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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718228/early-initiation-of-beta-blockers-following-primary-endoscopic-therapy-for-bleeding-oesophageal-varices-in-cirrhotics
#1
Adnan Salim, Kashif Malik, Muhammad Omer Farooq, Umair Butt, Arshad Kamal Butt, Altaf Alam
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Beta-blockers provide secondary prophylaxis following endoscopic therapy for variceal bleeding. Guidelines recommend starting beta-blockers 6 days after endoscopy to prevent masking hemodynamic signs of re-bleeding. We aimed to see safety of earlier initiation of betablockers. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients with upper GI bleed were given intravenous vasoactive agents until undergoing endoscopy. Patients with only oesophageal varices as source of bleed were recruited...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657964/msm-starting-preexposure-prophylaxis-are-at-risk-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#2
Elske Hoornenborg, Roel C A Achterbergh, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Udi Davidovich, Arjan Hogewoning, Henry J C de Vries, Janke Schinkel, Maria Prins, Thijs J W van de Laar
OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been recognized as an emerging sexually transmitted infection (STI) among HIV-positive MSM. However, HIV-negative MSM at high risk for HIV might also be at increased risk for HCV. We studied the HCV prevalence in HIV-negative MSM who start preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in Amsterdam. Phylogenetic analysis was used to compare HCV strains obtained from HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM. METHODS: At enrolment in the Amsterdam PrEP demonstration project, HIV-negative MSM were tested for the presence of HCV antibodies and HCV RNA...
July 17, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657199/interprep-internet-based-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-with-generic-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtrictabine-in-london-analysis-of-pharmacokinetics-safety-and-outcomes
#3
X Wang, N Nwokolo, R Korologou-Linden, A Hill, G Whitlock, I Day-Weber, M O McClure, M Boffito
OBJECTIVES: The National Health Service in England (NHS England) does not provide pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, forcing people to purchase generic versions on the internet. However, there are concerns about the authenticity of medicines purchased online. We established an innovative service offering plasma tenofovir (TFV) and emcitrabine (FTC) therapeutic drug monitoring for people buying generic PrEP online, to ensure that drug concentrations in vivo were consistent with those of propriety brands and previously published data...
June 28, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631044/-personalized-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis-of-the-present-and-the-future-hepatitis%C3%A2-b-c-delta-and-e
#4
REVIEW
R Bartenschlager, M Cornberg, T Pietschmann
Precision medicine is also possible for infectious diseases as shown for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, especially if different options are available. In hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, treatment indication as well as the choice of treatment and the decisions to stop treatment are based on viral markers and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Future therapies for HBV infection aiming for functional cure or even virus elimination may be even more personalized and have to take into account the immune status of a given patient...
June 19, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598793/croi-2017-highlights-of-advances-in-viral-hepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#5
Anne F Luetkemeyer, David L Wyles
At the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle, Washington, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was a major focus in the context of HIV-associated liver disease. Well-tolerated direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have enabled effective treatment of the populations that are hardest to cure, including those with decompensated cirrhosis, and many studies examined the impact of HCV cure on hepatitis and extrahepatic outcomes. Scaling up access to DAA, and the impact that their universal availability can have on reducing prevalence were key topics...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495497/risk-for-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-reactivation-in-patients-with-psoriasis-on-biologic-therapies-a-retrospective-cohort-study-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Igor Snast, Lihi Atzmony, Marius Braun, Emmilia Hodak, Lev Pavlovsky
BACKGROUND: Patients with psoriasis on biologic therapies and a history of viral hepatitis carry a risk for reactivation. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated safety of biologic therapies in psoriasis patients seropositive for hepatitis B or C viruses (HBV, HCV). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design was used. Clinical and laboratory data for 30 patients undergoing biologic therapy who were seropositive for HBV or HCV were evaluated. Next, a systematic review was performed...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492440/diskitis-osteomyelitis-spinal-epidural-abscess-meningitis-and-endocarditis-following-sacroiliac-joint-injection-for-the-treatment-of-low-back-pain-in-a-patient-on-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus
#7
Geeta Nagpal, John P Flaherty, Honorio T Benzon
OBJECTIVE: Sacroiliac joint injections are frequently performed procedures in the management of acute and chronic low-back pain, including patients with various immunocompromised states. Infectious complications following these procedures along with other spinal injections are rarely reported, but the true incidence is unknown. The purpose of this report is to highlight the devastating neurologic sequela that can occur, and to discuss potential future management strategies. CASE REPORT: We present a patient who developed diskitis, osteomyelitis, spinal epidural abscess, meningitis, and endocarditis from Staphylococcus aureus, all of which developed shortly after a sacroiliac joint injection...
