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Human milk oligosaccharides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889684/human-milk-oligosaccharide-effects-on-intestinal-function-and-inflammation-after-preterm-birth-in-pigs
#1
Stine O Rasmussen, Lena Martin, Mette V Østergaard, Silvia Rudloff, Michael Roggenbuck, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Per T Sangild, Stine B Bering
: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) may mediate prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects in newborns. This is particularly important for preterm infants who are highly susceptible to intestinal dysfunction and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that HMO supplementation of infant formula (IF) improves intestinal function, bacterial colonization and NEC resistance immediately after preterm birth, as tested in a preterm pig model. Mixtures of HMOs were investigated in intestinal epithelial cells and in preterm pigs (n=112) fed IF supplemented without (CON) or with a mixture of four HMOs (4-HMO) or >25 HMOs (25-HMO, 5-10 g/L given for 5 or 11 days)...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851789/dietary-2-fucosyllactose-enhances-operant-conditioning-and-long-term-potentiation-via-gut-brain-communication-through-the-vagus-nerve-in-rodents
#2
Enrique Vazquez, Alejandro Barranco, Maria Ramirez, Agnes Gruart, Jose M Delgado-Garcia, Maria L Jimenez, Rachael Buck, Ricardo Rueda
2´-fucosyllactose (2´-FL) is an abundant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) in human milk with diverse biological effects. We recently reported ingested 2´-FL stimulates central nervous system (CNS) function, such as hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) and learning and memory in rats. Conceivably the effect of 2´-FL on CNS function may be via the gut-brain axis (GBA), specifically the vagus nerve, and L-fucose (Fuc) may play a role. This study had two aims: (1) determine if the effect of ingested 2´-FL on the modulation of CNS function is dependent on the integrity of the molecule; and (2) confirm if oral 2´-FL modified hippocampal LTP and associative learning related skills in rats submitted to bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798342/absolute-quantitation-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-reveals-phenotypic-variations-during-lactation
#3
Gege Xu, Jasmine Cc Davis, Elisha Goonatilleke, Jennifer T Smilowitz, J Bruce German, Carlito B Lebrilla
BACKGROUND: The quantitation of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) is challenging because of the structural complexity and lack of standards. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to rapidly measure the absolute concentrations of HMOs in milk using LC-mass spectrometry (MS) and to determine the phenotypic secretor status of the mothers. METHODS: This quantitative method for measuring HMO concentration was developed by using ultraperformance LC multiple reaction monitoring MS...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798337/similar-to-those-who-are-breastfed-infants-fed-a-formula-containing-2-fucosyllactose-have-lower-inflammatory-cytokines-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Karen C Goehring, Barbara J Marriage, Jeffery S Oliver, Julie A Wilder, Edward G Barrett, Rachael H Buck
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provide multiple benefits to infants, including prebiotic effects, gut maturation, antimicrobial activities, and immune modulation. Clinical intervention studies with HMOs are required to confirm these benefits in infants. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effects of feeding formulas supplemented with the HMO 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) on biomarkers of immune function in healthy term infants...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782805/fucosyllactose-and-l-fucose-utilization-of-infant-bifidobacterium-longum-and-bifidobacterium-kashiwanohense
#5
Vera Bunesova, Christophe Lacroix, Clarissa Schwab
BACKGROUND: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are one of the major glycan source of the infant gut microbiota. The two species that predominate the infant bifidobacteria community, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium bifidum, possess an arsenal of enzymes including α-fucosidases, sialidases, and β-galactosidases to metabolise HMOs. Recently bifidobacteria were obtained from the stool of six month old Kenyan infants including species such as Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense, and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum that are not frequently isolated from infant stool...
