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Human milk oligosaccharides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140081/the-human-milk-glycome-as-a-defense-against-infectious-diseases-rationale-challenges-and-opportunities
#1
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Each year over 3 million people die from infectious diseases with most of these deaths being poor and young children who live in low- and middle-income countries. Infectious diseases emerge for a multitude of reasons. On the social front, reasons include a breakdown of public health standards, international travel, and immigration (for financial, civil, and social reasons). At the molecular level, the modern rise of infectious diseases is tied to the juxtaposition of drug-resistant pathogens and a lack of new antimicrobials...
November 15, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124935/enzymatic-and-chemoenzymatic-syntheses-of-disialyl-glycans-and-their-necrotizing-enterocolitis-preventing-effects
#2
Hai Yu, Xuebin Yan, Chloe A Autran, Yanhong Li, Sabrina Etzold, Joanna Latasiewicz, Bianca M Robertson, Jiaming Li, Lars Bode, Xi Chen
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common and devastating intestinal disorders in preterm infants. Therapies to meet the clinical needs for this special and highly vulnerable population are extremely limited. A specific human milk oligosaccharide (HMO), disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT), was shown to contribute to the beneficial effects of breastfeeding as it prevented NEC in a neonatal rat model and was associated with lower NEC risk in a human clinical cohort study. Herein, gram-scale synthesis of two DSLNT analogs previously shown to have NEC preventing effect is described...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108433/the-human-milk-oligosaccharides-are-not-affected-by-pasteurization-and-freeze-drying
#3
Won-Ho Hahn, Jaehan Kim, Seunghyun Song, Suyeon Park, Nam Mi Kang
OBJECTIVES: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are known as important factors in neurologic and immunologic development of neonates. Moreover, freeze-drying seems to be a promising storage method to improve the processes of human milk banks. However, the effects of pasteurization and freeze-drying on HMOs were not evaluated yet. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the HMOs profiles of human milk collected before and after the pasteurization and freeze-drying. METHODS: Totally nine fresh human milk samples were collected from three healthy mothers at the first, second, and third week after delivery...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061847/discovery-of-%C3%AE-l-arabinopyranosidases-from-human-gut-microbiome-expands-the-diversity-within-glycoside-hydrolase-family-42
#4
Alexander Holm Viborg, Takane Katayama, Takatoshi Arakawa, Maher Abou Hachem, Leila Lo Leggio, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Birte Svensson, Shinya Fushinobu
Enzymes of the glycoside hydrolase family 42 (GH42) are widespread in bacteria of the human gut microbiome and play fundamental roles in the decomposition of both milk and plant oligosaccharides. All GH42 enzymes characterized so far have β-galactosidase activity. Here, we report the existence of a GH42 subfamily that is exclusively specific for α-L-arabinopyranoside and describe the first representative of this subfamily. We found that this enzyme (BlArap42B) from a probiotic Bifidobacterium species cannot hydrolyze β-galactosides...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053807/systematic-review-of-the-concentrations-of-oligosaccharides-in-human-milk
#5
Stephan Thurl, Manfred Munzert, Günther Boehm, Catherine Matthews, Bernd Stahl
Context: Oligosaccharides are the third largest solid component in human milk. These diverse compounds are thought to have numerous beneficial functions in infants, including protection against infectious diseases. The structures of more than 100 oligosaccharides in human milk have been elucidated so far. Objective: The aim of this review was to identify the main factors that affect the concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk and to determine whether it is possible to calculate representative and reliable mean concentrations...
November 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050879/one-pot-synthesis-of-gdp-l-fucose-by-a-four-enzyme-cascade-expressed-in-lactococcus-lactis
#6
Ling Li, Seul-Ah Kim, Ji Eun Heo, Tae-Jip Kim, Jin-Ho Seo, Nam Soo Han
GDP-l-fucose is an l-fucose donor to synthesize fucosylated compounds such as human milk oligosaccharides or Lewis antigen. In this study, we used Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NZ9000 to express 4 enzymes, ManB, ManC, Gmd, and WcaG and produced GDP-l-fucose by using one-pot synthesis method with mannose-6-phosphate as substrate and the enzymes as biocatalyst. For preparation of enzyme mixture, 4 genes (manB, manC, gmd, and wcaG) cloned from Escherichia coli were transformed into L. lactis strains using pNZ8008 and the recombinant cell lysates were obtained after cultivation...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033938/early-life-nutritional-factors-and-mucosal-immunity-in-the-development-of-autoimmune-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Ling Xiao, Belinda Van't Land, Wouter R P H van de Worp, Bernd Stahl, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an immune-mediated disease with a strong genetic basis but might be influenced by non-genetic factors such as microbiome development that "programs" the immune system during early life as well. Factors influencing pathogenesis, including a leaky intestinal mucosal barrier, an aberrant gut microbiota composition, and altered immune responsiveness, offer potential targets for prevention and/or treatment of T1D through nutritional or pharmacologic means. In this review, nutritional approaches during early life in order to protect against T1D development have been discussed...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032473/oligosaccharide-biotechnology-an-approach-of-prebiotic-revolution-on-the-industry
#8
REVIEW
Mario Cezar Rodrigues Mano, Iramaia Angélica Neri-Numa, Juliana Bueno da Silva, Bruno Nicolau Paulino, Marina Gabriel Pessoa, Gláucia Maria Pastore
Oligosaccharides are polymers with two to ten monosaccharide residues which have sweetener functions and sensory characteristics, in addition to exerting physiological effects on human health. The ones called nondigestible exhibit a prebiotic behavior being fermented by colonic microflora or stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria, playing roles in the immune system, protecting against cancer, and preventing cardiovascular and metabolic issues. The global prebiotics market is expected to grow around 12...
