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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156793/methylation-of-microrna-129-5p-modulates-nucleus-pulposus-cell-autophagy-by-targeting-beclin-1-in-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#1
Kangcheng Zhao, Yukun Zhang, Liang Kang, Yu Song, Kun Wang, Shuai Li, Xinghuo Wu, Wenbin Hua, Zengwu Shao, Shuhua Yang, Cao Yang
MicroRNAs play an important role in the etiology and progression of many diseases, including intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). The miRNA miR-129-5P regulates autophagy in various cancers, but its role in human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells is unclear. The present study investigated whether miR-129-5p regulates the expression of Beclin-1 which is known to induce autophagy in NP cells by evaluating their levels in normal and degenerative disc tissues and human NP cells transfected with miR-129-5P mimic or inhibitor by quantitative real-time (qRT-)PCR, western blotting, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence analysis...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156608/fatty-acids-antioxidants-and-physical-activity-in-brain-aging
#2
REVIEW
Hércules Rezende Freitas, Gustavo da Costa Ferreira, Isis Hara Trevenzoli, Karen de Jesus Oliveira, Ricardo Augusto de Melo Reis
Polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants are important mediators in the central nervous system. Lipid derivatives may control the production of proinflammatory agents and regulate NF-κB activity, microglial activation, and fatty acid oxidation; on the other hand, antioxidants, such as glutathione and ascorbate, have been shown to signal through transmitter receptors and protect against acute and chronic oxidative stress, modulating the activity of different signaling pathways. Several authors have investigated the role of these nutrients in the brains of the young and the aged in degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and during brain aging due to adiposity- and physical inactivity-mediated metabolic disturbances, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress...
November 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156133/harnessing-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-and-nanotopographical-cues-to-regulate-skeletal-muscle-maturation-and-vascularization
#3
Jonathan Hung Tsui, Kajohnkiart Janebodin, Nicholas Ieronimakis, David Michael Patrick Yama, Hee Seok Yang, Rakchanok Chavanachat, Aislinn L Hays, Haeshin Lee, Morayma Reyes, Deok-Ho Kim
Despite possessing substantial regenerative capacity, skeletal muscle can suffer from loss of function due to catastrophic traumatic injury or degenerative disease. In such cases, engineered tissue grafts hold the potential to restore function and improve patient quality of life. Requirements for successful integration of engineered tissue grafts with the host musculature include cell alignment that mimics host tissue architecture and directional functionality, as well as vascularization to ensure tissue survival...
November 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156062/surgical-technique-for-pulled-in-two-syndrome-three-cases-with-chronic-progressive-external-ophthalmoplegia
#4
Alexander Matthew Jones, Julia Starte, Hamish Dunn, Kate Ahmad, Kimberley Tan
The authors describe three examples of "pulled in two syndrome" (PITS) from a series of 13 patients undergoing strabismus surgery with underlying chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and illustrate techniques for recovery of the "pulled in two" extraocular muscle should the complication arise. In all cases, a rectus muscle snapped under minimal tension while held on a strabismus hook during strabismus surgery. Two patients suffered from CPEO as a result of genetic mitochondrial disease, whereas one resulted from presumed mitochondrial toxicity induced by HAART...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155720/m%C3%A3-ller-glia-cell-activation-in-a-laser-induced-retinal-degeneration-and-regeneration-model-in-zebrafish
#5
Federica M Conedera, Petra Arendt, Carolyn Trepp, Markus Tschopp, Volker Enzmann
A fascinating difference between teleost and mammals is the lifelong potential of the teleost retina for retinal neurogenesis and regeneration after severe damage. Investigating the regeneration pathways in zebrafish might bring new insights to develop innovative strategies for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in mammals. Herein, we focused on the induction of a focal lesion to the outer retina in adult zebrafish by means of a 532 nm diode laser. A localized injury allows investigating biological processes that take place during retinal degeneration and regeneration directly at the area of damage...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154288/patterns-of-calcium-signaling-a-link-between-chronic-emotions-and-cancer
#6
Massimo Pregnolato, Giuseppe Damiani, Alfredo Pereira
Intra and inter-cellular calcium signaling is present in all types of cells and body tissues. In the human brain, calcium currents and waves are related to mental activities, including emotions. We present a theoretical interpretation of these phenomena suggesting their involvement in chronic emotional patterns and in the pathology of cancer. Recent developments on biophysics, translational biology and psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology (PNEI) can support explanatory hypotheses about the link between emotional stresses and the origin and development of different types of tumor cells...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153234/evaluation-of-pain-syndromes-headache-and-temporomandibular-joint-disorders-in-children
#7
REVIEW
Bruce B Horswell, Jason Sheikh
After a thorough review of the history and presentation of a child's facial pain, a targeted head and neck examination is critical to the appropriate diagnosis of facial pain and temporomandibular joint disorders. It is critical to distinguish between the structural (trauma, degenerative disease, and tumor) and nonstructural (neurogenic, myogenic, and psychological) causes of pain, which will allow for incorporation of appropriate strategies of medical, psychological, dental, and surgical therapies.