October 26, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757792/synthesis-and-purification-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-state-of-the-art
#6
Carlos Vera, Andrés Córdova, Carla Aburto, Cecilia Guerrero, Sebastián Suárez, Andrés Illanes
Lactose-derived non-digestible oligosaccharides are prominent components of functional foods. Among them, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) outstand for being prebiotics whose health-promoting effects are supported on strong scientific evidences, having unique properties as substitutes of human milk oligosaccharides in formulas for newborns and infants. GOS are currently produced enzymatically in a kinetically-controlled reaction of lactose transgalactosylation catalyzed by β-galactosidases from different microbial strains...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756904/a-novel-gene-cluster-allows-preferential-utilization-of-fucosylated-milk-oligosaccharides-in-bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-longum-sc596
#7
Daniel Garrido, Santiago Ruiz-Moyano, Nina Kirmiz, Jasmine C Davis, Sarah M Totten, Danielle G Lemay, Juan A Ugalde, J Bruce German, Carlito B Lebrilla, David A Mills
The infant intestinal microbiota is often colonized by two subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum: subsp. infantis (B. infantis) and subsp. longum (B. longum). Competitive growth of B. infantis in the neonate intestine has been linked to the utilization of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). However, little is known how B. longum consumes HMO. In this study, infant-borne B. longum strains exhibited varying HMO growth phenotypes. While all strains efficiently utilized lacto-N-tetraose, certain strains additionally metabolized fucosylated HMO...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743363/analysis-of-milk-oligosaccharides-by-mass-spectrometry
#8
Lauren D Wu, L Renee Ruhaak, Carlito B Lebrilla
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a highly abundant constituent in human milk, and its protective and prebiotic properties have attracted considerable attention. HMOs have been shown to directly and indirectly benefit the overall health of the infant due to a number of functions including serving as a beneficial food for gut bacteria, block to pathogens, and aiding in brain development. Researchers are currently exploring whether these structures may act as possible disease and nutrition biomarkers. Because of this, rapid-throughput methods are desired to investigate biological activity in large patient sets...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741156/the-role-of-oligosaccharides-in-host-microbial-interactions-for-human-health
#9
Sarah A Ross, Jonathan A Lane, Mariarosaria Marotta, Devon Kavanaugh, Joseph Thomas Ryan, Lokesh Joshi, Rita M Hickey
Milk oligosaccharides have many associated bioactivities which can contribute to human health and offer protective properties to the host. Such bioactivities include anti-infective properties whereby oligosaccharides interact with bacterial cells and prevent adhesion to the host and subsequent colonization. Milk oligosaccharides have also been shown to alter the glycosylation of intestinal cells, leading to a reduction in pathogenic colonization. In addition, these sugars promote adhesion of commensal bacterial strains to host cells as well as possessing the ability to alter mucin expression in intestinal cells and improve barrier function...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719686/oral-supplementation-of-healthy-adults-with-2-o-fucosyllactose-and-lacto-n-neotetraose-is-well-tolerated-and-shifts-the-intestinal-microbiota
#10
Emma Elison, Louise K Vigsnaes, Laura Rindom Krogsgaard, Julie Rasmussen, Nikolaj Sørensen, Bruce McConnell, Thierry Hennet, Morten O A Sommer, Peter Bytzer
The gut microbiota has been established as an important player influencing many aspects of human physiology. Breast milk, the first diet for an infant, contains human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) that shape the infant's gut microbiota by selectively stimulating the growth of specific bacteria, especially bifidobacteria. In addition to their bifidogenic activity, the ability of HMO to modulate immune function and the gut barrier makes them prime candidates to restore a beneficial microbiota in dysbiotic adults and provide health benefits...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714445/human-milk-and-mucosal-lacto-and-galacto-n-biose-synthesis-by-transgalactosylation-and-their-prebiotic-potential-in-lactobacillus-species
#11
Gonzalo N Bidart, Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, Martina Palomino-Schätzlein, Vicente Monedero, María J Yebra
Lacto-N-biose (LNB) and galacto-N-biose (GNB) are major building blocks of free oligosaccharides and glycan moieties of glyco-complexes present in human milk and gastrointestinal mucosa. We have previously characterized the phospho-β-galactosidase GnbG from Lactobacillus casei BL23 that is involved in the metabolism of LNB and GNB. GnbG has been used here in transglycosylation reactions, and it showed the production of LNB and GNB with N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine as acceptors, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713728/cell-free-spent-media-obtained-from-bifidobacterium-bifidum-and-bifidobacterium-crudilactis-grown-in-media-supplemented-with-3-sialyllactose-modulate-virulence-gene-expression-in-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-salmonella-typhimurium
#12
Pauline Bondue, Sébastien Crèvecoeur, François Brose, Georges Daube, Marie-Christine Seghaye, Mansel W Griffiths, Gisèle LaPointe, Véronique Delcenserie
Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO) possess an antimicrobial activity and can promote the growth of bifidobacteria such as Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. In addition, fermentation of carbohydrates by bifidobacteria can result in the production of metabolites presenting an antivirulence effect on several pathogenic bacteria. Whey is rich in complex bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) structurally similar to HMO and B. crudilactis, a species of bovine origin, is able to metabolize some of those complex carbohydrates...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702672/human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-development-of-cow-s-milk-allergy-in-infants
#13
Antti E Seppo, Chloe A Autran, Lars Bode, Kirsi M Järvinen
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provide a main substrate to help shape the infant's gut microbiota and affect the maturation of the intestinal mucosal immune system. In our cohort, infants that received human milk with low Lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) III concentrations (< 60μM) were more likely to become affected with cow's milk allergy when compared to high LNFP III-containing milk (odds ratio 6.7, 95% CI 2.0-22).