July 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463878/men-who-have-sex-with-men-starting-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-are-at-risk-of-hcv-infection-evidence-from-the-amsterdam-prep-study
#8
Elske Hoornenborg, Roel C A Achterbergh, Maarten F Schim Van Der Loeff, Udi Davidovich, Arjan Hogewoning, Henry J C de Vries, Janke Schinkel, Maria Prins, Thijs J W van de Laar
OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been recognised as an emerging sexually transmitted infection (STI) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). However, HIV-negative MSM at high risk for HIV might also be at increased risk for HCV. We studied the HCV prevalence in HIV-negative MSM who start pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in Amsterdam. Phylogenetic analysis was used to compare HCV strains obtained from HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM. METHODS: At enrolment in the Amsterdam PrEP (AMPrEP) demonstration project, HIV-negative MSM were tested for the presence of HCV antibodies and HCV RNA...
May 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449921/seroconversion-rate-among-health-care-workers-exposed-to-hiv-contaminated-body-fluids-the-university-of-pittsburgh-13-year-experience
#9
Chibueze A Nwaiwu, Francesco M Egro, Saundra Smith, Jay D Harper, Alexander M Spiess
BACKGROUND: The studies enumerating the risk of HIV transmission to health care workers (HCWs) as 0.3% after percutaneous exposure to HIV-positive blood, and 0.09% after a mucous membrane exposure, are weakened by dated literature. Our study aims to demonstrate the seroconversion rate after exposure to HIV-contaminated body fluids in a major academic center in the United States. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database of reported occupational injuries occurring between 2002 and 2015 at an academic medical center was analyzed...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437794/hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-associated-with-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-a-review-of-cases-reported-to-the-u-s-food-and-drug-administration-adverse-event-reporting-system
#10
REVIEW
Susan J Bersoff-Matcha, Kelly Cao, Mihaela Jason, Adebola Ajao, S Christopher Jones, Tamra Meyer, Allen Brinker
Background: Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are used increasingly to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Reports were published recently on hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation (HBV-R) in patients with HBV-HCV co-infection. Hepatitis B virus reactivation, defined as an abrupt increase in HBV replication in patients with inactive or resolved HBV infection, may result in clinically significant hepatitis. Objective: To assess whether HBV-R is a safety concern in patients receiving HCV DAAs...
June 6, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397205/assessment-of-the-implementation-of-the-infectious-diseases-screening-programmes-among-pregnant-women-in-the-lesser-poland-region-and-comparison-with-similar-programmes-conducted-in-other-european-union-countries
#11
Małgorzata Radoń-Pokracka, Maciej Piasecki, Alicja Lachowska, Sebastian Baczkowski, Joanna Spaczyńska, Magdalena Górecka, Magdalena Nowak, Hubert Huras
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the level of implementation of recommendations of the Ministry of Health regarding infectious disease screening during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 477 patients who were admitted to the delivery room between December 2015 and February 2016. Data on screening test results were collected based on medical records covering the period before the admission. RESULTS: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screening was conducted in 410 (86%)...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229205/-spectrum-of-pathogens-in-postoperative-complications-of-visceral-surgery-the-problem-of-multidrug-resistance
#12
A Kramer, J Pochhammer, P Walger, U Seifert, M Ruhnke, J C Harnoss
In general surgery the etiology of surgical site infections has not significantly changed over the last 30 years. Gram-positive bacteria, e.g. coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. as well as Gram-negative bacteria, e.g. Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are the most common findings. Although in general surgery 10% of the S. aureus causing postoperative wound infections were methicillin resistant (MRSA), no cases of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MRGN) bacteria were reported...
May 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166729/is-it-still-worthwhile-to-perform-quarterly-cd4-t-lymphocyte-cell-counts-on-hiv-1-infected-stable-patients
#13
Antonio Di Biagio, Marta Ameri, Davide Sirello, Giovanni Cenderello, Enrico Di Bella, Lucia Taramasso, Barbara Giannini, Mauro Giacomini, Claudio Viscoli, Giovanni Cassola, Marcello Montefiori
BACKGROUND: In the last 20 years routine T CD4+ lymphocyte (CD4+) cell count has proved to be a key factor to determine the stage of HIV infection and start or discontinue of prophylaxis for opportunistic infections. However, several studies recently showed that in stable patients on cART a quarterly CD4+ cell count monitoring results in limited (or null) clinical relevance. The research is intended to investigate whether performing quarterly CD4+ cell counts in stable HIV-1 patients is still recommendable and to provide a forecast of the cost saving that could be achieved by reducing CD4+ monitoring in such a category of patients...