February 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152560/effects-of-inflammation-on-multiscale-biomechanical-properties-of-cartilaginous-cells-and-tissues
#8
REVIEW
Q T Nguyen, T D Jacobsen, N O Chahine
Cells within cartilaginous tissues are mechanosensitive and thus require mechanical loading for regulation of tissue homeostasis and metabolism. Mechanical loading plays critical roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, biosynthesis, and homeostasis. Inflammation is an important event occurring during multiple processes, such as aging, injury, and disease. Inflammation has significant effects on biological processes as well as mechanical function of cells and tissues. These effects are highly dependent on cell/tissue type, timing, and magnitude...
November 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152454/recent-advances-in-retinal-stem-cell-therapy
#9
Sujoy Bhattacharya, Rajashekhar Gangaraju, Edward Chaum
Purpose of review: Progress in stem cell research for blinding diseases over the past decade is now being applied to patients with retinal degenerative diseases and soon perhaps, glaucoma. However, the field still has much to learn about the conversion of stem cells into various retinal cell types, and the potential delivery methods that will be required to optimize the clinical efficacy of stem cells delivered into the eye. Recent findings: Recent groundbreaking human clinical trials have demonstrated both the opportunities and current limitations of stem cell transplantation for retinal diseases...
September 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151635/lower-incidence-of-myocardial-infarction-after-smoke-free-legislation-enforcement-in-chile
#10
Carolina Nazzal, Jeffrey E Harris
Objective: To evaluate the impact of a complete smoking ban in enclosed spaces on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in Chile. Methods: The population-based study involved residents of urban areas, where 80% of the Chilean population live, aged 20 years or older who had a myocardial infarction. Monthly myocardial infarction incidence and mortality rates at health-care facilities between January 2011 and December 2014 were derived from admission and mortality databases...
October 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151051/subclinical-propionibacterium-acnes-infection-estimation-in-the-intervertebral-disc-spine-id-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort
#11
Nelson Astur, Delio E Martins, Marcelo Wajchenberg, Mario Ferretti, Fernando G Menezes, Andre M Doi, Laercio A Rosemberg, Durval C B Santos, Alexandre S Iutaka, Luciano M R Rodrigues, Marines D V Martino, Jorge R Pagura, Eduardo N Kihara Filho, Mario Lenza
INTRODUCTION: Low back pain and vertebral endplate abnormalities are common conditions within the population. Subclinical infection caused by indolent pathogens can potentially lead to these findings, with differentiation between them notably challenging from a clinical perspective. Progressive infection of the intervertebral disc has been extensively associated with increasing low back pain, with Propionibacterium acnes specifically implicated with in relation to sciatica. The main purpose of this study is to identify if the presence of an infective pathogen within the intervertebral disc is primary or is a result of intraoperative contamination, and whether this correlates to low back pain...
November 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150953/new-algorithm-for-simulation-of-proteoglycan-loss-and-collagen-degeneration-in-the-knee-joint-data-from-the-osteoarthritis-initiative
#12
Mika E Mononen, Petri Tanska, Hanna Isaksson, Rami K Korhonen
Osteoarthritis is a harmful joint disease but prediction of disease progression is problematic. Currently, there is only one modeling framework which can be applied to predict the progression of knee osteoarthritis but it only considers degenerative changes in the collagen fibril network. Here, we have developed the framework further by considering all of the major tissue changes (proteoglycan content, fluid flow and collagen fibril network) occurring in osteoarthritis. While excessive levels of tissue stresses controlled degeneration of the collagen fibril network, excessive levels of tissue strains controlled the decrease in proteoglycan content and the increase in permeability...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149835/forkhead-transcription-factors-formulating-a-foxo-target-for-cognitive-loss
#13
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: With almost 47 million individuals worldwide suffering from some aspect of dementia, it is clear that cognitive loss impacts a significant proportion of the global population. Unfortunately, definitive treatments to resolve or prevent the onset of cognitive loss are limited. In most cases such care is currently non-existent prompting the need for novel treatment strategies. METHODS: Mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxO) are one such avenue of investigation that offer an exciting potential to bring new treatments forward for disorders that involve cognitive loss...
November 15, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149818/renal-dysfunction-following-elective-endovascular-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#14
Esma Isenovic, Djodje Radak, Mihailo Neskovic, Petar Otasevic
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative disease of the aortic wall with potentially fatal complications. Open repair (OR) was considered the gold standard, until the emergence of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), which is less invasive and equally (if not more) effective. As the popularity of endovascular procedures grows, related complications become more evident, with kidney damage being one of them. Although acute kidney injury (AKI) following EVAR is relatively common, its true incidence is still uncertain...
