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Human milk oligosaccharides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787815/two-extracellular-sialidases-from-bifidobacterium-bifidum-promote-the-degradation-of-sialyl-oligosaccharides-and-support-the-growth-of-bifidobacterium-breve
#1
Keita Nishiyama, Aki Nagai, Kazuya Uribayashi, Yuji Yamamoto, Takao Mukai, Nobuhiko Okada
We investigated the roles of extracellular sialidases (SiaBb1 and SiaBb2) in cross-feeding between sialidase-carrying Bifidobacterium bifidum and sialic acid-utilizing Bifidobacterium breve. Using 6' sialyllactose (6'SL) as a carbon source, the number of wild-type B. bifidum cells increased while that of a siabb2-inactivated strain (Δsiabb2) did not. Coculture of these two strains in the presence of 6'SL resulted in similar increase in cell numbers. Coculture of wild-type B. bifidum, but not the Δsiabb2 strain, with sialic acid-utilizing Bifidobacterium breve, which cannot release sialic acids from carbohydrates, in the presence of 6'SL increased the number of B...
May 19, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787377/the-effects-of-inulin-and-fructo-oligosaccharide-on-the-probiotic-properties-of-lactobacillus-spp-isolated-from-human-milk
#2
Şener Tulumoğlu, Belgin Erdem, Ömer Şimşek
This study aims to determine the effects of inulin and fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on the probiotic properties of five Lactobacillus spp. isolated from human milk. Lactobacillus spp. were isolated and identified, and the growth characteristics, acid and bile salt tolerance, antagonistic effects, and cholesterol assimilation of Lactobacillus strains were investigated in the presence of inulin and FOS. Lactobacillus casei L1 was able to utilize inulin and FOS as carbon source as well as glucose even other strains were able to use, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG...
May 22, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751628/the-double-face-of-mucin-type-o-glycans-in-lectin-mediated-infection-and-immunity
#3
REVIEW
Vasily Morozov, Julia Borkowski, Franz-Georg Hanisch
Epithelial human blood group antigens (HBGAs) on O-glycans play roles in pathogen binding and the initiation of infection, while similar structures on secretory mucins exert protective functions. These double-faced features of O-glycans in infection and innate immunity are reviewed based on two instructive examples of bacterial and viral pathogens. Helicobacter pylori represents a class 1 carcinogen in the human stomach. By expressing blood group antigen-binding adhesin ( BabA ) and LabA adhesins that bind to Lewis-b and LacdiNAc, respectively, H...
May 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745223/capillary-electrophoresis-analysis-of-bovine-milk-oligosaccharides-permits-an-assessment-of-the-influence-of-diet-and-the-discovery-of-nine-abundant-sulfated-analogues
#4
Sara Vicaretti, Nina Mohtarudin, Alexander Garner, Wesley F Zandberg
Bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMOs), like their analogues in human milk, have important prebiotic functions. Environmental factors have previously been linked to variation in BMO structures, thus to test the hypothesis that the bovine diet may lead to these changes in relative BMO abundances, a rapid capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based work flow was developed to profile the BMOs extracted from the milk of cows fed distinctly different diets. Over the first week of lactation, few significant differences were observed between the different diet groups, with the dominant changes being clearly linked to lactation period...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740087/the-lactose-operon-from-lactobacillus-casei-is-involved-in-the-transport-and-metabolism-of-the-human-milk-oligosaccharide-core-2-n-acetyllactosamine
#5
Gonzalo N Bidart, Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, Gaspar Pérez-Martínez, María J Yebra
The lactose operon (lacTEGF) from Lactobacillus casei strain BL23 has been previously studied. The lacT gene codes for a transcriptional antiterminator, lacE and lacF for the lactose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate: phosphotransferase system (PTSLac ) EIICB and EIIA domains, respectively, and lacG for the phospho-β-galactosidase. In this work, we have shown that L. casei is able to metabolize N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc), a disaccharide present at human milk and intestinal mucosa. The mutant strains BL153 (lacE) and BL155 (lacF) were defective in LacNAc utilization, indicating that the EIICB and EIIA of the PTSLac are involved in the uptake of LacNAc in addition to lactose...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732363/human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-associations-with-immune-mediated-disease-and-infection-in-childhood-a-systematic-review
#6
Alice M Doherty, Caroline J Lodge, Shyamali C Dharmage, Xin Dai, Lars Bode, Adrian J Lowe
Complex sugars found in breastmilk, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), may assist in early-life immune programming and prevention against infectious diseases. This study aimed to systematically review the associations between maternal levels of HMOs and development of immune-mediated or infectious diseases in the offspring. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched (last search on 22 February 2018) according to a predetermined search strategy. Original studies published in English examining the effect of HMOs on immune-mediated and infectious disease were eligible for inclusion...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717409/synthesis-of-a-fucosylated-trisaccharide-via-transglycosylation-by-%C3%AE-l-fucosidase-from-thermotoga-maritima
#7
Francisco Guzmán-Rodríguez, Sergio Alatorre-Santamaría, Lorena Gómez-Ruiz, Gabriela Rodríguez-Serrano, Mariano García-Garibay, Alma Cruz-Guerrero
Fucosylated oligosaccharides, such as 2'-fucosyllactose in human milk, have important biological functions such as prebiotics and preventing infection. In this work, the effect of an acceptor substrate (lactose) and the donor substrate 4-nitrophenyl-α-L-fucopyranoside (pNP-Fuc) on the synthesis of a fucosylated trisaccharide was studied in a transglycosylation reaction using α-L-fucosidase from Thermotoga maritima. Conducting a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), it was demonstrated that synthesized oligosaccharide corresponded to a fucosylated trisaccharide, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the hydrolyzed compound confirmed it was fucosyllactose...
