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neuroinfection in HIV

Karkal Ravishankar Naik, Aralikatte Onkarappa Saroja, Darshan Kiran Doshi
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis is an important and a fatal neuroinfection. Early diagnosis and treatment is of utmost importance in reducing morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with laboratory-confirmed cryptococcal meningitis seen in tertiary care hospital were reviewed. Details of demographic profile, clinical data, laboratory parameters, complications, and in-hospital mortality were studied. RESULTS: Among 97 patients with cryptococcal meningitis (79 men, 18 women), 88 were HIV-positive, two were diabetic, and seven were sporadic...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Pavol Beno, Alzbeta Kaiglova, Martin Samohyl
HIV Infection resulting in AIDS remains serious global public health problem. In the fight with the global health problem plays a key role a simple, reliable and fast diagnostics. An important method in diagnostics is the identification and detection of viral capside p24 antigen levels. Fourth generation tests for the diagnostics of HIV infection simultaneously detect the presence of HIV antibodies and p24 antigen. Based on the monitoring of CD4 count, we can estimate the stage in which the infection is, and we can also suggest a therapeutic approach...
January 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Jijin Gu, Karam Al-Bayati, Emmanuel A Ho
RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing offers a novel treatment and prevention strategy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV was found to infect and replicate in human brain cells and can cause neuroinfections and neurological deterioration. We designed dual-antibody-modified chitosan/small interfering RNA (siRNA) nanoparticles to deliver siRNA across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) targeting HIV-infected brain astrocytes as a strategy for inhibiting HIV replication. We hypothesized that transferrin antibody and bradykinin B2 antibody could specifically bind to the transferrin receptor (TfR) and bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R), respectively, and deliver siRNA across the BBB into astrocytes as potential targeting ligands...
August 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Jo M Wilmshurst, Kirsten A Donald, Brian Eley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent research findings of neurologic complications in HIV-infected children, specifically addressing neuroinfections, cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy and neurocognitive complications. The range of neurologic childhood onset complications is diverse and often overlaps diseases previously considered only to manifest in adults. In the pediatric population, these complications frequently have their own unique disease identity, which may be related to maturational patterns evident in the developing brain...
November 2014: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Rashmi Munivenkataswamy, Anjana Gopi, Shaik Mohammed Usman, Jagadeesh
CONTEXT: Cryptococcal meningitis has emerged as a leading cause of the infectious morbidity and mortality in HIV sero-reactive subjects and it is the second most common cause of the opportunistic neuroinfections in it. As this is a indistinguishable from other causes of meningitis, its early diagnosis is the key to the therapeutic success. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to know the incidence of Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV sero-reactive individuals and to assess the role of the microbiological parameters in its specific diagnosis, with a perspective of evaluating the anti-fungal resistance...
August 2013: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Ivan Szabo, Nada Kulkova, Jaroslava Sokolova, Gertruda Mikolasova, Jozef Suvada, Andrea Kalavska, Silvia Dobrodenkova, Frantisek Mateicka, Jirina Kafkova, Innocent Nkonwa
OBJECTIVE: Many infections occurring in area of Sub-Saharan Africa are associated with more or less serious neurologic symptoms or complications. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of selected infectious diseases in the equatorial part of Uganda and Kenya and to monitor potential neurological complications of these infections. METHODS: The study was performed for May - August 2008. Patients suffering from cerebral malaria, AIDS, meningitis, typhoid, tuberculosis (TB), syphilis, leprosy, and trypanosomiasis patients were enrolled...
September 2013: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Moses Kimon Kiwou, Rosario Lanetti, Veronika Sladeckova, Andrea Kalavska, George J Benca, Jaroslava Sokolova, Nada Kulkova, Silvia Dobrodenkova, Gertruda Mikolasova, Johanson Mawole Mzwan, John Mutuku Muli, Pavlina Bukovinova, Jaroslava Kralova, Alexandra Mamova
OBJECTIVE: Infections involving the central nervous system have very serious consequences and affect thousands of people in Africa. Despite the availability of new antibiotics and vaccines, neuroinfections act as dangerous and life-threatening conditions. The most frequent neuroinfections which are of the greatest importance for public health systems are viral diseases (such as HIV, encephalitis, poliomyelitis, rabies), bacterial diseases (bacterial meningitis, neurological complications of leprosy and tuberculosis) and parasitic infections (cerebral malaria, sleeping sickness, trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis, toxoplasmosis etc...
September 2013: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Cristina S Meira, José E Vidal, Thais A Costa-Silva, Gabriela Motoie, Ricardo Gava, Roberto M Hiramoto, Vera L Pereira-Chioccola
Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common neurological opportunistic disease manifested in HIV infected patients. Excretory/secretory antigens (ESA) are serological markers for the diagnosis of reactivation of the infection in HIV-infected patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis. Immunosuppressed patients develop high antibody titers for ESA. However, little is known about the humoral response for these antigens. The present study analyzed the profile of antibody recognition against ESA in comparison with tachyzoite lysate antigen (TLA) in 265 sera and 270 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from infected patients with Toxoplasma gondii and or HIV and in sera of 50 healthy individuals...
