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human prolactin lactogen

Zachariah Payne Sellers, Kamila Bujko, Gabriela Schneider, Magdalena Kucia, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
The pituitary sex hormones (SexHs): follicle‑stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL) regulate several functions crucial for reproduction, including oogenesis, spermatogenesis, and lactation. An important source of prolactin-like hormones, known as lactogens, is the placenta, and lactogens bind to the PRL receptor (PRLR) with high affinity and thereby mimic the actions of PRL. Recently, it has been demonstrated that pituitary SexHs were involved in metastatic lung cancer, certain sarcomas, and leukemia...
February 2018: Oncology Reports
Daniel H Miller, Ethan S Sokol, Piyush B Gupta
We present a protocol for expanding human mammary tissues from primary patient-derived cells in three-dimensional (3D) cultures. The primary epithelial cells are seeded into 3D hydrogels with defined components, which include both proteins and carbohydrates present in mammary tissue. Over a span of 10-14 days, the seeded cells form mammary tissues with complex ductal-lobular topologies and include luminal and basal cells in the correct orientation, together with cells that stain positively for stem cell markers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Karthik M Sundaram, Yilin Zhang, Anirban K Mitra, Jean-Louis K Kouadio, Katja Gwin, Anthony A Kossiakoff, Brian B Roman, Ernst Lengyel, Joseph A Piccirilli
Poor prognosis of ovarian cancer, the deadliest of the gynecologic malignancies, reflects major limitations associated with detection and diagnosis. Current methods lack high sensitivity to detect small tumors and high specificity to distinguish malignant from benign tissue, both impeding diagnosis of early and metastatic cancer stages and leading to costly and invasive surgeries. Tissue microarray analysis revealed that >98% of ovarian cancers express the prolactin receptor (PRLR), forming the basis of a new molecular imaging strategy...
April 1, 2017: Cancer Research
Ewa Ocłoń, Agnieszka Leśniak-Walentyn, Gili Solomon, Michal Shpilman, Anna Hrabia, Arieh Gertler
Recombinant chicken prolactin, expressed in Escherichia coli as an unfolded protein, was successfully refolded and purified to homogeneity as a monomeric protein. Its biological activity was evidenced by its ability to interact with rabbit prolactin receptor extracellular domain and stimulate prolactin receptor-mediated proliferation in three cell types possessing mammalian prolactin receptors. Chicken prolactin activity in those assays was 20-100-fold lower than that of mammalian lactogenic hormones, likely due to lower affinity for mammalian prolactin receptors and not to improper refolding, because in two homologous bioassays, chicken prolactin activity was equal to or higher than that of ovine prolactin and the CD spectra of chicken and human prolactin were almost identical...
January 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
L Baeyens, S Hindi, R L Sorenson, M S German
Pregnancy in placental mammals places unique demands on the insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The pancreas anticipates the increase in insulin resistance that occurs late in pregnancy by increasing β-cell numbers and function earlier in pregnancy. In rodents, this β-cell expansion depends on secreted placental lactogens that signal through the prolactin receptor. Then at the end of pregnancy, the β-cell population contracts back to its pre-pregnancy size. In the current review, we focus on how glucose metabolism changes during pregnancy, how β-cells anticipate these changes through their response to lactogens and what molecular mechanisms guide the adaptive compensation...
September 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Elizabeth A Pharo, Marilyn B Renfree, Kylie N Cane
The regulation of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) early lactation protein (ELP) gene is complex. ELP is responsive to the lactogenic hormones; insulin (I), hydrocortisone (HC) and prolactin (PRL) in mammary gland explants but could not be induced with lactogenic hormones in tammar primary mammary gland cells, nor in KIM-2 conditionally immortalised murine mammary epithelial cells. Similarly, ELP promoter constructs transiently-transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells constitutively expressing the prolactin receptor (PRLR) and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)5A were unresponsive to prolactin, unlike the rat and mouse β-casein (CSN2) promoter constructs...
