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degenerative disease

Alice C Wyse-Jackson, Sarah L Roche, Ana M Ruiz-Lopez, Jennifer N Moloney, Ashleigh M Byrne, Thomas G Cotter
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a degenerative retinal disease leading to photoreceptor cell loss. In 2011, our group identified the synthetic progesterone 'Norgestrel' as a potential treatment for RP. Subsequent research showed Norgestrel to work through progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) activation and upregulation of neuroprotective basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Using trophic factor deprivation of 661W photoreceptor-like cells, we aimed to further elucidate the mechanism leading to Norgestrel-induced neuroprotection...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Rita Valenzuela, Maria A Costa-Besada, Javier Iglesias-Gonzalez, Emma Perez-Costas, Begoña Villar-Cheda, Pablo Garrido-Gil, Miguel Melendez-Ferro, Ramon Soto-Otero, Jose L Lanciego, Daniel Henrion, Rafael Franco, Jose L Labandeira-Garcia
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was initially considered as a circulating humoral system controlling blood pressure, being kidney the key control organ. In addition to the 'classical' humoral RAS, a second level in RAS, local or tissular RAS, has been identified in a variety of tissues, in which local RAS play a key role in degenerative and aging-related diseases. The local brain RAS plays a major role in brain function and neurodegeneration. It is normally assumed that the effects are mediated by the cell-surface-specific G-protein-coupled angiotensin type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1 and AT2)...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Colin Crist
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in our body, is responsible for generating the force required for movement and is also an important thermogenic organ. Skeletal muscle is an enigmatic tissue because, while on one hand, skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is arguably one of the best studied stem cell dependent regenerative processes, on the other hand, skeletal muscle is still subject to many degenerative disorders with few therapeutic options in the clinic. It is important to develop new regenerative medicine based therapies for skeletal muscle...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Vitor Castania, Ana Carolina Issy, João Walter Silveira, Frederico Rogério Ferreira, Simoneide S Titze-de-Almeida, Fernando F B Resende, Nádia Rubia Ferreira, Ricardo Titze-de-Almeida, Helton L A Defino, Elaine Del Bel
Intervertebral disk degeneration is a progressive and debilitating disease with multifactorial causes. Nitric oxide (NO) might contribute to the cell death pathway. We evaluated the presence of the constitutive form of the neuronal NOS (nNOS) in both health and degenerated intervertebral disk through qPCR and immunohistochemistry. We also analyzed the potential role of nNOS modulation in the tail needle puncture model of intervertebral disk degeneration. Male Wistar rats were submitted to percutaneous disk puncture with a 21-gauge needle of coccygeal vertebras...
October 19, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Ying Wei, Jun Lu, Tong Lu, Feihong Meng, Jia Xu, Li Wang, Yang Li, Liping Wang, Fei Li
Prefibrillar amyloid aggregates of proteins are known as cytotoxic species and a common pathogenic factor for many degenerative diseases. The mechanism underlying the formation and cytotoxicity of prefibrillar aggregates is believed to be independent of the actual nature of the amyloid protein. In this study, we monitored the formation of the peptide oligomers and examined the disruptive effects of the oligomers on liposomes using the human islet amyloid polypeptide fragment hIAPP18-27 as a model peptide. We observed various morphologies of oligomers formed at different aggregation stages that precede the formation of mature amyloid fibrils...
October 19, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Olivier Borens, Pablo S Corona, Lars Frommelt, Stergios Lazarinis, Michael Richard Reed, Carlo Luca Romano
Total Joint Arthroplasty (TJA) continues to gain acceptance as the standard of care for the treatment of severe degenerative joint disease, and is considered one of the most successful surgical interventions in the history of medicine. A devastating complication after TJA is infection. Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), represents one of the major causes of failure and remains a significant challenge facing orthopaedics today. PJI usually requires additional surgery including revision of the implants, fusion or amputations causing tremendous patient suffering but also a heavy health economics burden...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
D Cartelli, G Cappelletti
Microtubules are dynamic structures normally associated to the cell division, during which they form the mitotic spindle, as well as to the initial phases of specification and polarization of various cell types, including neurons. Although microtubules could have a role in the death of many cells and tissues, the microtubule-based degenerative mechanisms have been poorly investigated; nevertheless, during the last two decades, many clues have been accumulated suggesting the importance of the microtubule system during neurodegeneration...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Horrolein Arab, Soleiman Mahjoub, Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki, Mehdi Moghadasi
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent degenerative disorder of the brain among elderly individuals. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor which involves oxidizing macromolecules such as DNA, lipids, and proteins in AD. Green tea is a rich source of antioxidant compounds that can remove radical oxygen species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of green tea consumption on markers of oxidative stress in AD...
