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Human milk oligosaccharides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107288/effects-of-infant-formula-with-human-milk-oligosaccharides-on-growth-and-morbidity-a-randomized-multicenter-trial
#1
Giuseppe Puccio, Philippe Alliet, Cinzia Cajozzo, Elke Janssens, Giovanni Corsello, Norbert Sprenger, Susan Wernimont, Delphine Egli, Laura Gosoniu, Philippe Steenhout
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated effects of infant formula supplemented with 2 human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) on infant growth, tolerance and morbidity. METHODS: Healthy infants, 0-14 days old, were randomized to an intact-protein, cow's-milk-based infant formula (Control, n = 87) or the same formula with 1.0 g/L 2'fucosyllactose (2'FL) and 0.5 g/L lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) (Test, n = 88) from enrollment to 6 months; all infants received standard follow-up formula without HMOs from 6-12 months...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097073/handling-stress-may-confound-murine-gut-microbiota-studies
#2
Cary R Allen-Blevins, Xiaomeng You, Katie Hinde, David A Sela
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO), the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human milk are unable to be endogenously digested by the human infant but are able to be metabolized by certain species of gut microbiota, including Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis), a species sensitive to host stress (Bailey & Coe, 2004). Exposure to gut bacteria like B...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092444/engineering-of-the-bacillus-circulans-%C3%AE-galactosidase-product-specificity
#3
Huifang Yin, Tjaard Pijning, Xiangfeng Meng, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Sander Sebastiaan van Leeuwen
Microbial β-galactosidase enzymes are widely used as biocatalysts in industry to produce prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. GOS mixtures are used as beneficial additives in infant formula to mimic the prebiotic effects of human milk oligosaccharides (hMOS). The structural variety in GOS mixtures is significantly lower than in hMOS. Since this structural complexity is considered as the basis for the multiple biological functions of hMOS, it is important to broaden the variety of GOS structures...
January 16, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091546/prebiotic-galactooligosaccharides-activate-mucin-and-pectic-galactan-utilization-pathways-in-the-human-gut-symbiont-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron
#4
Alicia Lammerts van Bueren, Marieke Mulder, Sander van Leeuwen, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotic carbohydrates that impart changes in the gut bacterial composition of formula-fed infants to more closely resemble that of breast-fed infants. Consuming human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provides specific bacterial strains with an advantage for colonizing the infant intestine. These same effects are seen in infants after GOS consumption, however GOS are very complex mixtures and the underlying molecular mechanisms of how GOS mimic HMOs are relatively unknown. Here we studied the effects of GOS utilization on a prominent gut symbiont, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which has been previously shown to consume HMOs via mucin O-glycan degradation pathways...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079170/growth-and-morbidity-of-gambian-infants-are-influenced-by-maternal-milk-oligosaccharides-and-infant-gut-microbiota
#5
Jasmine C C Davis, Zachery T Lewis, Sridevi Krishnan, Robin M Bernstein, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice, David A Mills, Carlito B Lebrilla, Angela M Zivkovic
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother's HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3'-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933160/post-sensitization-administration-of-non-digestible-oligosaccharides-and-bifidobacterium-breve-m-16v-reduces-allergic-symptoms-in-mice
#6
Betty C A M van Esch, Suzanne Abbring, Mara A P Diks, Gemma M Dingjan, Lucien F Harthoorn, A Paul Vos, Johan Garssen
To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept can reduce an established food allergic response in a research model for hen's egg allergy. Mice were orally sensitized once a week for 5 weeks to ovalbumin (OVA) using cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. Non-sensitized mice received CT in PBS only...
