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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561294/high-hiv-seroconversion-rate-in-hcv-infected-drug-users-followed-in-a-harm-reduction-unit-a-lost-opportunity-for-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#1
Jorge Valencia, Pablo Ryan, Alejandro Alvaro-Meca, Jesus Troya, Jorge Gutierrez, Guillermo Cuevas, Santiago Moreno
OBJECTIVES: Current harm reduction strategies will probably remain insufficient to eliminate HIV transmission among drug users. We aimed to estimate the HIV seroconversion rate among drug users followed at a Harm Reduction Unit (HRU) to evaluate the potential use of PrEP as a prevention tool. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cohort of drug users have been followed at a HRU in Madrid between 2013 and 2016. Individuals who were HIV-negative at baseline and who had at least one re-test for HIV infection were eligible...
March 20, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526383/update-on-the-management-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-infections-in-the-neonatal-period
#2
REVIEW
Claudia M Espinosa, Ravi Jhaveri
Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus have received a significant amount of attention in recent years, and both viruses share a significant amount of similarities with one another beyond just that they both primarily target the liver. In recent years, cases of both infections have been fueled by a nationwide epidemic of injection drug use. Most relevant to this audience, they are both transmitted from mother to child. The increased cases in young adults combined with mother to child transmission translate into more exposed infants that will need to be managed and followed...
March 8, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507971/direct-acting-antiviral-prophylaxis-in-kidney-transplantation-from-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-donors-to-noninfected-recipients-an-open-label-nonrandomized-trial
#3
Christine M Durand, Mary G Bowring, Diane M Brown, Michael A Chattergoon, Guido Massaccesi, Nichole Bair, Russell Wesson, Ashraf Reyad, Fizza F Naqvi, Darin Ostrander, Jeremy Sugarman, Dorry L Segev, Mark Sulkowski, Niraj M Desai
Background: Given the high mortality rate for patients with end-stage kidney disease receiving dialysis and the efficacy and safety of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments, discarded kidneys from HCV-infected donors may be a neglected public health resource. Objective: To determine the tolerability and feasibility of using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) as prophylaxis before and after kidney transplantation from HCV-infected donors to non-HCV-infected recipients (that is, HCV D+/R- transplantation)...
March 6, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447988/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-agents-targeting-lymphoid-cells-surface-antigens-i-cd19-cd20-and-cd52
#4
REVIEW
Małgorzata Mikulska, Simone Lanini, Carlota Gudiol, Lubos Drgona, Giuseppe Ippolito, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Bernd Salzberger
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting CD19, CD20 and CD52 and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415584/management-of-chronic-viral-hepatitis-in-the-hematological-patient
#5
Laura Ambra Nicolini, Emanuela Zappulo, Claudio Viscoli, Malgorzata Mikulska
Infection with HBV and HCV represents a growing challenge in the management of patients with hematological malignancies. Recently, hepatitis E (HEV) was recognized as an endemic infection in developed countries and as an emerging health problem in immunocompromised patients. Areas covered: We reviewed the current knowledge on the impact of chronic viral hepatitis in the hematological setting. Epidemiological features, screening strategies and indications for treatment and monitoring have been explored and commented...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413884/epidemiological-investigation-and-analysis-of-the-ns5b-gene-and-protein-variability-of-non-primate-hepacivirus-in-several-horse-cohorts-in-rio-de-janeiro-state-brazil
#6
Andreza Soriano Figueiredo, Elisabeth Lampe, Pedro Pereira Lira Furtado de Albuquerque, Flávia Löwen Levy Chalhoub, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Livia Melo Villar, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Marcelo Alves Pinto, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira
Among the hepacivirus species recently described, the non-primate hepacivirus/hepacivirus A found in horses and donkeys is closely related to the human hepatitis C virus (HCV). Therefore, the equine is an attractive surrogate large animal model for the study of HCV therapy, pathogenesis and prophylaxis. Despite global efforts, epidemiological and genetic studies have not elucidated the risk factors, virus distribution or genetic variability of the hepacivirus A, which are also important issues for the equine welfare...
January 30, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394918/expanded-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-implementation-in-communities-in-new-south-wales-australia-epic-nsw-design-of-an-open-label-single-arm-implementation-trial
#7
Iryna B Zablotska, Christine Selvey, Rebecca Guy, Karen Price, Jo Holden, Heather-Marie Schmidt, Anna McNulty, David Smith, Fengyi Jin, Janaki Amin, David A Cooper, Andrew E Grulich
BACKGROUND: The New South Wales (NSW) HIV Strategy 2016-2020 aims for the virtual elimination of HIV transmission in NSW, Australia, by 2020. Despite high and increasing levels of HIV testing and treatment since 2012, the annual number of HIV diagnoses in NSW has remained generally unchanged. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV infection among gay and bisexual men (GBM) when taken appropriately. However, there have been no population-level studies that evaluate the impact of rapid PrEP scale-up in high-risk GBM...
