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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066999/transplant-infectious-diseases-a-review-of-the-scientific-registry-of-transplant-recipients-published-data
#1
Camille N Kotton, Shirish Huprikar, Deepali Kumar
The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) serves to collect data on organ transplants done in the United States. Although the infectious diseases data are limited and include mostly pretransplant serologies and other non-specific infection related outcomes, such multicenter data collection allows for insightful national data and the ability to monitor trends over time. We reviewed the published concise reports for each organ type in SRTR reports containing data from 2005-2014, and summarized our findings with respect to cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodefiency virus (HIV), general infection, and prophylaxis...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052618/the-future-of-liver-transplantation-for-viral-hepatitis
#2
REVIEW
François Durand, Claire Francoz
In hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, transplantation can be justified by decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or both. During the last decade, HCV infection accounted for about 30% of the indications for transplantation in Europe and North America. Direct antiviral agents (DAAs) are highly effective at curing HCV, even in patients with end-stage cirrhosis. In the future, the incidence of HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis will continue to decrease. The incidence of HCC will also decrease, but a large cohort of patients with cirrhosis will still be at risk of developing HCC even after HCV has been cured...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999325/pharmacokinetics-of-the-antiviral-lectin-griffithsin-administered-by-different-routes-indicates-multiple-potential-uses
#3
Christopher Barton, J Calvin Kouokam, Harrell Hurst, Kenneth E Palmer
Griffithsin (GRFT) is a red alga-derived lectin with demonstrated broad spectrum antiviral activity against enveloped viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2). However, its pharmacokinetic profile remains largely undefined. Here, Sprague Dawley rats were administered a single dose of GRFT at 10 or 20 mg/kg by intravenous, oral, and subcutaneous routes, respectively, and serum GRFT levels were measured at select time points...
December 17, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918880/racial-differences-in-hiv-and-hcv-risk-behaviors-transmission-and-prevention-knowledge-among-non-treatment-seeking-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder
#4
Verena E Metz, Maria A Sullivan, Jermaine D Jones, Elizabeth Evans, Rachel Luba, Jonathan Vogelman, Sandra D Comer
In light of New York's recently reinforced strategy to end the AIDS epidemic by expanding testing, treatment, and access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), we assessed drug use and sexual risk behaviors, along with HIV/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission and prevention knowledge among non-treatment-seeking adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) in New York City. Over the course of 18 months, volunteers screening for research studies in the Opioid Laboratory at the New York State Psychiatric Institute completed a locally developed self-assessment questionnaire...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905669/secondary-prophylaxis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-the-comparison-of-direct-acting-antivirals-with-pegylated-interferon-and-untreated-cohort
#5
R Vukotic, R Di Donato, F Conti, A Scuteri, C Serra, P Andreone
During the past two decades, several studies showed reduced rates of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis after interferon-based antiviral therapies respect to untreated controls, even without reaching viral clearance. The recent development of new all-oral regimens with direct-acting antivirals has radically improved the therapeutic management of hepatitis C. Nevertheless, paradoxical, or at least unexpected, high rates of both occurrence and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after a treatment with direct-acting antivirals, have been reported in the recent literature...
January 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862662/prevalence-and-severity-by-age-and-other-clinical-correlates-of-haemophilic-arthropathy-of-the-elbow-knee-and-ankle-among-taiwanese-patients-with-haemophilia
#6
C-Y Chang, T-Y Li, S-N Cheng, R-Y Pan, H-J Wang, S-Y Lin, Y-C Chen
INTRODUCTION & AIMS: Haemophilic arthropathy (HA) is a major complication in patients with haemophilia (PWH), but the study of age-specific prevalence and severity of HA is very limited in Asian countries. MATERIALS & METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed 146 severe- and moderate-type Taiwanese PWH aged 4-73 years, with roentgenograms of elbows, knees and ankles and calculated Pettersson scores. RESULTS: The prevalence of HA, mean number of HAs per patient and mean Pettersson scores of all the joints were 42...
