, Carlito B Lebrilla, Mark A Underwood, Jennifer T Smilowitz
BACKGROUND: When human milk is unavailable, banked milk is recommended for feeding premature infants. Milk banks use processes to eliminate pathogens; however, variability among methods exists. Research aim: The aim of this study was to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat, energy), immune-protective protein, and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) content of human milk from three independent milk banks that use pasteurization (Holder vs. vat techniques) or retort sterilization...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611768/innate-immunity-and-breast-milk
#4
REVIEW
Nicole Theresa Cacho, Robert M Lawrence
Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant's optimal growth and development. The growing infant's immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant's innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk's effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609134/relationships-among-microbial-communities-maternal-cells-oligosaccharides-and-macronutrients-in-human-milk
#5
Janet E Williams, William J Price, Bahman Shafii, Katherine M Yahvah, Lars Bode, Mark A McGuire, Michelle K McGuire
BACKGROUND: Human milk provides all essential nutrients necessary for early life and is rich in nonnutrients, maternally derived (host) cells, and bacteria, but almost nothing is known about the interplay among these components. Research aim: The primary objective of this research was to characterize relationships among macronutrients, maternal cells, and bacteria in milk. METHODS: Milk samples were collected from 16 women and analyzed for protein, lipid, fatty acid, lactose, and human milk oligosaccharide concentrations...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593759/enzymatic-synthesis-and-purification-of-galactosylated-chitosan-oligosaccharides-reducing-adhesion-of-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-k88
#6
Ya Lu Yan, Ying Hu, David J Simpson, Michael G Gänzle
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 causes diarrhea in weaned piglets and represent a suitable model system for ETEC causing childhood diarrhea. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of oligosaccharides against ETEC K88 adhesion to porcine erythrocytes with two bioassays. Galactosylated chitosan-oligosaccharides (Gal-COS) were synthesized through transgalactosylation by β-galactosidase. Fractions 2-5 of Gal-COS were obtained through cation exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Fractions 2-5 of acetylated Gal-COS were obtained through chemical acetylation followed by size exclusion chromatography...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570820/human-milk-oligosaccharides-exhibit-antimicrobial-and-anti-biofilm-properties-against-group-b-streptococcus
#7
Dorothy L Ackerman, Ryan S Doster, Jörn-Hendrik Weitkamp, David Aronoff, Jennifer A Gaddy, Steven D Townsend
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that causes invasive infections of both children and adults. During pregnancy, GBS is a significant cause of infection of the fetal membranes (chorioamnionitis), which can lead to intra-amniotic infection, preterm birth, stillbirth, and neonatal sepsis. Recently, breastfeeding has been thought to represent a potential mode of GBS transmission from mother to newborn, which might increase the risk for late-onset sepsis...
June 1, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558635/recent-technology-development-for-the-biosynthesis-of-human-milk-oligosaccharide
#8
Ningzi Guan, Rachel Chen
Human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) is a third most abundant component in breast milk. HMOs are molecules naturally tailored to the need of an infant. They protect infants from diseases, foster healthy gastrointestinal systems, reinforce fledgling immune function, and promote early brain development. Supplementing HMOs to infant formulae, which lack this critical element, would substantially improve the function of formulae. Overwhelming evidences also indicate that HMOs can be used for the treatment of arthritis and related autoimmune disease, and inhibition of bacteria adhesion or as potential prebiotics...
May 30, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554622/comparison-of-anti-pathogenic-activities-of-the-human-and-bovine-milk-n-glycome-fucosylation-is-a-key-factor
#9
Wen-Li Wang, Wei Wang, Ya-Min Du, Hong Wu, Xiao-Bo Yu, Ke-Ping Ye, Chun-Bao Li, Yong-Sam Jung, Ying-Juan Qian, Josef Voglmeir, Li Liu
Health differences between breast- and formula-fed infants have long been apparent despite great efforts in improving the function of baby formula by adjusting the levels of various milk nutritional components. However, the N-glycome, a type of oligosaccharide decorating a diverse range of proteins, has not been extensively studied in milk regarding its biological function. In this study, the anti-pathogenic function of the enzymatically released human and bovine milk N-glycome against 5 food-borne pathogens was investigated...
November 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545589/gastrointestinal-tolerance-of-low-fodmap-oral-nutrition-supplements-in-healthy-human-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Jennifer Erickson, Renee Korczak, Qi Wang, Joanne Slavin
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in utilizing a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a functional gastrointestinal disease. While studies have indicated that this diet can be effective at symptom reduction, it is a restrictive diet and patients may find it challenging to find low FODMAP products to meet their nutrient needs. The primary objective of this study was to assess the gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance of three low FODMAP oral nutrition supplements (ONS) in healthy adults...