June 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929046/bifidobacterium-breve-ucc2003-metabolises-the-human-milk-oligosaccharides-lacto-n-tetraose-and-lacto-n-neo-tetraose-through-overlapping-yet-distinct-pathways
#7
Kieran James, Mary O'Connell Motherway, Francesca Bottacini, Douwe van Sinderen
In this study, we demonstrate that the prototype B. breve strain UCC2003 possesses specific metabolic pathways for the utilisation of lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), which represent the central moieties of Type I and Type II human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), respectively. Using a combination of experimental approaches, the enzymatic machinery involved in the metabolism of LNT and LNnT was identified and characterised. Homologs of the key genetic loci involved in the utilisation of these HMO substrates were identified in B...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919692/improved-production-of-2-fucosyllactose-in-engineered-escherichia-coli-by-expressing-putative-%C3%AE-1-2-fucosyltransferase-wcfb-from-bacteroides-fragilis
#8
Young-Wook Chin, Ji-Yeong Kim, Jae-Han Kim, Sang-Min Jung, Jin-Ho Seo
2'-Fucosyllactose (2-FL) is one of most abundant oligosaccharides in human milk, which is involved in many biological functions for infant health. Since 2-FL has a great potential in application to functional food materials and pharmaceuticals, several microbial systems for mass production of 2-FL have been developed in recent years. Microbial production of 2-FL was suggested to be influenced by a number of factors including fucosylation activity of α-1,2-fucosyltransferase. In the present study, the wcfB gene coding for α-1,2-fucosyltransferase from Bacteroides fragilis was screened from eleven candidates of putative α-1,2-fucosyltransferase...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889684/human-milk-oligosaccharide-effects-on-intestinal-function-and-inflammation-after-preterm-birth-in-pigs
#9
Stine O Rasmussen, Lena Martin, Mette V Østergaard, Silvia Rudloff, Michael Roggenbuck, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Per T Sangild, Stine B Bering
: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) may mediate prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects in newborns. This is particularly important for preterm infants who are highly susceptible to intestinal dysfunction and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that HMO supplementation of infant formula (IF) improves intestinal function, bacterial colonization and NEC resistance immediately after preterm birth, as tested in a preterm pig model. Mixtures of HMOs were investigated in intestinal epithelial cells and in preterm pigs (n=112) fed IF supplemented without (CON) or with a mixture of four HMOs (4-HMO) or >25 HMOs (25-HMO, 5-10 g/L given for 5 or 11 days)...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851789/dietary-2-fucosyllactose-enhances-operant-conditioning-and-long-term-potentiation-via-gut-brain-communication-through-the-vagus-nerve-in-rodents
#10
Enrique Vazquez, Alejandro Barranco, Maria Ramirez, Agnes Gruart, Jose M Delgado-Garcia, Maria L Jimenez, Rachael Buck, Ricardo Rueda
2´-fucosyllactose (2´-FL) is an abundant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) in human milk with diverse biological effects. We recently reported ingested 2´-FL stimulates central nervous system (CNS) function, such as hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) and learning and memory in rats. Conceivably the effect of 2´-FL on CNS function may be via the gut-brain axis (GBA), specifically the vagus nerve, and L-fucose (Fuc) may play a role. This study had two aims: (1) determine if the effect of ingested 2´-FL on the modulation of CNS function is dependent on the integrity of the molecule; and (2) confirm if oral 2´-FL modified hippocampal LTP and associative learning related skills in rats submitted to bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798342/absolute-quantitation-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-reveals-phenotypic-variations-during-lactation
#11
Gege Xu, Jasmine Cc Davis, Elisha Goonatilleke, Jennifer T Smilowitz, J Bruce German, Carlito B Lebrilla
BACKGROUND: The quantitation of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) is challenging because of the structural complexity and lack of standards. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to rapidly measure the absolute concentrations of HMOs in milk using LC-mass spectrometry (MS) and to determine the phenotypic secretor status of the mothers. METHODS: This quantitative method for measuring HMO concentration was developed by using ultraperformance LC multiple reaction monitoring MS...
January 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798337/similar-to-those-who-are-breastfed-infants-fed-a-formula-containing-2-fucosyllactose-have-lower-inflammatory-cytokines-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Karen C Goehring, Barbara J Marriage, Jeffery S Oliver, Julie A Wilder, Edward G Barrett, Rachael H Buck
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provide multiple benefits to infants, including prebiotic effects, gut maturation, antimicrobial activities, and immune modulation. Clinical intervention studies with HMOs are required to confirm these benefits in infants. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effects of feeding formulas supplemented with the HMO 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) on biomarkers of immune function in healthy term infants...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782805/fucosyllactose-and-l-fucose-utilization-of-infant-bifidobacterium-longum-and-bifidobacterium-kashiwanohense
#13
Vera Bunesova, Christophe Lacroix, Clarissa Schwab
BACKGROUND: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are one of the major glycan source of the infant gut microbiota. The two species that predominate the infant bifidobacteria community, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium bifidum, possess an arsenal of enzymes including α-fucosidases, sialidases, and β-galactosidases to metabolise HMOs. Recently bifidobacteria were obtained from the stool of six month old Kenyan infants including species such as Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense, and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum that are not frequently isolated from infant stool...
