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Sepsis renal function neonatal

Sílvia M Illamola, Catherine M Sherwin, J G Coen van Hasselt
Amikacin plays a key role in the treatment of severe hospital-acquired infections with Gram-negative bacteria. Therapeutic use of amikacin is challenged by high inter-individual variability (IIV) combined with a narrow therapeutic spectrum. Pediatric patients represent a particularly fragile population where adequate dosing is crucial yet challenging to achieve due significant IIV associated with developmental processes and other factors. The current review provides an overview of parametric population pharmacokinetic analyses of amikacin in pediatric patients and associated patient-specific determinants of IIV...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
X Zhang, X F Ru, Y Wang, X Li, T Sang, Q Feng
OBJECTIVE: To study the characteristics of neonatal fungal sepsis and the difference between bacterial sepsis and fungal sepsis. To improve the understanding of neonatal fungal sepsis. METHODS: Clinical data of neonatal fungal sepsis in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were collected from 2011 to 2016 in Peking University first Hospital. The clinical characteristics were analyzed retrospectively. The difference between neonatal fungal sepsis and bacterial sepsis was also analyzed...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Arun Sundaram, Belal Alshaikh, Deonne Dersch-Mills, Jenna Dobry, Albert R Akierman, Kamran Yusuf
PURPOSE: Extended-interval dosing (EID) regimens of gentamicin have been validated for treating confirmed or suspected early- and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants in the first week of life. Despite the marked changes in volume of distribution and renal clearance in preterm infants after the first few days of life, few studies have validated EID regimens of gentamicin in this population. The objective of the study was to evaluate an EID regimen of gentamicin in infants born at <32 weeks' gestational age and aged >7 days...
June 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
K Gary Magdesian
Neonatal foals are at high risk of developing sepsis, which can be life-threatening. Early antimicrobial use is a critical component of the treatment of sepsis. Because the neonatal foal has unique pharmacologic physiology, antimicrobial choice and dosing are often different than in adult horses. Broad-spectrum, bactericidal, and intravenous antimicrobials should be considered first-line therapy for septic foals. A combination of aminoglycoside and beta-lactam antimicrobial or third-generation cephalosporin is an excellent empirical first choice for treating septic foals, until culture and susceptibility results are available...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Hitesh Soni, Adebowale Adebiyi
Apoptosis of renal tubular and glomerular cells during kidney disease involves activation of Fas ligand (FasL)-dependent death pathway. The significance of FasL in neonates with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) is unresolved, but an increase in renal FasL production, and/or infiltration of circulating FasL into the kidneys may occur following initial septic insult. Here, we examined whether soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) levels are altered during early phase of septic AKI in neonates. Six hours of polymicrobial sepsis elicited by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (a bacteremia and sepsis marker) concentration in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated neonatal pigs...
November 2017: Renal Failure
Benjamin M Hammer, Allison B Lardieri, Jill A Morgan
OBJECTIVES: Because of increases in antimicrobial resistance, the use of vancomycin in late-onset sepsis has come under scrutiny. The primary outcome of this study was to determine if vancomycin for the treatment of late-onset sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was being discontinued within 72 hours according to the existing protocol. Secondary outcomes included the appropriateness of therapeutic drug monitoring associated with vancomycin, and renal dysfunction associated with the use of vancomycin in the NICU outside of the 72-hour policy...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
A Krishna, R Singh, N Prasad, A Gupta, D Bhadauria, A Kaul, R K Sharma, D Kapoor
Pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury (PAKI) is encountered frequently in developing countries. We evaluated the maternal, fetal and renal outcomes in women with PAKI who needed at least one session of dialysis. Of the total of 98 cases (mean age 28.85 ± 5.13 years; mean parity 2.65 ± 1.28) of PAKI, the most common cause of PAKI was postabortal sepsis. Eighteen patients died; those with oligoanuria, sepsis and central nervous system (CNS) involvement were at greater risk of mortality. The relative risk (RR) of neonatal mortality was lower after with full-term delivery (RR: 0...