May 2, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703739/-tuf-gene-sequence-variation-in-bifidobacterium-longum-subspecies-infantis-detected-in-the-fecal-microbiota-of-chinese-infants
#8
Blair Lawley, Manuela Centanni, Jun Watanabe, Ian Sims, Susan Carnachan, Roland Broadbent, Pheng Soon Lee, Khai Hong Wong, Gerald W Tannock
Members of the bacterial genus Bifidobacterium generally dominate the faecal microbiota of infants. The species B. longum is prevalent, but the subspecies longum and infantis that are known to colonize the infant bowel are not usually differentiated in microbiota investigations. These subspecies differ in their capacity to metabolize Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) and may have differing ecological and symbiotic roles in humans. Quantitative PCR provides a quick analytical method by which to accurately ascertain the abundances of target species in microbiotas and microcosms...
April 27, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678922/enzymatic-synthesis-of-6-sialyllactose-a-dominant-sialylated-human-milk-oligosaccharide-by-a-novel-exo-%C3%AE-sialidase-from-bacteroides-fragilis-nctc9343
#9
Longcheng Guo, Xiaodi Chen, Li Xu, Min Xiao, Lili Lu
Gut bacteria provide a rich source of glycosidases that can recognize and/or hydrolyze glycans for nutritions. Interestingly, some glycosidases are also found to catalyze transglycosylation reactions in vitro and thus can be used for oligosaccharide synthesis. In this work, six putative and one known exo -α-sialidase genes, including three from Bacteroides fragilis NCTC9343, three from Clostridium perfringens ATCC13124, and one known from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254, were subjected to gene cloning and heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli The recombinant enzymes were purified, characterized for substrate specificity, and screened for transglycosylation activity...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657964/vive-la-persistence-engineering-human-microbiomes-in-the-21st-century
#10
Katrine L Whiteson
I imagine a future in which children grow up with healthy microbial communities. Engineering human microbiomes might actually be achievable in the near future, as we enter an era of hunting for human-adapted bacterial strains and phages. Furthermore, breath metabolites could allow us to track whether a probiotic colonizes persistently or a phage has knocked down a microbe of interest. Recent successes with probiotics, such as bifidobacteria that can break down human milk oligosaccharides, are making a future in which infants are intentionally colonized with health-promoting strains seem less unlikely...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624421/human-milk-oligosaccharides-at-the-interface-of-maternal-infant-health
#11
Lars Bode
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624419/multidisciplinary-studies-on-rotavirus-human-milk-oligosaccharide-interactions
#12
Sasirekha Ramani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599768/mother-s-milk-a-purposeful-contribution-to-the-development-of-the-infant-microbiota-and-immunity
#13
REVIEW
Kirsty Le Doare, Beth Holder, Aisha Bassett, Pia S Pannaraj
Breast milk is the perfect nutrition for infants, a result of millions of years of evolution. In addition to providing a source of nutrition, breast milk contains a diverse array of microbiota and myriad biologically active components that are thought to guide the infant's developing mucosal immune system. It is believed that bacteria from the mother's intestine may translocate to breast milk and dynamically transfer to the infant. Such interplay between mother and her infant is a key to establishing a healthy infant intestinal microbiome...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593719/human-milk-oligosaccharide-2-fucosyllactose-improves-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-in-an-influenza-specific-murine-vaccination-model
#14
Ling Xiao, Thea Leusink-Muis, Nienke Kettelarij, Ingrid van Ark, Bernadet Blijenberg, Nienke A Hesen, Bernd Stahl, Saskia A Overbeek, Johan Garssen, Gert Folkerts, Belinda Van't Land
Background: Human milk is uniquely suited to provide optimal nutrition and immune protection to infants. Human milk oligosaccharides are structural complex and diverse consisting of short chain and long chain oligosaccharides typically present in a 9:1 ratio. 2'-Fucosyllactose (2'FL) is one of the most prominent short chain oligosaccharides and is associated with anti-infective capacity of human milk. Aim: To determine the effect of 2'FL on vaccination responsiveness (both innate and adaptive) in a murine influenza vaccination model and elucidate mechanisms involved...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593138/-milk-daily-products-and-bone-health-the-effect-of-lactulose-on-bone-health
#15
Yohei Sakai
Lactulose is a non-digestible oligosaccharide, consisting of galactose and fructose. Bifidobacteria in the large intestine assimilate and metabolize lactulose, which has not been degraded or absorbed by humans, and they subsequently proliferate. Predominant bifidobacteria release short chain fatty acids, such as acetic acid and lactic acid, into the intestinal tract by lactulose metabolization, which lowers the intraluminal pH. As a result, the calcium that has flowed into the large intestine without absorption in the small intestine is solubilized and absorbed in the large intestine...