February 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391309/role-of-nucleoside-nucleotide-analogues-and-low-dose-hepatitis-b-immune-glob%C3%A3-lin-in-prophylaxis-of-hepatitis-b-recurrence-among-cadaveric-liver-transplant-recipients
#8
Tokunbo Ajayi, Harry Luu, Behnam Saberi, James P Hamilton, Bugra Tolga Konduk, Burak Özşeker, Kawtar Al Khalloufi, Aliaksei Pustavoitau, Benjamin Philosophe, Andrew M Cameron, Ahmet Gürakar
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) positivity of the donor or the recipient may pose a risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation following liver transplantation (LT). We retrospectively investigated patient survival and reactivation among recipients who were given low-dose Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (HBIG) plus antiviral agent (AV) versus AV only. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records of cadaveric LT recipients, between 2013 and 2016, with positive Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and/or HBcAb and recipients who had received LT from HBcAb-positive donors were reviewed...
January 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379004/pneumomediastinum-and-pneumothorax-associated-with-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-pneumonia
#9
Fermín López-Rivera, Xavier Colón Rivera, Hernán A González Monroig, Juan Garcia Puebla
BACKGROUND Pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death from infectious disease in the United States (US). Although most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are secondary to bacterial infection, up to one-third of cases are secondary to viral infection, most commonly due to rhinovirus and influenza virus. Pneumonia due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is rare, and there is limited knowledge of the pathogenesis and clinical complications. This report is of a fatal case of HSV pneumonia associated with bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371017/hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-during-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Marcus M Mücke, Lisa I Backus, Victoria T Mücke, Nicola Coppola, Carmen M Preda, Ming-Lun Yeh, Lydia S Y Tang, Pamela S Belperio, Eleanor M Wilson, Ming-Lung Yu, Stefan Zeuzem, Eva Herrmann, Johannes Vermehren
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection might pose a risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients coinfected with chronic or resolved HBV infection. The need for HBV antiviral prophylaxis during DAA treatment remains controversial. We aimed to analyse the absolute risk of HBV reactivation in patients with active or resolved HBV infection treated with DAAs for HCV infection. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science from Oct 1, 2010, to Sept 30, 2017, to identify studies of patients with chronic or resolved HBV infection at baseline treated with DAAs for chronic HCV infection...
January 19, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290909/influence-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-the-development-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#11
Suelen A S Miozzo, Jorge A John, Marcelo C Appel-da-Silva, Isabella A Dossin, Cristiane V Tovo, Angelo A Mattos
AIM: To investigate whether the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increases the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. METHODS: An historical cohort study was carried out in cirrhotic outpatients with ascites followed in a specialized clinic at a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. Patient charts were reviewed to collect information on the variables of interest as the use of PPIs. Primary outcome was defined as development of SBP during the study period...
December 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239887/incidence-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-before-and-after-preexposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv
#12
Vinh-Kim Nguyen, Zoë R Greenwald, Helen Trottier, Martha Cadieux, Alexandre Goyette, Mariève Beauchemin, Louise Charest, Danièle Longpré, Stéphane Lavoie, Hermione Gbego Tossa, Réjean Thomas
OBJECTIVE: Use of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV raises concerns about sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence because of decreased condom use among MSM. This study examines whether PrEP is associated with STIs in the 12 months following PrEP prescription relative to the 12 months prior to PrEP and if STI rates are higher among PrEP users relative to individuals receiving postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study including PrEP users with more than 12 months of follow-up before PrEP prescription and individuals receiving PEP from 2010 to 2015 at Clinique l'Actuel (Montréal, Canada)...