May 25, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544984/histo-blood-group-antigens-as-mediators-of-infections
#11
REVIEW
Julie E Heggelund, Annabelle Varrot, Anne Imberty, Ute Krengel
The critical first step of a microbial infection is usually the attachment of pathogens to host cell glycans. Targets on host tissues are in particular the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are present in rich diversity in the mucus layer and on the underlying mucosa. Recent structural and functional studies have revealed significant new insight into the molecular mechanisms, explaining why individuals with certain blood groups are at increased risk of some infections. The most prominent example of blood-group-associated diseases is cholera, caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513631/paediatrics-are-human-milk-oligosaccharides-the-magic-bullet-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#12
Michael S Caplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505592/human-norovirus-inhibition-by-a-human-milk-oligosaccharide
#13
Anna Koromyslova, Shailesh Tripathi, Vasily Morozov, Horst Schroten, Grant S Hansman
Human noroviruses are the leading cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. Norovirus interactions with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are known to be important for an infection. In this study, we identified the HBGA binding pocket for an emerging GII genotype 17 (GII.17) variant using X-ray crystallography. The GII.17 variant bound the HBGA with an equivalent set of residues as the leading pandemic GII.4 variants. These structural data highlights the conserved nature of HBGA binding site between prevalent GII noroviruses...
May 12, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490677/dietary-human-milk-oligosaccharides-but-not-prebiotic-oligosaccharides-increase-circulating-natural-killer-cell-and-mesenteric-lymph-node-memory-t-cell-populations-in-noninfected-and-rotavirus-infected-neonatal-piglets
#14
Sarah S Comstock, Min Li, Mei Wang, Marcia H Monaco, Theresa B Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon M Donovan
Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have antimicrobial and immunomodulatory actions. It has previously been reported that these oligosaccharides contribute to the reduced duration of rotavirus-induced diarrhea in pigs.Objective: We measured the effects of HMOs and prebiotic oligosaccharides on immune cell populations from noninfected and rotavirus-infected pigs. We hypothesized that dietary HMOs would modulate systemic and gastrointestinal immunity.Methods: Colostrum-deprived newborn pigs were fed formula, formula with 4 g HMOs/L (2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, and free sialic acid), or formula with 3...
June 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469518/relationship-between-exclusive-breastfeeding-and-lower-risk-of-childhood-obesity-a-narrative-review-of-published-evidence
#15
REVIEW
Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Chizoma I Eneh, Ikenna K Ndu
BACKGROUND: The pattern of infant feeding during the first 1000-day period-from conception to the second birthday-has a significant influence on the child's growth trajectory. The relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and lower risk of childhood obesity has elicited much scientific interest, given the fact that this form of malnutrition is becoming a global epidemic. AIM: This narrative review aims to examine the evidence in the literature linking exclusive breastfeeding with reduction in obesity in children...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424182/human-milk-oligosaccharides-vary-among-populations
#16
David S Newburg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423739/sialyllactose-suppresses-angiogenesis-by-inhibiting-vegfr-2-activation-and-tumor-progression
#17
Tae-Wook Chung, Eun-Young Kim, Seok-Jo Kim, Hee-Jung Choi, Se Bok Jang, Keuk-Jun Kim, Sun-Hyung Ha, Fukushi Abekura, Choong-Hwan Kwak, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Ki-Tae Ha
The oligosaccharides in human milk have various biological functions. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the anti-angiogenic action of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are still unclear. Here, we show that siallylactose (SL) found in human milk can inhibit the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) by binding to its VEGF binding site (second and third IgG-like domains), thus blocking downstream signal activation. SL also inhibits growth of VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416607/human-milk-oligosaccharides-inhibit-growth-of-group-b-streptococcus
#18
Ann E Lin, Chloe A Autran, Alexandra Szyszka, Tamara Escajadillo, Mia Huang, Kamil Godula, Anthony R Prudden, Geert-Jan Boons, Amanda L Lewis, Kelly S Doran, Victor Nizet, Lars Bode
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities that guide development of the infant's immune system and shape the composition of normal gut microbiota. In this manner, HMOs help protect against pathogen colonization and reduce risk of infection. In the course of our studies of HMO-microbial interactions, we unexpectedly uncovered a novel HMO property to directly inhibit the growth of GBS, independent of host immunity...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405629/human-norovirus-evolution-in-a-chronically-infected-host
#19
Sylvie Y Doerflinger, Stefan Weichert, Anna Koromyslova, Martin Chan, Christian Schwerk, Ruediger Adam, Stefan Jennewein, Grant S Hansman, Horst Schroten
Typically, human noroviruses cause symptoms of acute gastroenteritis for 2 to 4 days. Often, the virions are shed in stool for several days after the symptoms recede, which in turn can lead to further contamination and transmission. Moreover, a number of reports have considered that chronic norovirus infections, i.e., lasting months and years, might even function as reservoirs for the generation of novel strains that can escape the herd immunity or have modified binding interactions with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs)...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401975/imidazolium-labeled-glycosides-as-probes-to-harness-glycosyltransferase-activity-in-human-breast-milk
#20
I Sittel, M C Galan
Imidazolium-labeled (ITag-) glycosides are used to harness the glycosyltransferase activity directly from human breast milk. The covalently attached ionic labels provide a bifunctional chemical handle that is used to monitor reaction progress by MS, as well as aid in product purification from complex mixtures. The technology is exemplified in the synthesis of biologically relevant oligosaccharide analogs, LacNAc-ITag, ITag-Lewis(x) and ITag-Lewis(a), in a matter of days from human breast milk without having to isolate specific enzymes...
May 3, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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