October 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988527/how-fucose-of-blood-group-glycotopes-programs-human-gut-microbiota
#9
REVIEW
S V Kononova
Formation of appropriate gut microbiota is essential for human health. The first two years of life is the critical period for this process. Selection of mutualistic microorganisms of the intestinal microbiota is controlled by the FUT2 and FUT3 genes that encode fucosyltransferases, enzymes responsible for the synthesis of fucosylated glycan structures of mucins and milk oligosaccharides. In this review, the mechanisms of the selection and maintenance of intestinal microorganisms that involve fucosylated oligosaccharides of breast milk and mucins of the newborn's intestine are described...
September 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974612/bifidobacterium-bifidum-extracellular-sialidase-enhances-adhesion-to-the-mucosal-surface-and-supports-carbohydrate-assimilation
#10
Keita Nishiyama, Yuji Yamamoto, Makoto Sugiyama, Takashi Takaki, Tadasu Urashima, Satoru Fukiya, Atsushi Yokota, Nobuhiko Okada, Takao Mukai
Bifidobacterium is a natural inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We studied the role of the extracellular sialidase (SiaBb2, 835 amino acids [aa]) from Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 15696 in mucosal surface adhesion and carbohydrate catabolism. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) or porcine mucin oligosaccharides as the sole carbon source enhanced B. bifidum growth. This was impaired in a B. bifidum ATCC 15696 strain harboring a mutation in the siabb2 gene. Mutant cells in early to late exponential growth phase also showed decreased adhesion to human epithelial cells and porcine mucin relative to the wild-type strain...
October 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945208/digestion-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-by-bifidobacterium-breve-in-the-premature-infant
#11
Mark A Underwood, Jasmine C C Davis, Karen M Kalanetra, Sanjay Gehlot, Sanjay Patole, Daniel J Tancredi, David A Mills, Carlito B Lebrilla, Karen Simmer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure consumption and absorption of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in a cohort of premature infants treated with probiotic Bifidobacterium breve. METHODS: Twenty-nine premature infants (median gestational age 28 weeks, range 23-32 weeks) cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit of the King Edward and Princess Margaret Hospital in Perth, Australia, were treated with B breve at a dose of 1.66 billion organisms per day...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942491/modulation-of-type-1-diabetes-risk-by-the-intestinal-microbiome
#12
REVIEW
Mikael Knip, Jarno Honkanen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize potential modulations of the intestinal microbiome aimed at preventing or delaying progression to overt type 1 diabetes in the light of recently identified perturbations of the gut microbiota associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulated data suggest that the gut microbiota is involved at two different steps in the evolution of type 1 diabetes. At the first step, the intestinal tract is colonized by a microbial community unable to provide an adequate education of the immune system...
September 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938544/sialyllactose-suppresses-angiogenesis-by-inhibiting-vegfr-2-activation-and-tumor-progression
#13
Tae-Wook Chung, Eun-Young Kim, Seok-Jo Kim, Hee-Jung Choi, Se Bok Jang, Keuk-Jun Kim, Sun-Hyung Ha, Fukushi Abekura, Choong-Hwan Kwak, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Ki-Tae Ha
The oligosaccharides in human milk have various biological functions. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the anti-angiogenic action of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are still unclear. Here, we show that siallylactose (SL) found in human milk can inhibit the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) by binding to its VEGF binding site (second and third IgG-like domains), thus blocking downstream signal activation. SL also inhibits growth of VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881314/analytical-characterization-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-potential-applications-in-pharmaceutical-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Márkó Grabarics, Orsolya Csernák, Réka Balogh, Szabolcs Béni
Human breast milk is the gold standard for infant feeding and the best possible nourishment a new-born could have. Breastfeeding is the natural way to provide optimal nutritional, immunological and emotional nurturing for the healthy growth and development of infants. Human milk is a complex and dynamic biofluid comprised of many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive structures, among which one of the most abundant substances are the non-conjugated complex carbohydrates referred to as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859498/influence-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-on-adherence-of-bifidobacteria-and-clostridia-to-cell-lines
#15
Sarka Musilova, Nikol Modrackova, Ivo Doskocil, Roman Svejstil, Vojtech Rada
Adhesion of gut bacteria to the intestinal epithelium is the first step in their colonization of the neonatal immature gut. Bacterial colonization of the infant gut is influenced by several factors, of which the most important are the mode of delivery and breast-feeding. Breast-fed infants ingest several grams of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) per day, which can become receptor decoys for intestinal bacteria. The most abundant intestinal bacteria in vaginally delivered infants are bifidobacteria, whereas infants born by cesarean section are colonized by clostridia...