2018: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580136/milk-glycans-and-their-interaction-with-the-infant-gut-microbiota
#16
Nina Kirmiz, Randall C Robinson, Ishita M Shah, Daniela Barile, David A Mills
Human milk is a unique and complex fluid that provides infant nutrition and delivers an array of bioactive molecules that serve various functions. Glycans, abundant in milk, can be found as free oligosaccharides or as glycoconjugates. Milk glycans are increasingly linked to beneficial outcomes in neonates through protection from pathogens and modulation of the immune system. Indeed, these glycans influence the development of the infant and the infant-gut microbiota. Bifidobacterium species commonly are enriched in breastfed infants and are among a limited group of bacteria that readily consume human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and milk glycoconjugates...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580007/functional-characterization-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-item-17215-a-potential-biocontrol-agent-of-fungi-with-plant-growth-promoting-traits-able-to-enhance-the-nutritional-value-of-cereal-products
#17
Mattia Quattrini, Cristian Bernardi, Milda Stuknytė, Fabio Masotti, Alessandro Passera, Giovanni Ricci, Lisa Vallone, Ivano De Noni, Milena Brasca, Maria Grazia Fortina
In this work, we explored the potential of 25 Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from cereals and milk-based products, testing characteristics related to antifungal activity and to nutritional quality. The tested strains demonstrated interesting beneficial traits, such as the ability to utilize fructo-oligosaccharides, prebiotic substances that help probiotic microorganisms to grow in the human gut, and to reduce phytate, an antinutrient present in cereal sector. Regarding mould inhibition, we highlighted the ability of the strains to inhibit Penicillium roqueforti, Mucor circinelloides and mycotoxinogenic moulds associated with cereal grains as Aspergillus flavus, A...
April 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562795/breast-milk-oligosaccharides-effects-of-2-fucosyllactose-and-6-sialyllactose-on-the-adhesion-of-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-fyris-to-caco-2-cells
#18
Bruna Facinelli, Emanuela Marini, Gloria Magi, Lucia Zampini, Lucia Santoro, Carlo Catassi, Chiara Monachesi, Orazio Gabrielli, Giovanni V Coppa
BACKGROUND: It is well known that human milk oligosaccharides play an important role as prebiotics, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infective agents. In the last few years, several studies have been performed using specific oligosaccharides, such as 2'-fucosyllactose and 6'-sialylactose, to evaluate their biological functions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-adhesive effect of the above oligosaccharides on Escherichia coli and Salmonella fyris...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549280/characterization-of-porcine-milk-oligosaccharides-over-lactation-between-primiparous-and-multiparous-female-pigs
#19
Jinhua Wei, Zhuo A Wang, Bing Wang, Marefa Jahan, Zhongfu Wang, Peter C Wynn, Yuguang Du
Milk oligosaccharides (MOs) are complex carbohydrates with multifunctional health benefits for the neonate. Poor reproductive performance in primiparous gilts limits their productivity. Changes in the structure and abundance of porcine MO (PMOs) through lactation with parity remains unknown and may explain superior new-born growth in litters from multiparous sows relative to gilts. We report 55 PMOs structures, of which 25 are new (17 sialylated and 8 neutral). Their incidence in gilt and sow colostrum was almost identical (53 vs...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541730/cryogenic-ir-spectroscopy-combined-with-ion-mobility-spectrometry-for-the-analysis-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides
#20
Neelam Khanal, Chiara Masellis, Michael Z Kamrath, David E Clemmer, Thomas R Rizzo
We report here our combination of cryogenic, messenger-tagging, infrared (IR) spectroscopy with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and mass spectrometry (MS) as a way to identify and analyze a set of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) ranging from trisaccharides to hexasaccharides. The added dimension of IR spectroscopy provides a diagnostic fingerprint in the OH and NH stretching region, which is crucial to identify these oligosaccharides, which are difficult to distinguish by IMS alone. These results extend our previous work in demonstrating the generality of this combined approach for distinguishing subtly different structural and regioisomers of glycans of biologically relevant size...
April 16, 2018: Analyst
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