October 26, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757792/synthesis-and-purification-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-state-of-the-art
#14
REVIEW
Carlos Vera, Andrés Córdova, Carla Aburto, Cecilia Guerrero, Sebastián Suárez, Andrés Illanes
Lactose-derived non-digestible oligosaccharides are prominent components of functional foods. Among them, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) outstand for being prebiotics whose health-promoting effects are supported on strong scientific evidences, having unique properties as substitutes of human milk oligosaccharides in formulas for newborns and infants. GOS are currently produced enzymatically in a kinetically-controlled reaction of lactose transgalactosylation catalyzed by β-galactosidases from different microbial strains...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756904/a-novel-gene-cluster-allows-preferential-utilization-of-fucosylated-milk-oligosaccharides-in-bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-longum-sc596
#15
Daniel Garrido, Santiago Ruiz-Moyano, Nina Kirmiz, Jasmine C Davis, Sarah M Totten, Danielle G Lemay, Juan A Ugalde, J Bruce German, Carlito B Lebrilla, David A Mills
The infant intestinal microbiota is often colonized by two subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum: subsp. infantis (B. infantis) and subsp. longum (B. longum). Competitive growth of B. infantis in the neonate intestine has been linked to the utilization of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). However, little is known how B. longum consumes HMO. In this study, infant-borne B. longum strains exhibited varying HMO growth phenotypes. While all strains efficiently utilized lacto-N-tetraose, certain strains additionally metabolized fucosylated HMO...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743363/analysis-of-milk-oligosaccharides-by-mass-spectrometry
#16
Lauren D Wu, L Renee Ruhaak, Carlito B Lebrilla
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a highly abundant constituent in human milk, and its protective and prebiotic properties have attracted considerable attention. HMOs have been shown to directly and indirectly benefit the overall health of the infant due to a number of functions including serving as a beneficial food for gut bacteria, block to pathogens, and aiding in brain development. Researchers are currently exploring whether these structures may act as possible disease and nutrition biomarkers. Because of this, rapid-throughput methods are desired to investigate biological activity in large patient sets...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741156/the-role-of-oligosaccharides-in-host-microbial-interactions-for-human-health
#17
Sarah A Ross, Jonathan A Lane, Mariarosaria Marotta, Devon Kavanaugh, Joseph Thomas Ryan, Lokesh Joshi, Rita M Hickey
Milk oligosaccharides have many associated bioactivities which can contribute to human health and offer protective properties to the host. Such bioactivities include anti-infective properties whereby oligosaccharides interact with bacterial cells and prevent adhesion to the host and subsequent colonization. Milk oligosaccharides have also been shown to alter the glycosylation of intestinal cells, leading to a reduction in pathogenic colonization. In addition, these sugars promote adhesion of commensal bacterial strains to host cells as well as possessing the ability to alter mucin expression in intestinal cells and improve barrier function...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719686/oral-supplementation-of-healthy-adults-with-2-o-fucosyllactose-and-lacto-n-neotetraose-is-well-tolerated-and-shifts-the-intestinal-microbiota
#18
Emma Elison, Louise K Vigsnaes, Laura Rindom Krogsgaard, Julie Rasmussen, Nikolaj Sørensen, Bruce McConnell, Thierry Hennet, Morten O A Sommer, Peter Bytzer
The gut microbiota has been established as an important player influencing many aspects of human physiology. Breast milk, the first diet for an infant, contains human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) that shape the infant's gut microbiota by selectively stimulating the growth of specific bacteria, especially bifidobacteria. In addition to their bifidogenic activity, the ability of HMO to modulate immune function and the gut barrier makes them prime candidates to restore a beneficial microbiota in dysbiotic adults and provide health benefits...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714445/human-milk-and-mucosal-lacto-and-galacto-n-biose-synthesis-by-transgalactosylation-and-their-prebiotic-potential-in-lactobacillus-species
#19
Gonzalo N Bidart, Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, Martina Palomino-Schätzlein, Vicente Monedero, María J Yebra
Lacto-N-biose (LNB) and galacto-N-biose (GNB) are major building blocks of free oligosaccharides and glycan moieties of glyco-complexes present in human milk and gastrointestinal mucosa. We have previously characterized the phospho-β-galactosidase GnbG from Lactobacillus casei BL23 that is involved in the metabolism of LNB and GNB. GnbG has been used here in transglycosylation reactions, and it showed the production of LNB and GNB with N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine as acceptors, respectively...
January 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713728/cell-free-spent-media-obtained-from-bifidobacterium-bifidum-and-bifidobacterium-crudilactis-grown-in-media-supplemented-with-3-sialyllactose-modulate-virulence-gene-expression-in-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-salmonella-typhimurium
#20
Pauline Bondue, Sébastien Crèvecoeur, François Brose, Georges Daube, Marie-Christine Seghaye, Mansel W Griffiths, Gisèle LaPointe, Véronique Delcenserie
Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO) possess an antimicrobial activity and can promote the growth of bifidobacteria such as Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. In addition, fermentation of carbohydrates by bifidobacteria can result in the production of metabolites presenting an antivirulence effect on several pathogenic bacteria. Whey is rich in complex bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) structurally similar to HMO and B. crudilactis, a species of bovine origin, is able to metabolize some of those complex carbohydrates...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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