March 2015: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Licia Peruzzi, Roberto Bonaudo, Alessandro Amore, Federica Chiale, Maria Elena Donadio, Luca Vergano, Rosanna Coppo
Neonatal sepsis due to E. coli is often complicated by multiple organ failure (MOF) and a high mortality risk. We report the case of a term newborn discharged in good condition who suddenly fell into septic shock after 11 days and required immediate resuscitation, volume expansion and a high-dosage amine infusion. Extremely severe metabolic acidosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with diffuse bleeding, and unstable hemodynamic status with oliguria turned into strict anuria, and the patient became anuric...
May 2014: Case Reports in Nephrology and Urology
Serdar Alan, Duran Yildiz, Omer Erdeve, Ufuk Cakir, Dilek Kahvecioglu, Emel Okulu, Can Ates, Begum Atasay, Saadet Arsan
OBJECTIVES: To describe the efficacy of intravenous colistin on clinical and microbiological outcomes in preterm infants with nosocomial sepsis in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and define adverse events observed with this treatment. METHODS: The records of preterm infants who received colistin with or without positive cultures in the NICU were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were evaluated for response to therapy and side effects. RESULTS: A total of 21 preterm infants with medians of 28 weeks (23-36) gestational age and 870 g (620-2,650) birth weight were included...
December 2014: American Journal of Perinatology
Kee Thai Yeo, Archana Priyadarshi, Srinivas Bolisetty
A 6-week-old ex-25-week gestation male infant developed candidal sepsis with subsequent bilateral acute obstructive nephropathy that was not responsive to intravenous antifungal therapy. Bilateral percutaneous nephrotomies were performed and irrigation with fluconazole started. Owing to the persistence of the candidaemia and left renal obstruction, streptokinase was administered through the nephrostomy with eventual resolution of obstruction and improvement in his kidney function. This case report discusses the use of the streptokinase therapy as an adjunct therapy in the clearance of fungal bezoars...
2013: BMJ Case Reports
Fatih Bolat, Serdar Comert, Guher Bolat, Oznur Kucuk, Emrah Can, Ali Bulbul, Hasan Sinan Uslu, Asiye Nuhoglu
BACKGROUND: Although advances in perinatal medicine have increased the survival rates of critically ill neonates, acute kidney injury (AKI) is still one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of AKI and analyze demographic data and risk factors associated with the mortality or morbidity. METHODS: Of 1992 neonates hospitalized between January 2009 and January 2011, 168 with AKI were reviewed in the study...
November 2013: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Luiza Fortunato Visconti, Samira Saady Morhy, Alice D'Agostini Deutsch, Gláucia Maria Penha Tavares, Tatiana Jardim Mussi Wilberg, Felipe de Souza Rossi
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and echocardiographic parameters associated with the evolution of the ductus arteriosus in neonates with birth weight lower than 1,500g. METHODS: Retrospective study of 119 neonates in which clinical parameters (Prenatal: maternal age, risk of infection and chorioamnionitis, use of corticosteroid, mode of delivery and gestational age. Perinatal: weight, Apgar score, gender and birth weight/gestational age classification; Postnatal: use of surfactant, sepsis, fluid intake, heart murmur, heart rate, precordial movement and pulses, use of diuretics, oxygenation index, desaturation/apnea, ventilatory support, food intolerance, chest radiography, renal function, hemodynamic instability, and metabolic changes) and echocardiographic parameters (ductus arteriosus diameter, ductus arteriosus/weight ratio, left atrium/ aorta ratio, left ventricular diastolic diameter, and transductal flow direction, pattern and velocity) were analyzed...
July 2013: Einstein
Shahzad Najeeb, Azhar Munir Qureshi, Anis-ur-Rehman, Fayaz Ahmad, Sher Shah, Asfand Yar Khan, Tahir Saeed Siddiqui
BACKGROUND: Neonatal seizures (NS) affect approximately 1% of neonates. Clonic, tonic, myoclonic and subtle seizures are the common types. Birth asphyxia, sepsis, metabolic derangements, intracranial bleed, kernicterus, tetanus and 5th day fits are the common aetiologies. This study was planned to evaluate the types and causes of neonatal seizures. METHODS: It was a descriptive case series conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from 12th December 2006 to 25th September 2007 on neonates having seizures...