November 8, 2016: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815292/editorial-commentary-decision-science-at-work-the-case-of-hepatitis-c-virus-postexposure-prophylaxis
#7
EDITORIAL
Joshua A Barocas, Benjamin P Linas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789574/emerging-viral-stis-among-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-the-era-of-hepatitis-c-virus-and-human-papillomavirus
#8
REVIEW
Thijs Jw van de Laar, Olivier Richel
The number of infectious disease outbreaks and the number of unique pathogens responsible have significantly increased since the 1980s. HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are a vulnerable population with regards to the introduction, spread and clinical consequences of (newly introduced) STIs. After the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), the incidence of sexually acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced anal cancers have significantly increased among HIV-positive MSM...
October 27, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730445/hiv-and-bone-complications-understudied-populations-and-new-management-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Michael T Yin, Todd T Brown
The higher risk of osteoporosis and fracture associated with HIV infection and certain antiretrovirals has been well established and the need for risk stratification among older adults increasingly recognized. This review focuses upon emerging data on bone complications with HIV/HCV coinfection, in children and adolescents, and with pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), as well as new management strategies to minimize the negative effects of ART on bone.
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688651/epidemiology-of-hepatitis-c-in-greece
#10
REVIEW
Christos Triantos, Christos Konstantakis, Paraskeui Tselekouni, Maria Kalafateli, Ioanna Aggeletopoulou, Spilios Manolakopoulos
Hepatitis C is a global health issue and constitutes a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In this article, a comprehensive literature search was conducted for the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Greece, since data on the HCV prevalence, viremia and genotypes are important for developing strategies to manage or eliminate HCV infection. In addition, the pattern of HCV infection was analyzed according to the geographic region and the risk factors. These differences reflect not only distinct epidemiological characteristics among populations, but also differences on the strategy of data acquisition and quantification...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682067/hepatitis-c-virus-postexposure-prophylaxis-in-the-healthcare-worker-why-direct-acting-antivirals-don-t-change-a-thing
#11
Susanna Naggie, David P Holland, Mark S Sulkowski, David L Thomas
Currently, 380 000-400 000 occupational exposures to blood-borne pathogens occur annually in the United States. The management for occupational HIV or hepatitis B virus exposures includes postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) when necessary; however, PEP is not recommended for hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposures. Recent approval of HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has renewed discussions as to whether these therapies could be used to prevent infection after exposure. There are no published studies addressing this question, but the prescribing of DAAs for PEP has been reported...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662570/infections-and-vasculitis
#12
Konstantinos Thomas, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent evidence for infection rates in patients with systemic vasculitides, the role of specific infectious agents in the pathogenesis of vasculitis and recent breakthroughs in the treatment of virus-associated vasculitides. RECENT FINDINGS: In well designed recent studies, infections were found to be common during the first 6-12 months in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) and to contribute significantly to increased mortality during this period...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605880/management-of-psoriasis-patients-with-hepatitis-b-or-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#13
REVIEW
Claudio Bonifati, Viviana Lora, Dario Graceffa, Lorenzo Nosotti
The systemic therapies available for the management of Psoriasis (PsO) patients who cannot be treated with more conservative options, such as topical agents and/or phototherapy, with the exception of acitretin, can worsen or reactivate a chronic infection. Therefore, before administering immunosuppressive therapies with either conventional disease-modifying drugs (cDMARDs) or biological ones (bDMARDs) it is mandatory to screen patients for some infections, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515145/occupational-health-update-focus-on-preventing-the-acquisition-of-infections-with-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-postexposure-prophylaxis
#14
REVIEW
David J Weber, William A Rutala
Health care personnel are commonly exposed to infectious agents via sharp injuries (eg, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus), direct patient care (eg, pertussis and meningococcus), and the contaminated environment (eg, Clostridium difficile). An effective occupational program is a key aspect of preventing acquisition of an infection by offering the following: (1) education of health care personnel regarding proper handling of sharps, early identification and isolation of potentially infectious patients, and hand hygiene; (2) assuring immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases; and, (3) immediate availability of a medical evaluation after a nonprotected exposure to an infectious disease...