November 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Ravi Retnakaran, Chang Ye, Caroline K Kramer, Philip W Connelly, Anthony J Hanley, Mathew Sermer, Bernard Zinman
OBJECTIVE: The insulin resistance of mid- to late pregnancy poses a physiologic stress test for the pancreatic β-cells, which must respond by markedly increasing their secretion of insulin. This response is achieved through an expansion of β-cell mass induced by the hormones prolactin and human placental lactogen (HPL). Conversely, the furan fatty acid metabolite 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF) has recently emerged as a negative regulator of β-cell function in pregnancy...
July 2016: Diabetes Care
Ravi Retnakaran, Chang Ye, Caroline K Kramer, Philip W Connelly, Anthony J Hanley, Mathew Sermer, Bernard Zinman
CONTEXT: Gestational diabetes (GDM) arises in women in whom there is insufficient β-cell compensation for the insulin resistance of late pregnancy. The mechanisms underlying both normal antepartum β-cell adaptation and its aberrancy in GDM are unclear. Preclinical studies have suggested that the hormones prolactin and human placental lactogen (HPL) may stimulate β-cell mass, whereas the furan fatty acid metabolite 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF) has recently emerged as a potential negative regulator of β-cell function...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Pablo Fernández-Pernas, Juan Fafián-Labora, Iván Lesende-Rodriguez, Jesús Mateos, Alexandre De la Fuente, Isaac Fuentes, Javier De Toro Santos, Fco Blanco García, María C Arufe
Our group focuses on the study of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human umbilical cord stroma or Warthońs jelly and their directed differentiation toward chondrocyte-like cells capable of regenerating damaged cartilage when transplanted into an injured joint. This study aimed to determine whether lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL) or 3, 3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), the active thyroid hormone, modulates chondrogenesis in our in vitro model of directed chondrogenic differentiation, and whether Wnt signalling is involved in this modulation...
September 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Mi-Ran Ji, Sang In Lee, Ye-Jin Jang, Mi-Hyang Jeon, Jeom Sun Kim, Kyung-Woon Kim, Jin-Ki Park, Jae Gyu Yoo, Ik-Soo Jeon, Dae-Jin Kwon, Choon-Keun Park, Sung June Byun
The mammary gland serves as a valuable bioreactor system for the production of recombinant proteins in lactating animals. Pharmaceutical-grade recombinant protein can be harvested from the milk of transgenic animals that carry a protein of interest under the control of promoter regions genes encoding milk proteins. Whey acidic protein (WAP), for example, is predominantly expressed in the mammary gland and is regulated by lactating hormones during pregnancy. We cloned the 5'-flanking region of the porcine WAP gene (pWAP) to confirm the sequence elements in its promoter that are required for gene-expression activity...
December 2015: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Hainan Chen, Jeffrey W Kleinberger, Karen K Takane, Fatimah Salim, Nathalie Fiaschi-Taesch, Kyrie Pappas, Ramon Parsons, Jing Jiang, Yue Zhang, Hongtao Liu, Peng Wang, Aaron S Bender, Stuart J Frank, Andrew F Stewart
Pregnancy in rodents is associated with a two- to threefold increase in β-cell mass, which is attributable to large increases in β-cell proliferation, complimented by increases in β-cell size, survival, and function and mediated mainly by the lactogenic hormones prolactin (PRL) and placental lactogens. In humans, however, β-cell mass does not increase as dramatically during pregnancy, and PRL fails to activate proliferation in human islets in vitro. To determine why, we explored the human PRL-prolactin receptor (hPRLR)-Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5)-cyclin-cdk signaling cascade in human β-cells...
