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Human milk oligosaccharides

Jinhua Wei, Zhuo A Wang, Bing Wang, Marefa Jahan, Zhongfu Wang, Peter C Wynn, Yuguang Du
Milk oligosaccharides (MOs) are complex carbohydrates with multifunctional health benefits for the neonate. Poor reproductive performance in primiparous gilts limits their productivity. Changes in the structure and abundance of porcine MO (PMOs) through lactation with parity remains unknown and may explain superior new-born growth in litters from multiparous sows relative to gilts. We report 55 PMOs structures, of which 25 are new (17 sialylated and 8 neutral). Their incidence in gilt and sow colostrum was almost identical (53 vs...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Neelam Khanal, Chiara Masellis, Michael Z Kamrath, David E Clemmer, Thomas R Rizzo
We report here our combination of cryogenic, messenger-tagging, infrared (IR) spectroscopy with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and mass spectrometry (MS) as a way to identify and analyze a set of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) ranging from trisaccharides to hexasaccharides. The added dimension of IR spectroscopy provides a diagnostic fingerprint in the OH and NH stretching region, which is crucial to identify these oligosaccharides, which are difficult to distinguish by IMS alone. These results extend our previous work in demonstrating the generality of this combined approach for distinguishing subtly different structural and regioisomers of glycans of biologically relevant size...
March 15, 2018: Analyst
Aifric O'Sullivan, Jaime Salcedo, Josep Rubert
Our daily food intake provides the nutrients to maintain health. However, in addition to the nutritional values, food can promote health and be beneficial in preventing diseases. Human milk is a unique food source that contains essential nutrients in the right balance and other bioactive factors that make it the ideal food for all healthy term infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in health, at several levels: acting as prebiotics promoting the growth of beneficial bacterial strains, preventing the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the intestine, and modulating the immune response against bacterial infections...
March 13, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Kieran James, Mary O'Connell Motherway, Christophe Penno, Rebecca Louise O'Brien, Douwe van Sinderen
Bifidobacterial carbohydrate metabolism has been studied in considerable detail for a variety of both plant and human-derived glycans, particularly involving the bifidobacterial prototype Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. We recently elucidated the metabolic pathways by which the<u>h</u>uman<u>m</u>ilk<u>o</u>ligosaccharide (HMO) constituents lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) and lacto-N-biose (LNB) are utilized by B. breve UCC2003. However, to date no work has been carried out on the regulatory mechanisms that control expression of the genetic loci involved in these HMO metabolic pathways...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ling Xiao, Belinda Van't Land, Phillip A Engen, Ankur Naqib, Stefan J Green, Angie Nato, Thea Leusink-Muis, Johan Garssen, Ali Keshavarzian, Bernd Stahl, Gert Folkerts
Development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is influenced by non-genetic factors, such as optimal microbiome development during early life that "programs" the immune system. Exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding is an independent protective factor against the development of T1D, likely via bioactive components. Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOS) are microbiota modulators, known to regulate immune responses directly. Here we show that early life provision (only for a period of six weeks) of 1% authentic HMOS (consisting of both long-chain, as well as short-chain structures), delayed and suppressed T1D development in non-obese diabetic mice and reduced development of severe pancreatic insulitis in later life...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kenneth Timmis, Franziska Jebok
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Kamilla G Eriksen, Sophie H Christensen, Mads V Lind, Kim F Michaelsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights relevant studies published between 2015 and 2017 on human milk composition and the association with infant growth. RECENT FINDINGS: High-quality studies investigating how human milk composition is related to infant growth are sparse. Recent observational studies show that human milk concentrations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate likely have important influence on infant growth and body composition. Furthermore, some observational studies examining human milk oligosaccharides and hormone concentrations suggest functional relevance to infant growth...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Ramesh Prasad Pandey, Dae Hee Kim, Jinsuk Woo, Jaeyoung Song, Sang Ho Jang, Joon Bae Kim, Kwang Myun Cheong, Jin Sik Oh, Jae Kyung Sohng
Two sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (SHMOs) 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL) and 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) were accessed for their possible antiviral activity against six different subtypes of thirteen avian influenza (AI) viruses in vitro. 3'-SL exhibited promising antiviral activity against almost all subtypes of tested AI viruses in hemagglutination inhibition assay, whereas 6'-SL showed activity against few selected H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtype strains. 3'-SL has minimum inhibitory concentration values of 15...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daehee Kim, Rit Bahadur Gurung, Wonmin Seo, Albert W Lee, Jinsuk Woo
The safety of 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL) sodium salt was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, in vivo and in vitro clastogenic activity, and animal toxicity in beagle dogs and rats. The results of all mutagenicity and genotoxicity tests were negative, indicating that 3'-SL does not have any mutagenic or clastogenic potential. The mean lethal dose (LD50) of 3'-SL sodium salt was well above 20 g/kg body weight (bw) in rats. A dose escalation acute toxicity study in Beagle dogs also indicated no treatment-related abnormalities...
