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Human milk oligosaccharides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214389/synthesis-of-lacto-n-tetraose
#1
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third largest macromolecular component of breast milk and offer infants numerous health benefits, most of which stem from the development of a healthy microbiome. Characterization, quantification, and chemical derivatization of HMOs remains a frontier issue in glycobiology due to the challenge of isolating appreciable quantities of homogenous HMOs from breast milk. Herein, we report the synthesis of the human milk tetrasaccharide lacto-N-tetraose (LNT). LNT is ubiquitous in human breast milk as it is a core structure common to longer-chain HMOs and many glycolipids...
February 11, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194144/trophic-interactions-of-infant-bifidobacteria-and-eubacterium-hallii-during-l-fucose-and-fucosyllactose-degradation
#2
Clarissa Schwab, Hans-Joachim Ruscheweyh, Vera Bunesova, Van Thanh Pham, Niko Beerenwinkel, Christophe Lacroix
Fucosyllactoses (2'- or 3'-FL) account for up to 20% of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). Infant bifidobacteria, such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, utilize the lactose moiety to form lactate and acetate, and metabolize L-fucose to 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD). Eubacterium hallii is a common member of the adult gut microbiota that can produce butyrate from lactate and acetate, and convert 1,2-PD to propionate. Recently, a Swiss cohort study identified E. hallii as one of the first butyrate producers in the infant gut...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193420/reaction-kinetics-and-galactooligosaccharide-product-profiles-of-the-%C3%AE-galactosidases-from-bacillus-circulans-kluyveromyces-lactis-and-aspergillus-oryzae
#3
Huifang Yin, Jelle B Bultema, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Sander S van Leeuwen
β-Galactosidase enzymes are used in the dairy industry to convert lactose into galactooligosaccharides (GOS) that are added to infant formula to mimic the molecular sizes and prebiotic functions of human milk oligosaccharides. Here we report a detailed analysis of the clearly different GOS profiles of the commercial β-galactosidases from Bacillus circulans, Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae. Also the GOS yields of these enzymes differed, varying from 48.3% (B. circulans) to 34.9% (K. lactis), and 19...
June 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192913/identification-of-lewis-and-blood-group-carbohydrate-epitopes-by-ion-mobility-tandem-mass-spectrometry-fingerprinting
#4
Johanna Hofmann, Alexandra Stuckmann, Max Crispin, David J Harvey, Kevin Pagel, Weston B Struwe
Glycans have several elements that contribute to their structural complexity, involving a range of monosaccharide building blocks, configuration of linkages between residues and various degrees of branching on a given structure. Their analysis remains challenging and resolving minor isomeric variants can be difficult, in particular terminal fucosylated Lewis and blood group antigens present on N- and O-glycans. Accurately characterizing these isomeric structures by current techniques is not straightforward and typically requires a combination of methods and/or sample derivatization...
February 1, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182762/longitudinal-change-of-selected-human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-association-to-infants-growth-an-observatory-single-center-longitudinal-cohort-study
#5
Norbert Sprenger, Le Ye Lee, Carlos Antonio De Castro, Philippe Steenhout, Sagar K Thakkar
BACKGROUND: Human milk is the recommended and sole nutrient source for newborns. One of the largest components of human milk is oligosaccharides (HMOs) with major constituents determined by the mother genotype for the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2, secretor) gene. HMO variation has been related with infant microbiota establishment, diarrhea incidence, morbidity and mortality, IgE associated eczema and body composition. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the (i) dependence of several major representative HMOs on the FUT2 status assessed through breast milk 2'Fucosyllactose (2'FL) and (ii) the relation of the 2'FL status with infant growth up to 4 months of life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179042/major-human-milk-oligosaccharides-are-absorbed-into-the-systemic-circulation-after-oral-administration-in-rats
#6
E Vazquez, A Santos-Fandila, R Buck, R Rueda, M Ramirez
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are involved in many biological functions influencing infant health. Although HMO act locally at the intestine, recent evidence has demonstrated that HMO are partially incorporated into the systemic circulation of breast-fed infants. In the last few years, a large amount of research has been conducted using preclinical models to uncover new biological functions of HMO. The aim of this study was to evaluate the absorption and urine excretion of HMO in rats. We administered a single oral dose of the following HMO: 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), 6'-sialyllactose and lacto-N-neotetraose at different concentrations to adult rats...