October 1, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660754/porcine-milk-oligosaccharides-and-sialic-acid-concentrations-vary-throughout-lactation
#14
Austin T Mudd, Jaime Salcedo, Lindsey S Alexander, Stacey K Johnson, Caitlyn M Getty, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Daniela Barile, Ryan N Dilger
BACKGROUND: Milk oligosaccharides (OSs) are bioactive components known to influence neonatal development. These compounds have specific physiological functions acting as prebiotics, immune system modulators, and enhancing intestine and brain development. OBJECTIVES: The pig is a commonly used model for studying human nutrition, and there is interest in quantifying OS composition of porcine milk across lactation compared with human milk. In this study, we hypothesized that OS and sialic acid (SA) composition of porcine milk would be influenced by stage of lactation...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644050/mothers-secretor-status-affects-development-of-childrens-microbiota-composition-and-function-a-pilot-study
#15
Paula Smith-Brown, Mark Morrison, Lutz Krause, Peter S W Davies
BACKGROUND: One mechanism by which early life environment may influence long term health is through modulation of the gut microbiota. It is widely accepted that the optimal source of nutrition in early life is breast milk, with Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) thought to play an important role in nourishing the developing microbiota. However, mothers with inactive secretor genes have altered HMO composition and quantities in their breast milk. In this pilot study we examine the influence of secretor status and breast-feeding on microbiota composition at 2 to 3 years of age...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634978/overcoming-the-limited-availability-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-challenges-and-opportunities-for-research-and-application
#16
Lars Bode, Nikhat Contractor, Daniela Barile, Nicola Pohl, Anthony R Prudden, Geert-Jan Boons, Yong-Su Jin, Stefan Jennewein
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are complex sugars highly abundant in human milk but currently not present in infant formula. Rapidly accumulating evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies, combined with epidemiological associations and correlations, suggests that HMOs benefit infants through multiple mechanisms and in a variety of clinical contexts. Until recently, however, research on HMOs has been limited by an insufficient availability of HMOs. Most HMOs are found uniquely in human milk, and thus far it has been prohibitively tedious and expensive to isolate and synthesize them...
October 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633108/probiotics-prebiotics-and-synbiotics-for-the-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#17
REVIEW
Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard You Wu, Philip M Sherman
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in preterm infants characterized by barrier disruption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and persistent inflammation of the colon, which results in high mortality rates. Current strategies used to manage this disease are not sufficient, although the use of human breast milk reduces the risk of NEC. Mother's milk is regarded as a fundamental nutritional source for neonates, but pasteurization of donor breast milk affects the composition of bioactive compounds...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629573/the-human-milk-oligosaccharide-2-fucosyllactose-quenches-campylobacter-jejuni-induced-inflammation-in-human-epithelial-cells-hep-2-and-ht-29-and-in-mouse-intestinal-mucosa
#18
Zhuo-Teng Yu, N Nanda Nanthakumar, David S Newburg
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni causes diarrhea worldwide; young children are most susceptible. Binding of virulent C. jejuni to the intestinal mucosa is inhibited ex vivo by α1,2-fucosylated carbohydrate moieties, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOSs). OBJECTIVE: The simplest α1,2-fucosylated HMOS structure, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), can be predominant at ≤5 g/L milk. Although 2'-FL inhibits C. jejuni binding ex vivo and in vivo, the effects of 2'FL on the cell invasion central to C...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613801/neutral-oligosaccharides-in-feces-of-breastfed-and-formula-fed-infants-at-different-ages
#19
Viktoria Dotz, Rüdiger Adam, Günter Lochnit, Horst Schroten, Clemens Kunz
Beneficial effects have been proposed for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), as deduced from in vitro and animal studies. To date, in vivo evidence of the link between certain oligosaccharide structures in milk and their consumption by infant gut microbiota is still missing, although likely. Whereas many studies have described HMO patterns in human milk from larger cohorts, data on the excretion of HMO and possible metabolites produced in the infant gut are still very limited. From smaller-scale studies, an age-dependency according to infant gut maturation and microbiota adaptation has previously been hypothesized...
September 9, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609061/the-human-milk-oligosaccharide-2-fucosyllactose-attenuates-the-severity-of-experimental-necrotising-enterocolitis-by-enhancing-mesenteric-perfusion-in-the-neonatal-intestine
#20
Misty Good, Chhinder P Sodhi, Yukihiro Yamaguchi, Hongpeng Jia, Peng Lu, William B Fulton, Laura Y Martin, Thomas Prindle, Diego F Nino, Qinjie Zhou, Congrong Ma, John A Ozolek, Rachael H Buck, Karen C Goehring, David J Hackam
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a common disease in premature infants characterised by intestinal ischaemia and necrosis. The only effective preventative strategy against NEC is the administration of breast milk, although the protective mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesise that an abundant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) in breast milk, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), protects against NEC by enhancing intestinal mucosal blood flow, and we sought to determine the mechanisms underlying this protection. Administration of HMO-2'FL protected against NEC in neonatal wild-type mice, resulted in a decrease in pro-inflammatory markers and preserved the small intestinal mucosal architecture...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
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