February 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140702/antiviral-therapies-for-managing-viral-hepatitis-in-lymphoma-patients
#14
REVIEW
Michele Merli, Sara Rattotti, Manuel Gotti, Luca Arcaini
In patients with lymphoma the detection of positive hepatitis B or C viruses (HBV and HCV) serology involves crucial therapeutic consequences. In HBV-infected patients the serological profile of active (HBsAg-positive) or resolved (HBsAg-negative/anti-HBcAb-positive) infection is associated to differential risk of viral reactivation during rituximab-based therapy and require appropriate strategies of monitoring and of antiviral prophylaxis. In HCV-associated NHL patients consolidated data demonstrated that interferon (IFN)-based antiviral therapy (AT) is able to induce lymphoma regression strictly related to viral eradication, while preliminary data of the new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are very promising...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096056/common-issues-in-the-management-of-patients-in-the-waiting-list-and-after-liver-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
Patrizia Burra, Luca Saverio Belli, Stefano Ginanni Corradini, Riccardo Volpes, Marco Marzioni, Edoardo Giannini, Pierluigi Toniutto
The present document contains the recommendations of an expert panel of transplant hepatologists, appointed by the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF), on how to manage the most common aspects of liver transplantation: the topics covered include: new treatments for HCV in patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation; antiviral treatments in patients with HCV recurrence after liver transplantation; prophylaxis for HBV recurrence after liver transplantation; indications for liver transplantation in alcoholic liver disease; and Immunosuppressive therapy...
December 31, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066999/transplant-infectious-diseases-a-review-of-the-scientific-registry-of-transplant-recipients-published-data
#16
REVIEW
C N Kotton, S Huprikar, D Kumar
The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) serves to collect data on organ transplants performed in the United States. Although the infectious diseases data are limited and include mostly pretransplant serologies and other nonspecific infection-related outcomes, this multicenter data collection allows for insightful national data and the ability to monitor trends over time. We reviewed the published concise reports for each organ type in SRTR reports containing data from 2005 to 2014, and summarized our findings with respect to cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), HIV, general infection, and prophylaxis...
June 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052618/the-future-of-liver-transplantation-for-viral-hepatitis
#17
REVIEW
François Durand, Claire Francoz
In hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, transplantation can be justified by decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or both. During the last decade, HCV infection accounted for about 30% of the indications for transplantation in Europe and North America. Direct antiviral agents (DAAs) are highly effective at curing HCV, even in patients with end-stage cirrhosis. In the future, the incidence of HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis will continue to decrease. The incidence of HCC will also decrease, but a large cohort of patients with cirrhosis will still be at risk of developing HCC even after HCV has been cured...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999325/pharmacokinetics-of-the-antiviral-lectin-griffithsin-administered-by-different-routes-indicates-multiple-potential-uses
#18
Christopher Barton, J Calvin Kouokam, Harrell Hurst, Kenneth E Palmer
Griffithsin (GRFT) is a red alga-derived lectin with demonstrated broad spectrum antiviral activity against enveloped viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2). However, its pharmacokinetic profile remains largely undefined. Here, Sprague Dawley rats were administered a single dose of GRFT at 10 or 20 mg/kg by intravenous, oral, and subcutaneous routes, respectively, and serum GRFT levels were measured at select time points...
December 17, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918880/racial-differences-in-hiv-and-hcv-risk-behaviors-transmission-and-prevention-knowledge-among-non-treatment-seeking-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder
#19
Verena E Metz, Maria A Sullivan, Jermaine D Jones, Elizabeth Evans, Rachel Luba, Jonathan Vogelman, Sandra D Comer
In light of New York's recently reinforced strategy to end the AIDS epidemic by expanding testing, treatment, and access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), we assessed drug use and sexual risk behaviors, along with HIV/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission and prevention knowledge among non-treatment-seeking adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) in New York City. Over the course of 18 months, volunteers screening for research studies in the Opioid Laboratory at the New York State Psychiatric Institute completed a locally developed self-assessment questionnaire...
January 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905669/secondary-prophylaxis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-the-comparison-of-direct-acting-antivirals-with-pegylated-interferon-and-untreated-cohort
#20
R Vukotic, R Di Donato, F Conti, A Scuteri, C Serra, P Andreone
During the past two decades, several studies showed reduced rates of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis after interferon-based antiviral therapies respect to untreated controls, even without reaching viral clearance. The recent development of new all-oral regimens with direct-acting antivirals has radically improved the therapeutic management of hepatitis C. Nevertheless, paradoxical, or at least unexpected, high rates of both occurrence and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after a treatment with direct-acting antivirals, have been reported in the recent literature...
January 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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