February 9, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166850/a-fermented-milk-concentrate-and-a-combination-of-short-chain-galacto-oligosaccharides-long-chain-fructo-oligosaccharides-pectin-derived-acidic-oligosaccharides-protect-suckling-rats-from-rotavirus-gastroenteritis
#7
Mar Rigo-Adrover, Teresa Pérez-Berezo, Sara Ramos-Romero, Kees van Limpt, Karen Knipping, Johan Garssen, Jan Knol, Àngels Franch, Margarida Castell, Francisco J Pérez-Cano
Human milk contains bioactive compounds that confer a protective role against gastrointestinal infections. In order to find supplements for an infant formula able to mimic these benefits of breast-feeding, two different concepts were tested. The products consisted of the following: (1) a Bifidobacterium breve- and Streptococcus thermophilus-fermented formula and (2) a combination of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides with pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides. A rotavirus infection suckling rat model was used to evaluate improvements in the infectious process and in the immune response of supplemented animals...
February 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159210/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-fed-human-milk-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Beatrice E Lechner, Betty R Vohr
The neurodevelopmental benefits of breast milk feedings for preterm infants have been controversial. However, the effect on preterm infant neurodevelopment is sustained into childhood. The effects of breast milk feeding during the neonatal period and the duration of breastfeeding display effects on cognition into adolescence. The volume of breast milk received is a key factor in these effects. Additionally, emerging studies support the effects of human milk on structural brain development, such as increased white matter development and increased cortical thickness...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159208/the-importance-of-human-milk-for-immunity-in-preterm-infants
#9
REVIEW
Erin D Lewis, Caroline Richard, Bodil M Larsen, Catherine J Field
The immune system of preterm infants is immature, placing them at increased risk for serious immune-related complications. Human milk provides a variety of immune protective and immune maturation factors that are beneficial to the preterm infant's poorly developed immune system. The most studied immune components in human milk include antimicrobial proteins, maternal leukocytes, immunoglobulins, cytokines and chemokines, oligosaccharides, gangliosides, nucleotides, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159206/human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-the-preterm-infant-a-journey-in-sickness-and-in-health
#10
REVIEW
Sara Moukarzel, Lars Bode
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a group of approximately 200 different unconjugated sugar structures in human milk proposed to support infant growth and development. Data from several preclinical animal studies and human cohort studies suggest HMOs reduce preterm infant mortality and morbidity by shaping the gut microbiome and protecting against necrotizing enterocolitis, candidiasis, and several other immune-related diseases. Current feeding practices and clinical algorithms do not consider infant HMO intake when assessing dietary adequacy or disease risk...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145111/a-comparative-glycomics-of-fat-globule-membrane-glycoconjugates-from-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-milk-colostrum
#11
Brijesha Nagaraja, Shin-Ichiro Nishimura, Aparna H Sosalegowda
The health-promoting effects of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM) glycoconjugates has attracted curiosity especially with regard to the challenges encountered to unravel the glycan complexities of MFGM glycoproteins and glycosphingolipids. In this context, we characterized glycans present in buffalo milk and colostrum fat globule membranes by MALDI-TOF MS analysis by adopting chemoselective glycoblotting technique. Unlike human and bovine MFGM glycoproteins, the variations were obvious with respect to their number, size, heterogeneity and abundance among the samples analyzed...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139923/bovine-milk-oligosaccharide-contents-show-remarkable-seasonal-variation-and-intercow-variation
#12
Zhiqian Liu, Martin Auldist, Marlie Wright, Benjamin Cocks, Simone Rochfort
Human milk oligosaccharides (OS) play an important role in protecting the neonate. In addition to fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides, bovine milk OS have great potential to be used in pediatric food products to mimic the functions of human milk OS. Currently, little is known about the accumulation of OS in bovine milk in relation to genetic and environmental factors. A systematic survey on seasonal variation of 14 major OS was thus conducted with 19 cows over the entire milking season using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116928/assessment-of-the-synbiotic-properites-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-infantis-in-vitro-and-in-humanised-mice
#13
S Musilova, N Modrackova, P Hermanova, T Hudcovic, R Svejstil, V Rada, V Tejnecky, V Bunesova
The mode of delivery plays a crucial role in infant gastrointestinal tract colonisation, which in the case of caesarean section is characterised by the presence of clostridia and low bifidobacterial counts. Gut colonisation can be modified by probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are infant prebiotics that show a bifidogenic effect. Moreover, genome sequencing of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis within the infant microbiome revealed adaptations for milk utilisation. This study aimed to evaluate the synbiotic effect of B...