2016: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Mohamed Macki, Sbaa Syeda, Kenan Rajjoub, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Ali Bydon, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Timothy Witham, Daniel M Sciubba, Mohamad Bydon, Ziya Gokaslan
INTRODUCTION: The primary objective of this study is to examine the effects smoking status on rhBMP-2 supplementation in spinal fusion constructs. METHODS: Patient records were retrospectively reviewed for a consecutive set of patients who underwent first-time posterolateral, instrumented fusion of the lumbar spine for degenerative spinal disease. All operations included arthrodesis supplementation with rhBMP-2. All patients were followed for at least two years...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Michael J Zelefsky, Marisa A Kollmeier, Elan Gorshein, Xin Pei, Marina Torres, Sean McBride, Laura Happersett, Gil'ad N Cohen, Yoshiya Yamada
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence and predictors of hip toxicity postradiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: 4067 prostate cancer patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT; n=2569; 63%) or brachytherapy with or without supplemental EBRT (n=1508; 27%). 43% (n=1738) were treated with neo-adjuvant and concurrent ADT and 57% (n=2329) with radiotherapy alone. Hip toxicity was defined as moderate or severe pain upon ambulation with or without the need for hip-revision surgery...
October 15, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Mhamad Faour, Joshua T Anderson, Arnold R Haas, Rick Percy, Stephen T Woods, Uri M Ahn, Nicholas U Ahn
The use of opioids among patients with workers' compensation claims is associated with tremendous costs, especially for patients who undergo spinal surgery. This study compared return-to-work rates after single-level cervical fusion for degenerative disk disease between patients who received opioids before surgery and patients who underwent fusion with no previous opioid use. All study subjects qualified for workers' compensation benefits for injuries sustained at work between 1993 and 2011. The study population included 281 subjects who underwent single-level cervical fusion for degenerative disk disease with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and Current Procedural Terminology code algorithms...
October 18, 2016: Orthopedics
Yong-Jin Kim
Aortic stenosis (AS) is a common valve disease, affecting nearly 5% of elderly individuals. Because most common etiology of AS is degenerative valve disease, hypertension (HT) is not rare in patients with AS. It was reported that more than 30% of patients with AS had systemic hypertension. Therefore, management of hypertension is an important issue for these patients. There are several effects of combined AS and HT. First, HT increases hemodynamic load of left ventricle and peak systolic left ventricular wall stress...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nicolas Dea, Raphaële Charest-Morin, Daniel M Sciubba, Justin E Bird, Alexander C Disch, Addisu Mesfin, Áron Lazáry, Charles G Fisher, Christopher Ames
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if evidence-based principles of oncologic resection for primary spinal tumors are correlated with an acceptable morbidity and mortality profile and satisfactory health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Respecting oncologic principles for primary spinal tumor surgery is correlated with lower recurrence rates. These interventions are, however, often highly morbid...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Chrisovalantis Papadopoulos, Philipp Kirchner, Monika Bug, Daniel Grum, Lisa Koerver, Nina Schulze, Robert Poehler, Alina Dressler, Sven Fengler, Khalid Arhzaouy, Vanda Lux, Michael Ehrmann, Conrad C Weihl, Hemmo Meyer
Rupture of endosomes and lysosomes is a major cellular stress condition leading to cell death and degeneration. Here, we identified an essential role for the ubiquitin-directed AAA-ATPase, p97, in the clearance of damaged lysosomes by autophagy. Upon damage, p97 translocates to lysosomes and there cooperates with a distinct set of cofactors including UBXD1, PLAA, and the deubiquitinating enzyme YOD1, which we term ELDR components for Endo-Lysosomal Damage Response. Together, they act downstream of K63-linked ubiquitination and p62 recruitment, and selectively remove K48-linked ubiquitin conjugates from a subpopulation of damaged lysosomes to promote autophagosome formation...