January 26, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Jingyu Yan, Junjie Ding, Gaowa Jin, Dongping Yu, Long Yu, Zhen Long, Zhimou Guo, Wengang Chai, Xinmiao Liang
Sialylated oligosaccharides are important components in mammalian milk. They play a key role in the health and growth of infants by helping to shape up infant's gastrointestinal microbiota and defense against infection by various pathogenic agents. A detailed knowledge of the structures, compositions, and quantities of the sialylated milk oligosaccharides (SMOs) is a prerequisite for understanding their biological roles. However, due to the presence of very large amounts of lactose and neutral oligosaccharides, accurate analysis of SMOs is difficult...
January 31, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Sehrish Zehra, Ibrahim Khambati, Megan Vierhout, M Firoz Mian, Rachael Buck, Paul Forsythe
There has been increased interest in the use of dietary ingredients, including prebiotics such as human-milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), as therapeutic strategies for food allergy. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of HMOs is important to realizing their therapeutic potential. Here we demonstrate that the HMO, 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL) inhibited chemokine (IL-8 and CCL20) release from T-84 and HT-29 cells stimulated with antigen-antibody complex, TNFα or PGE2 ; an effect that was PPARγ dependent and associated with decreased activity of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFκB...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Maria Wiese, Bekzod Khakimov, Sebastian Nielsen, Helena Sørensen, Frans van den Berg, Dennis Sandris Nielsen
Driven by the growing recognition of the influence of the gut microbiota (GM) on human health and disease, there is a rapidly increasing interest in understanding how dietary components, pharmaceuticals and pre- and probiotics influence GM. In vitro colon models represent an attractive tool for this purpose. With the dual objective of facilitating the investigation of rare and expensive compounds, as well as an increased throughput, we have developed a prototype in vitro parallel gut microbial fermentation screening tool with a working volume of only 5 ml consisting of five parallel reactor units that can be expanded with multiples of five to increase throughput...
2018: PeerJ
Vasily Morozov, Grant Hansman, Franz-Georg Hanisch, Horst Schroten, Clemens Kunz
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are diverse unconjugated carbohydrates that are highly abundant in human breast milk. These glycans are investigated in the context of exhibiting multiple functions in infant growth and development. They seem to provide protection against infectious diseases, including a number of poorly manageable viral infections. Although the potential mechanism of the HMO antiviral protection is rather broad, much of the current experimental work has focused on studying of HMO antiadhesive properties...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Renate Akkerman, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Human milk (HM) is the golden standard for nutrition of newborn infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundantly present in HM and exert multiple beneficial functions, such as support of colonization of the gut microbiota, reduction of pathogenic infections and support of immune development. HMO-composition is during lactation continuously adapted by the mother to accommodate the needs of the neonate. Unfortunately, for many valid reasons not all neonates can be fed with HM and are either totally or partly fed with cow-milk derived infant formulas, which do not contain HMOs...