November 16, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148976/small-molecule-photoregulin3-prevents-retinal-degeneration-in-the-rho-p23h-mouse-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#15
Paul A Nakamura, Andy A Shimchuk, Shibing Tang, Zhizhi Wang, Kole DeGolier, Sheng Ding, Thomas A Reh
Regulation of rod gene expression has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat retinal degenerative diseases like retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We previously reported on a small molecule modulator of the rod transcription factor Nr2e3, Photoregulin1 (PR1), that regulates the expression of photoreceptor-specific genes. Although PR1 slows the progression of retinal degeneration in models of RP in vitro, in vivo analyses were not possible with PR1. We now report a structurally unrelated compound, Photoregulin3 (PR3) that also inhibits rod photoreceptor gene expression, potentially though Nr2e3 modulation...
November 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147580/molecular-age-related-changes-in-the-anterior-segment-of-the-eye
#16
REVIEW
Luis Fernando Hernandez-Zimbron, Rosario Gulias-Cañizo, María F Golzarri, Blanca Elizabeth Martínez-Báez, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado, Roberto Gonzalez-Salinas
Purpose: To examine the current knowledge about the age-related processes in the anterior segment of the eye at a biological, clinical, and molecular level. Methods: We reviewed the available published literature that addresses the aging process of the anterior segment of the eye and its associated molecular and physiological events. We performed a search on PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase using the MeSH terms "eye," "anterior segment," and "age." We generated searches to account for synonyms of these keywords and MESH headings as follows: (1) "Eye" AND "ageing process" OR "anterior segment ageing" and (2) "Anterior segment" AND "ageing process" OR "anterior segment" AND "molecular changes" AND "age...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147075/pediatric-ocular-nanomedicines-challenges-and-opportunities
#17
Natasha D Sheybani, Hu Yang
The eye is a highly complex, yet readily accessible organ within the human body. As such, the eye is an appealing candidate target for a vast array of drug therapies. Despite advances in ocular drug therapy research, the focus on pediatric ocular drug delivery continues to be highly underrepresented due to the limited number of degenerative ocular diseases with childhood onset. In this review, we explore more deeply the reasons underlying the disparity between ocular therapies available for children and for adults by highlighting diseases that most commonly afflict children (with focus on the anterior eye) and existing prognoses, recent developments in ocular drug delivery systems and nanomedicines for children, and barriers to use for pediatric patients...
September 2017: Chinese Chemical Letters Zhongguo Hua Xue Kuai Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146626/clinical-outcomes-in-1731-patients-undergoing-mitral-valve-surgery-for-rheumatic-valve-disease
#18
Wan Kee Kim, Ho Jin Kim, Joon Bum Kim, Sung-Ho Jung, Suk Jung Choo, Cheol Hyun Chung, Jae Won Lee
OBJECTIVE: Unlike degenerative mitral valve (MV) disease, the advantages of valve repair procedure over replacement have been debated in rheumatic MV disease. This study aims to evaluate the impact of procedural types on long-term outcomes through analyses on a large data set from an endemic area of rheumatic disease. METHODS: We evaluated 1731 consecutive patients (52.3±12.5 years; 1190 women) undergoing MV surgery for rheumatic MV disease between 1997 and 2015...
November 16, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145791/impact-of-novel-n-aryl-piperamide-no-donors-on-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-translocation-in-neuroinflammation-rational-drug-designing-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation
#19
Sajad Shahbazi, Jagdeep Kaur, Shikha Singh, K Gopinath Achary, Sameena Wani, Sobhagyalaxmi Jema, Jabed Akhtar, Ranbir Chander Sobti
NO donor drugs showed a significant therapeutic effect in the treatment of many diseases, such as arteriopathies, various acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, and several degenerative diseases. NO-releasing anti-inflammatory drugs are the prototypes of a novel class of compounds, combining the pharmacological activities of anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive of drugs with those of NO, thus possessing potential therapeutic applications in a great variety of diseases. In this study, we designed and predicted biological activity by targeting cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) and NF-κB subunits and pharmacological profiling along with toxicity predictions of various N-aryl piperamides linked via an ester bond to a spacer that is bound to a NO-releasing moiety (-ONO2)...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145636/localization-and-functional-characterization-of-the-p-asn965ser-n965s-abca4-variant-in-mice-reveal-pathogenic-mechanisms-underlying-stargardt-macular-degeneration
#20
Laurie L Molday, Daniel Wahl, Marinko Sarunic, Robert S Molday
ABCA4 is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins that transports N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine (N-Ret-PE) across outer segment disc membranes thereby facilitating the removal of potentially toxic retinoid compounds from photoreceptor cells. Mutations in the gene encoding ABCA4 are responsible for Stargardt disease (STGD1), an autosomal recessive retinal degenerative disease that causes severe vision loss. To define the molecular basis for STGD1 associated with the p.Asn965Ser (N965S) mutation in the Walker A motif of nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1), we generated a p...
November 14, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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