September 30, 2013: Journal of Immunological Methods
Paulo E Marchiori, Angelina M M Lino, Luis R Machado, Livia M Pedalini, Marcos Boulos, Milberto Scaff
OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to characterize the neuroinfection profile in a tertiary neurological ward. INTRODUCTION: Neuroinfection is a worldwide concern and bacterial meningitis, tetanus and cerebral malaria have been reported as the commonest causes in developing countries. METHODS: From 1999 to 2007, all patients admitted to the Neurology Ward of Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University School of Medicine because of neuroinfection had their medical records reviewed...
2011: Clinics
Andrzej Grudzień, Anna Kuźniar, Małgorzata Kołaczkowska, Anna Huzior-Bałajewicz, Zofia Mitkowska, Jacek Józef Pietrzyk
Wide spectrum of infectious causes should be considered while diagnosing febrile states in infants.The aim of study is to present the case of 3-month-old infant with febrile states. Boy was admitted to Department of Pediatrics to Infant Unit because of the febrile states lasting for 4 weeks. Perinatal history: first pregnancy, cesarean section in 39 weeks of gestation due to mother's pointed condyloma, birth weight 3140 g, Apgar score 10 in first minute. There was no information about the course of pregnancy, mother's diseases, father was unknown...
2010: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Agam Jung, Ashok Raman, Macpherson Mallewa, Tom Solomon
In this article, British neurologists share their experiences of neurology in Malawi--as educators and researchers. Malawi is a resource-poor country in Central Africa. The spectrum of neurological illnesses is varied and primarily related to HIV and neuroinfections. Structured overseas training programmes for residents can lead to academic exchange with mutual benefit. New links can be established which can then be used to launch international health initiatives. Such visits can also lead to the development of institutional links, the fostering of which can have a role in the achievement of the global health agenda...
December 2009: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Cynthia Pamela Alatorre-Fernández, Juan Pablo Venzor-Castellanos, Jassive Adriana Contreras-Cabrera, Abel Fuentes-venegas, Elvira Castro-Martínez
HIV infection is a major risk factor for tuberculosis. We describe the case of a 30-year-old male presenting with headache, compromised mental status, seizures, neck stiffness and fever that was subsequently diagnosed with HlV and neuroinfection. Clinical data, cerebrospinal fluid and brain imaging supported a diagnosis of neurotuberculosis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse arachnoidal enhancement, mainly at the basal cisterns and cortical encephalitis. Such imaging findings play a key role in the diagnosis of central nervous system tuberculosis...
May 2009: Gaceta Médica de México
M Soumaré, M Seydi, S A Diop, C T Ndour, N Faye, N Fall, Y Dieng, B M Diop, P S Sow
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study was carried out to describe the epidemiological, clinical and aetiological profile of parasitic and fungal neuroinfections at the Infectious Diseases Clinic in Fann Teaching Hospital in Dakar. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected for analysis from patients files recorded from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003. RESULTS: We found 126 cases of parasitic and fungal neuroinfections, representing 62% of the total of neuroinfections cases (126/203) and 27% of cerebro-meningeal diseases encountered at the clinic during the study period (126/470)...
2009: Le Mali Médical
S K Shankar, Anita Mahadevan, P Satishchandra, R Uday Kumar, T C Yasha, Vani Santosh, A Chandramuki, V Ravi, Avindra Nath
Neurological manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS are being recognized with a frequency that parallels the increasing number of AIDS cases. Next to sub-Saharan Africa, India has the second largest burden of HIV related pathology, essentially caused by HIV-1 clade C in both the geographic locales, in contrast to USA and Europe. But the true prevalence of HIV related neuroinfections and pathology is not available due to inadequate medical facilities, social stigma and ignorance that lead to underdiagnosis...
April 2005: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Rafael Medina-Flores, Guoji Wang, Stephanie J Bissel, Michael Murphey-Corb, Clayton A Wiley
Disruption of the perineuronal matrix has been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis. To better understand the extent of matrix disruption during lentiviral encephalitis, we characterized the extracellular matrix (ECM) damage in brains of 12 macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Matrix integrity was assessed by Wisteria floribunda lectin histochemistry. Confocal microscopy was used to quantify matrix loss, macrophage infiltration, and synaptic damage. Disruption of brain ECM was present shortly after retroviral infection, preceding parenchymal macrophage infiltration...
August 2004: Neurobiology of Disease
P Satishchandra, A Nalini, M Gourie-Devi, N Khanna, V Santosh, V Ravi, A Desai, A Chandramuki, P N Jayakumar, S K Shankar
One hundred patients (95 males, 5 females, mean age at presentation 31.6 +/- 9.4 yr) with various neurological disorders associated with HIV infection during 1989-1996 were evaluated at NIMHANS, Bangalore. Eighty patients belonged to group I associated with opportunistic neuroinfections and 20 to group II--non infectious neurological disorders. Cryptococcal meningitis either alone (n = 31) or associated with tuberculous meningitis (n = 6) was the most common (46.3%) followed by neurotuberculosis either alone (n = 24) or with cerebral toxoplasmosis (n = 4) accounting for 35 per cent...
January 2000: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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