January 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Silvia Arboleya, Francesca Bottacini, Mary O'Connell-Motherway, C Anthony Ryan, R Paul Ross, Douwe van Sinderen, Catherine Stanton
BACKGROUND: Bifidobacterium longum is a common member of the human gut microbiota and is frequently present at high numbers in the gut microbiota of humans throughout life, thus indicative of a close symbiotic host-microbe relationship. Different mechanisms may be responsible for the high competitiveness of this taxon in its human host to allow stable establishment in the complex and dynamic intestinal microbiota environment. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic and metabolic diversity in a set of 20 B...
January 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
Olaf Perdijk, R J Joost van Neerven, Ben Meijer, Huub F J Savelkoul, Sylvia Brugman
The human milk oligosaccharide 3'sialyllactose (3'SL) has previously been shown to activate murine dendritic cells (DC) in a TLR4-mediated manner ex vivo. In this study we aimed to investigate whether 3'SL has similar immunomodulatory properties on human DC. 3'SL was shown to induce NF-κB activation via human TLR4. However, LPS was detected in the commercially obtained 3'SL from different suppliers. After the removal of LPS from 3'SL, we studied its ability to modify DC differentiation in vitro. In contrast to LPS and 3'SL, LPS-free 3'SL did not induce functional and phenotypical changes on immature DC (iDC)...
December 21, 2017: Glycobiology
Steven A Frese, Andra A Hutton, Lindsey N Contreras, Claire A Shaw, Michelle C Palumbo, Giorgio Casaburi, Gege Xu, Jasmine C C Davis, Carlito B Lebrilla, Bethany M Henrick, Samara L Freeman, Daniela Barile, J Bruce German, David A Mills, Jennifer T Smilowitz, Mark A Underwood
Attempts to alter intestinal dysbiosis via administration of probiotics have consistently shown that colonization with the administered microbes is transient. This study sought to determine whether provision of an initial course of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) would lead to persistent colonization of the probiotic organism in breastfed infants. Mothers intending to breastfeed were recruited and provided with lactation support. One group of mothers fed B. infantis EVC001 to their infants from day 7 to day 28 of life (n = 34), and the second group did not administer any probiotic (n = 32)...
November 2017: MSphere
Amr El-Hawiet, Yajie Chen, Km Shams-Ud-Doha, Elena N Kitova, Pavel I Kitov, Lars Bode, Naim Hage, Franco H Falcone, John S Klassen
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) afford many health benefits to breast-fed infants, such as protection against infection and regulation of the immune system, through the formation of non-covalent interactions with protein receptors. However, the molecular details of these interactions are poorly understood. Here, we describe the application of catch-and-release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) for screening natural libraries of HMOs against lectins. The HMOs in the libraries were first identified based on molecular weights (MWs), ion mobility separation arrival times (IMS-ATs) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) fingerprints of their deprotonated anions...
December 14, 2017: Analyst
Birgitte Zeuner, Jan Muschiol, Jesper Holck, Mateusz Lezyk, Mattias Raae Gedde, Carsten Jers, Jørn Dalgaard Mikkelsen, Anne S Meyer
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) constitute a unique family of bioactive lactose-based molecules present in human breast milk. HMOs are of major importance for infant health and development but also virtually absent from bovine milk used for infant formula. Among the HMOs, the fucosylated species are the most abundant. Transfucosylation catalysed by retaining α-l-fucosidases is a new route for manufacturing biomimetic HMOs. Seven α-l-fucosidases from glycosyl hydrolase family 29 were expressed, characterized in terms of substrate specificity and thermal stability, and shown to be able to catalyse transfucosylation...
March 25, 2018: New Biotechnology
David R Bundle, John McGiven
Brucellosis is a serious zoonotic bacterial disease that is ranked by the World Health Organization among the top seven "neglected zoonoses" that threaten human health and cause poverty. It is a costly, highly contagious disease that affects ruminants, cattle, sheep, goats, and other productive animals such as pigs. Symptoms include abortions, infertility, decreased milk production, weight loss, and lameness. Brucellosis is also the most common bacterial disease that is transmitted from animals to humans, with approximately 500 000 new human cases each year...
December 19, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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