February 20, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105629/designing-and-molecular-docking-of-cyclic-peptides-against-hcv-ns3-protease
#13
Muhammad Shareef Masoud, Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Muhammad Qasim, Syed Ali Raza Naqvi, Usman A Ashfaq
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide serious health issue which contributes towards most of the hepatic morbidities. So far no prophylaxis is available to prevent this virus; therefore, development of antiviral compounds to fight HCV infection is the need of time. Chemically synthesized peptides that are potent immunogenic antigens are being pursued as candidate vaccines against HCV. The present study was planned to identify peptide inhibitors having potential to block the activity of NS3 protein of HCV that will ultimately arrest HCV multiplication...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933179/-infectious-complications-related-to-liver-transplants
#14
Vladimír Mejzlík, Libuše Husová, Milan Kuman, Soňa Štěpánková, Jiří Ondrášek, Petr Němec
Infection is a feared complication in the process of transplantation. The study discusses sources of infection, screening of infection and risk factors for infection, time occurrence of individual infections during the peritransplantation and posttransplantation course. It describes the most frequent forms of bacterial, viral and mycotic infections. It specifies efficient prophylactic measures that considerably reduce the risk of infection following liver transplantation.Key words: bacterial infection - cytomegalovirus (CMV) - EB virus (EBV) - hepatitis B (HBV) - hepatitis C (HCV) - liver transplantation - mycotic infection prophylaxis - risk factors - viral infection...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872284/hbv-or-hcv-and-pregnancy
#15
Tadeusz Wojciech Łapiński
Despite effective anti-HBV prophylaxis, cases of acute and chronic inflammation are still occurring, including among pregnant women. Studies in Asia suggest considering antiviral treatment among pregnant women with viremia above 10 log6 copies / ml. Current guidelines exclude the use of caesarean section as a method to reduce the likelihood of neonatal infection. At the same time, there are no grounds to ban the breastfeeding of a baby born to an HBV-infected mother. HCV infection can adversely affect the course of pregnancy...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856289/recommendations-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-b-in-2017
#16
REVIEW
Robert Flisiak, Waldemar Halota, Jerzy Jaroszewicz, Jacek Juszczyk, Piotr Małkowski, Małgorzata Pawłowska, Anna Piekarska, Krzysztof Simon, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska
The therapeutic goal which is currently unfrequent but realistic in HBV infected patients is sustained HBsAg clearance. It is preceded by the loss or significant suppression of HBV replication and leads to inhibition of the progression of liver fibrosis, normalization of biochemical indicators of liver damage, reduction in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, prolongation of survival, prevention of HBV infection in the transplanted organ in post-transplant patients, enhancement of the quality of life, inhibition or reversal of extrahepatic changes associated with HBV infection, and halting of the spread of HBV infections...
June 2017: Clinical and experimental hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718228/early-initiation-of-beta-blockers-following-primary-endoscopic-therapy-for-bleeding-oesophageal-varices-in-cirrhotics
#17
Adnan Salim, Kashif Malik, Muhammad Omer Farooq, Umair Butt, Arshad Kamal Butt, Altaf Alam
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Beta-blockers provide secondary prophylaxis following endoscopic therapy for variceal bleeding. Guidelines recommend starting beta-blockers 6 days after endoscopy to prevent masking hemodynamic signs of re-bleeding. We aimed to see safety of earlier initiation of betablockers. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients with upper GI bleed were given intravenous vasoactive agents until undergoing endoscopy. Patients with only oesophageal varices as source of bleed were recruited...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657964/msm-starting-preexposure-prophylaxis-are-at-risk-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Elske Hoornenborg, Roel C A Achterbergh, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Udi Davidovich, Arjan Hogewoning, Henry J C de Vries, Janke Schinkel, Maria Prins, Thijs J W van de Laar
OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been recognized as an emerging sexually transmitted infection (STI) among HIV-positive MSM. However, HIV-negative MSM at high risk for HIV might also be at increased risk for HCV. We studied the HCV prevalence in HIV-negative MSM who start preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in Amsterdam. Phylogenetic analysis was used to compare HCV strains obtained from HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM. METHODS: At enrolment in the Amsterdam PrEP demonstration project, HIV-negative MSM were tested for the presence of HCV antibodies and HCV RNA...
July 17, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657199/interprep-internet-based-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-with-generic-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtrictabine-in-london-analysis-of-pharmacokinetics-safety-and-outcomes
#19
X Wang, N Nwokolo, R Korologou-Linden, A Hill, G Whitlock, I Day-Weber, M O McClure, M Boffito
OBJECTIVES: The National Health Service in England (NHS England) does not provide pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, forcing people to purchase generic versions on the internet. However, there are concerns about the authenticity of medicines purchased online. We established an innovative service offering plasma tenofovir (TFV) and emcitrabine (FTC) therapeutic drug monitoring for people buying generic PrEP online, to ensure that drug concentrations in vivo were consistent with those of propriety brands and previously published data...
January 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631044/-personalized-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis-of-the-present-and-the-future-hepatitis%C3%A2-b-c-delta-and-e
#20
REVIEW
R Bartenschlager, M Cornberg, T Pietschmann
Precision medicine is also possible for infectious diseases as shown for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, especially if different options are available. In hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, treatment indication as well as the choice of treatment and the decisions to stop treatment are based on viral markers and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Future therapies for HBV infection aiming for functional cure or even virus elimination may be even more personalized and have to take into account the immune status of a given patient...
July 2017: Der Internist
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