January 24, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114245/human-milk-oligosaccharides-influence-intestinal-epithelial-cell-maturation-in-vitro
#14
Hannah D Holscher, Lars Bode, Kelly A Tappenden
OBJECTIVES: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are reported to promote epithelial cell differentiation in vitro. The aim of the present study was to assess induction of epithelial cell differentiation by individual and combined administration of 3 HMOs. METHODS: An in vitro epithelial model of the crypt-villus axis consisting of preconfluent HT-29, preconfluent Caco-2Bbe, and postconfluent Caco-2Bbe cells was used. Cultures were randomized to 17 treatments for 72 hours of incubation: low- and high-dose HMOs (3'sialyllactose [3'SL] at 0...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107288/effects-of-infant-formula-with-human-milk-oligosaccharides-on-growth-and-morbidity-a-randomized-multicenter-trial
#15
Giuseppe Puccio, Philippe Alliet, Cinzia Cajozzo, Elke Janssens, Giovanni Corsello, Norbert Sprenger, Susan Wernimont, Delphine Egli, Laura Gosoniu, Philippe Steenhout
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated effects of infant formula supplemented with 2 human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) on infant growth, tolerance and morbidity. METHODS: Healthy infants, 0-14 days old, were randomized to an intact-protein, cow's-milk-based infant formula (Control, n = 87) or the same formula with 1.0 g/L 2'fucosyllactose (2'FL) and 0.5 g/L lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) (Test, n = 88) from enrollment to 6 months; all infants received standard follow-up formula without HMOs from 6-12 months...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097073/handling-stress-may-confound-murine-gut-microbiota-studies
#16
Cary R Allen-Blevins, Xiaomeng You, Katie Hinde, David A Sela
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO), the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human milk are unable to be endogenously digested by the human infant but are able to be metabolized by certain species of gut microbiota, including Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis), a species sensitive to host stress (Bailey & Coe, 2004). Exposure to gut bacteria like B...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092444/engineering-of-the-bacillus-circulans-%C3%AE-galactosidase-product-specificity
#17
Huifang Yin, Tjaard Pijning, Xiangfeng Meng, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Sander S van Leeuwen
Microbial β-galactosidase enzymes are widely used as biocatalysts in industry to produce prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. GOS mixtures are used as beneficial additives in infant formula to mimic the prebiotic effects of human milk oligosaccharides (hMOS). The structural variety in GOS mixtures is significantly lower than in hMOS. Since this structural complexity is considered as the basis for the multiple biological functions of hMOS, it is important to broaden the variety of GOS structures...
January 25, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091546/prebiotic-galactooligosaccharides-activate-mucin-and-pectic-galactan-utilization-pathways-in-the-human-gut-symbiont-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron
#18
Alicia Lammerts van Bueren, Marieke Mulder, Sander van Leeuwen, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotic carbohydrates that impart changes in the gut bacterial composition of formula-fed infants to more closely resemble that of breast-fed infants. Consuming human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provides specific bacterial strains with an advantage for colonizing the infant intestine. These same effects are seen in infants after GOS consumption, however GOS are very complex mixtures and the underlying molecular mechanisms of how GOS mimic HMOs are relatively unknown. Here we studied the effects of GOS utilization on a prominent gut symbiont, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which has been previously shown to consume HMOs via mucin O-glycan degradation pathways...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079170/growth-and-morbidity-of-gambian-infants-are-influenced-by-maternal-milk-oligosaccharides-and-infant-gut-microbiota
#19
Jasmine C C Davis, Zachery T Lewis, Sridevi Krishnan, Robin M Bernstein, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice, David A Mills, Carlito B Lebrilla, Angela M Zivkovic
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother's HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3'-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933160/post-sensitization-administration-of-non-digestible-oligosaccharides-and-bifidobacterium-breve-m-16v-reduces-allergic-symptoms-in-mice
#20
Betty C A M van Esch, Suzanne Abbring, Mara A P Diks, Gemma M Dingjan, Lucien F Harthoorn, A Paul Vos, Johan Garssen
To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept can reduce an established food allergic response in a research model for hen's egg allergy. Mice were orally sensitized once a week for 5 weeks to ovalbumin (OVA) using cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. Non-sensitized mice received CT in PBS only...
June 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
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