January 2012: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Kapil Kapoor, Mamta Jajoo, Vikas Dabas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence, etiology, outcome, and predictors of mortality in neonates with Acute Renal Failure (ARF) in an out born Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of India. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of case records of out born neonates, who had ARF at admission or developed ARF during NICU stay, from January to December 2011 (one year) was done. FINDINGS: Out of the total 456 neonates admitted during the study period, 44 (9...
June 2013: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Rodney D Gilbert, Priya Sukhtankar, Katherine Lachlan, Darren J Fowler
BACKGROUND: Dominant polycystic kidney disease is common and usually presents clinically in adulthood. Recessive polycystic kidney disease is much less common and frequently presents antenatally or in the neonatal period with severe renal involvement. These are usually thought of as clinically distinct entities but diagnostic confusion is not infrequent. CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: We describe an infant with antenatally diagnosed massive renal enlargement and oligohydramnios with no resolvable cysts on ultrasound scanning...
November 2013: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Yogavijayan Kandasamy, Roger Smith, Ian M R Wright
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of acute kidney injury in neonates is high and associated with up to a 50% mortality rate. The purpose of this review was to determine the feasibility of using serum cystatin C measurements to assist clinicians in making early and accurate diagnoses of acute kidney injury in neonates. DATA SOURCE: We searched for the following seven key words within the PubMed database and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: cystatin C, neonates, newborn, preterm, premature, kidney failure, and kidney injury...
March 2013: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Nurdan Yildiz, Müferet Erguven, Metin Yildiz, Tutku Ozdogan, Pinar Turhan
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) and clinical outcomes in neonates with acute kidney injury (AKI) and hypernatremic dehydration. ♢ METHODS: The medical records of 15 neonates with AKI and hypernatremic dehydration who were treated with acute PD were reviewed. The diagnoses were AKI with hypernatremic dehydration with or without sepsis in 13 patients and AKI with hypernatremia and congenital nephropathy in 2 patients...
May 2013: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
I Ligi, F Boubred, I Grandvuillemin, U Simeoni
The kidney is a major organ for drug elimination. The function of the neonatal kidney is markedly immature with a reduction of renal blood flow, of glomerular filtration and of active tubular secretion, even in healthy, term infants. Maturation of renal function in particular of glomerular filtration rate is gestational age and postnatal age-dependant. Moreover, many neonatal pathological conditions such as preterm birth, sepsis or perinatal asphyxia can also affect renal function. These developmental changes have a major impact on drug metabolism and elimination...
February 2013: Current Drug Metabolism
Gian Maria Pacifici, Karel Allegaert
Neonatal sepsis is common and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Vancomycin is the preferred treatment of several neonatal staphylococcal infections. The aim of this study was to review published data on vancomycin pharmacokinetics in neonates and to provide a critical analysis of the literature. A bibliographic search was performed using PubMed and Embase, and articles with a publication date of August 2011 or earlier were included in the analysis. Vancomycin pharmacokinetic estimates, which are different in neonates compared with adults, also exhibit extensive inter-neonatal variability...
July 2012: Clinics
Helgi Padari, Tuuli Metsvaht, Lenne-Triin Kõrgvee, Eva Germovsek, Mari-Liis Ilmoja, Karin Kipper, Koit Herodes, Joseph F Standing, Kersti Oselin, Irja Lutsar
Prolonged infusion of meropenem has been suggested in studies with population pharmacokinetic modeling but has not been tested in neonates. We compared the steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK) of meropenem given as a short (30-min) or prolonged (4-h) infusion to very-low-birth-weight (gestational age, <32 weeks; birth weight, <1,200 g) neonates to define the appropriate dosing regimen for a phase 3 efficacy study. Short (n = 9) or prolonged (n = 10) infusions of meropenem were given at a dose of 20 mg/kg every 12 h...
September 2012: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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