October 17, 2016: EMBO Journal
Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue that has either been injured, is degenerating, or else is at risk of dying. One of the organ systems of the human body that is most necessary to life, and whose optimum functioning is most worried about by humankind in general, is the brain. The brain suffers from many different disorders that can be classified into three broad groupings: traumatic events (stroke, traumatic brain injury, and global ischemia), degenerative diseases (dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's), and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder)...
December 2016: BBA Clinical
Taylor L Fuss, Leo L Cheng
Metabolic imaging enhances understanding of disease metabolisms and holds great potential as a measurement tool for evaluating disease prognosis and treatment effectiveness. Advancement of techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and mass spectrometry, allows for improved accuracy for quantification of metabolites and present unique possibilities for use in clinic. This article reviews and discusses literature reports of metabolic imaging in humans published since 2010 according to disease type, including cancer, degenerative disorders, psychiatric disorders, and others, as well as the current application of the various related techniques...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Nadia Gildeh, Panagis Drakatos, Sean Higgins, Ivana Rosenzweig, Brian D Kent
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes daytime fatigue and sleepiness, and has an established relationship with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Recent years have seen the emergence of an evidence base linking OSA with an increased risk of degenerative neurological disease and associated cognitive impairment, an accelerated rate of decline in kidney function with an increased risk of clinically significant chronic kidney disease (CKD), and with a significantly higher rate of cancer incidence and death. This review evaluates the evidence base linking OSA with these seemingly unrelated co-morbidities, and explores potential mechanistic links underpinning their development in patients with OSA, including intermittent hypoxia (IH), sleep fragmentation, sympathetic excitation, and immune dysregulation...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Kimona Issa, Todd P Pierce, Steven F Harwin, Anthony J Scillia, Anthony Festa, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: HIV is prevalent worldwide and numerous patients with this diagnosis ultimately may become candidates for TKA. Although some studies have suggested that complications are more common in patients with HIV who undergo TKA, these studies largely were done before the contemporary era of HIV management; moreover, it is unclear whether patients with HIV achieve lower patient-reported outcome scores or inferior implant survivorship. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We asked whether there were any differences in the outcomes of patients with HIV without hemophilia who undergo TKA compared with a matched control cohort in terms of: (1) patient-reported outcomes; (2) implant survivorship; and (3) complication rates...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Elisabeth Sanchez-Mejias, Victoria Navarro, Sebastian Jimenez, Maria Sanchez-Mico, Raquel Sanchez-Varo, Cristina Nuñez-Diaz, Laura Trujillo-Estrada, Jose Carlos Davila, Marisa Vizuete, Antonia Gutierrez, Javier Vitorica
The role of microglial cells in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated the existence of a weak microglial response in human AD hippocampus which is in contrast to the massive microglial activation observed in APP-based models. Most importantly, microglial cells displayed a prominent degenerative profile (dentate gyrus > CA3 > CA1 > parahippocampal gyrus), including fragmented and dystrophic processes with spheroids, a reduced numerical density, and a significant decrease in the area of surveillance ("microglial domain")...
October 14, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Marialaura Bonaccio, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, George Pounis, Amalia De Curtis, Simona Costanzo, Mariarosaria Persichillo, Chiara Cerletti, Maria Benedetta Donati, Giovanni de Gaetano, Licia Iacoviello
Low-grade inflammation is associated with increased risk of chronic degenerative disease but its relationship with mortality is less explored. We aimed at evaluating, at a large epidemiological level, the possible association of low-grade inflammation, as measured by a composite score, with overall mortality risk. We conducted a population-based prospective investigation on 20,337 adult subjects free from major haematological disease and acute inflammatory status, randomly recruited from the general population of the Moli-sani study...
October 14, 2016: Haematologica
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