September 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496480/dynamic-elastography-in-diagnostics-of-liver-fibrosis-in-patients-after-liver-transplantation-due-to-cirrhosis-in-the-course-of-hepatitis-c
#15
N Mikołajczyk-Korniak, O Tronina, K Ślubowska, A Perkowska-Ptasińska, M Pacholczyk, T Bączkowska, M Durlik
BACKGROUND: Assessment of the dynamics and degree of liver fibrosis in patients after liver transplantation is a basic element in the process of determining transplant survival prognosis. It allows planning and early initiation of prophylaxis or treatment, which translates into increased chances of preventing cirrhosis and of long-term optimal function of the graft. The aim of this study was to compare the results of biopsy and dynamic elastography in diagnostics of transplanted liver fibrosis, as well as determination of the stiffness cut-off point for assessment of significant fibrosis...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413727/pre-and-post-transplant-antiviral-therapy-hbv-hcv
#16
REVIEW
Martin-Walter Welker, Stefan Zeuzem
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV)- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated liver cirrhosis is a major indication for liver transplantation. This concise review gives an overview about current interferon (IFN)-free treatment options before and after liver transplantation in HBV- or HCV-associated liver disease. METHODS: A PubMed database search using the terms hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis, and liver transplantation was performed to identify significant clinical studies as well as national and international guidelines...
April 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306563/postexposure-prophylaxis-after-hepatitis-c-occupational-exposure-in-the-interferon-free-era
#17
Heather Y Hughes, David K Henderson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Healthcare personnel are at risk for occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens. Primary prevention remains the first line of defense, but secondary prevention measures known to be effective should be implemented when percutaneous exposures occur. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major infectious cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Chronic HCV treatment has changed dramatically, with many all-oral directly acting anti-HCV antiviral (DAA) regimens now available...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272189/complete-hepatitis-b-virus-prophylaxis-withdrawal-in-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-positive-liver-transplant-recipients-after-longterm-minimal-immunosuppression
#18
Ilaria Lenci, Leonardo Baiocchi, Laura Tariciotti, Daniele Di Paolo, Martina Milana, Francesco Santopaolo, Tommaso Maria Manzia, Luca Toti, Valentina Svicher, Giuseppe Tisone, Carlo Federico Perno, Mario Angelico
Tailored approaches have been attempted to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) reinfection in antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive liver transplantation (LT) recipients in order to minimize the use of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and nucleoside analogues (NAs). We report the results of complete HBV prophylaxis withdrawal after a follow-up of at least 6 years in LT recipients with undetectable serum HBV DNA and intrahepatic total HBV DNA and covalently closed circular DNA at LT. We included 30 HBsAg positive, hepatitis B e antigen-negative recipients, 6 with hepatitis C virus and 7 with hepatitis D virus coinfection, who had received HBIG plus NA for at least 5 years after LT...
September 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27029124/-viral-hepatitis-c-evolution-of-the-epidemiologic-process-evolution-of-the-virus
#19
REVIEW
A B Zhebrun, O V Kalinina
Periodization of the evolution of epidemic process of hepatitis C is given based on the results of phylodynamic, phylogeographic, historic and demographic studies: invasion of the virus into European and North-American population in 1700-1850; primary activation of the epidemic process in the years of the World War 1; expansive giowth of prevalence in 40--60s of the 20th century due to mass parenteral interventions; new rise due to heroine drug abuse in 60--80s of the 20th century; manifold reduction of incidence of acute hepatitis C in industrial countries for the last 10-15 years as a result of general medical measures of prevention of hemocontact infec-tions...
January 2016: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26950999/-immunopathogenesis-of-occult-infection-caused-by-hepatitis-b-virus
#20
REVIEW
T A Semenenko, A P Suslov
The concept of occult infection caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is determined as the presence of HBV DNA in blood sera or liver with the absence of detectable HBsAg. The actuality of this problem is associated with the fact, that occult hepatitis B (OHB) can be transmitted during hemotransfusions, cause reactivation of chronic hepatitis B in immune compromised individuals, facilitate development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several different hypotheses of OHB immunopathogenesis have been proposed, including a low number of copies of HBV DNA, altered immune response of the macroorganism, genetic variability of the S gene, integration of viral DNA into host genome, infection of mononuclear cells of peripheral blood, presence of immune complexes that hide HBsAg, and interference by other viruses such as HCV and HIV...
November 2015: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
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