September 1, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844388/cation-exchange-assisted-binding-elution-strategy-for-enzymatic-synthesis-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-hmos
#16
Hailiang Zhu, Zhigang Wu, Madhusudhan Reddy Gadi, Shuaishuai Wang, Yuxi Guo, Garrett Edmunds, Wanyi Guan, Junqiang Fang
A cation exchange assisted binding-elution (BE) strategy for enzymatic synthesis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) was developed. An amino linker was used to provide the cation ion under acidic condition which can be readily bound to cation exchange resin and then eluted off by saturated ammonium bicarbonate. Ammonium bicarbonate in the collections was easily removed by vacuum evaporation. This strategy circumvented the incompatible issue between glycosyltransferases and solid support or large polymers, and no purification was needed for intermediate products...
September 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817095/human-milk-and-allergic-diseases-an-unsolved-puzzle
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Munblit, Diego G Peroni, Alba Boix-Amorós, Peter S Hsu, Belinda Van't Land, Melvin C L Gay, Anastasia Kolotilina, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Robert J Boyle, Maria Carmen Collado, Johan Garssen, Donna T Geddes, Ralph Nanan, Carolyn Slupsky, Ganesa Wegienka, Anita L Kozyrskyj, John O Warner
There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals, which may partially explain conflicting data. It is known that human milk composition is very complex and contains variable levels of immune active molecules, oligosaccharides, metabolites, vitamins and other nutrients and microbial content...
August 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808998/microfluidics-mass-spectrometry-of-protein-carbohydrate-interactions-applications-to-the-development-of-therapeutics-and-biomarker-discovery
#18
Alina D Zamfir
The functional interactions of carbohydrates and their protein receptors are the basis of biological events critical to the evolution of pathological states. Hence, for the past years, such interactions have become the focus of research for the development of therapeutics and discovery of novel glycan biomarkers based on their binding affinity. Due to the high sensitivity, throughput, reproducibility, and capability to ionize minor species in heterogeneous mixtures, microfluidics-mass spectrometry (MS) has recently emerged as a method of choice in protein-glycan interactomics...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794206/lipid-based-nutrient-supplements-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-did-not-affect-human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-bioactive-proteins-in-a-randomized-trial
#19
Josh M Jorgensen, Charles Arnold, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, David Chaima, Yin Bun Cheung, Jasmine Cc Davis, Yue-Mei Fan, Elisha Goonatilleke, Emma Kortekangas, Chiza Kumwenda, Carlito B Lebrilla, Kenneth Maleta, Sarah M Totten, Lauren D Wu, Kathryn G Dewey
Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and bioactive proteins are beneficial to infant health. Recent evidence suggests that maternal nutrition may affect the amount of HMOs and proteins in breast milk; however, the effect of nutrient supplementation on HMOs and bioactive proteins has not yet been well studied.Objective: We aimed to determine whether lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) affect milk bioactive protein and HMO concentrations at 6 mo postpartum in women in rural Malawi. These are secondary outcomes of a previously published randomized controlled trial...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780103/human-milk-oligosaccharide-consumption-by-probiotic-and-human-associated-bifidobacteria-and-lactobacilli
#20
Taksawan Thongaram, Jennifer L Hoeflinger, JoMay Chow, Michael J Miller
Human milk contains high concentrations of nondigestible complex oligosaccharides (human milk oligosaccharides; HMO) that reach the colon and are subsequently fermented by the infant gut microbiota. Using a high-throughput, low-volume growth determination, we evaluated the ability of 12 lactobacilli and 12 bifidobacteria strains, including several commercial probiotics, to ferment HMO and their constituent monomers. Of the 24 strains tested, only Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis ATCC 15697 and Bifidobacterium infantis M-63 were able to ferment 3'-sialyllactose, 6'-sialyllactose, 2'-fucosyllactose, and 3'-fucosyllactose...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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