November 2015: Diabetes
Carmen Gonzalez, Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Brenda Jurado-Manzano, Manuel Alejandro Ramirez-Lee, Samuel Salazar-Garcia, Pedro Pablo Martinez-Cuevas, Aída Jimena Velarde-Salcedo, Humberto Morales-Loredo, Ricardo Espinosa-Tanguma, Syed F Ali, Rafael Rubio
AIM: Prolactin family hormones include growth hormone, placental lactogen and prolactin, which are able to regulate angiogenesis via NO and prostaglandins. However, their effects on vascular tone are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prolactin family hormones on rat vascular tone in vitro. METHODS: Aortic rings were prepared from adult male rats and precontracted with phenylephrine, then treated with the hormones and drugs...
May 2015: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
M H Kung, Y J Lee, J T Hsu, M C Huang, Y T Ju
Goat β-casein (CSN2) promoter has been extensively used to derive expression of recombinant therapeutic protein in transgenic goats; however, little direct evidence exists for signaling molecules and the cis-elements of goat CSN2 promoter in response to lactogenic hormone stimulation in goat mammary epithelial cells. Here, we use an immortalized caprine mammary epithelial cell line (CMC) to search for evidence of the above. Serial 5'-flanking regions deleted of promoter and intron 1 in goat CSN2 (-4,047 to +2,054) driven by firefly luciferase reporter gene were constructed and applied to measure promoter activity in CMC...
June 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Andrzej Bartke, John J Kopchick
Studies of the effects of GH and the mechanisms of its actions frequently use rats or mice and various recombinant human GH preparations. Authors of many of these studies appear unaware of the fact that, in rodents, human GH signals through both GH and prolactin (PRL) receptors; thus, treatment with human GH is equivalent to a combined treatment with GH and PRL. GH receptors and PRL receptors are present in multiple cell types. Importantly, PRL exerts major effects on brain neuroendocrine action, female and male reproduction, metabolism, body composition, immune responses, and a host of other functions; thus, treatment of rodents with recombinant human GH could affect these important physiological parameters...
May 2015: Endocrinology
Shamkant B Badgujar, Atmaram H Bandivdekar
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Ayurveda, the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus Linn has been reported for wide spectrum of biological activities including lactational therapy for increasing milk quantity. However, not a single report is available on validation of its herbal galactagogue potentiality in literature. Thus, the present study is aimed to assess the lactogenic property of aqueous extract of Cyperus rotundus (CRE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of aqueous extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizome was evaluated by measuring weight of the pups during suckling period...
April 2, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Nira Ben-Jonathan, Eric Hugo
New information concerning the effects of prolactin (PRL) on metabolic processes warrants reevaluation of its overall metabolic actions. PRL affects metabolic homeostasis by regulating key enzymes and transporters associated with glucose and lipid metabolism in several target organs. In the lactating mammary gland, PRL increases the production of milk proteins, lactose, and lipids. In adipose tissue, PRL generally suppresses lipid storage and adipokine release and affect adipogenesis. A specific case is made for PRL in the human breast and adipose tissues, where it acts as a circulating hormone and an autocrine/paracrine factor...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shelley S Tworoger, Megan S Rice, Bernard A Rosner, Yvonne B Feeney, Charles V Clevenger, Susan E Hankinson
BACKGROUND: Prolactin is a lactogenic hormone associated with breast cancer risk in prospective studies, which used immunoassays. The immunoassay captures multiple isoforms and may not fully reflect the biologic activity of prolactin relevant to breast carcinogenesis. METHODS: We considered plasma bioactive prolactin levels measured by the Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay, which is sensitive to the somatolactogenic activity of prolactin and growth hormone, within a nested case-control study of invasive breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII)...
January 2015: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Michiyo Ishida, Midori Maehara, Tsukasa Watanabe, Yu Yanagisawa, Yukiko Takata, Ryojun Nakajima, Mika Suzuki, Toshio Harigaya
Vasoinhibins are a family of peptides that act on endothelial cells to suppress angiogenesis and promote apoptosis-mediated vascular regression. Vasoinhibins include the N-terminal fragments from prolactin (PRL), GH, and placental lactogen. One of the vasoinhibins, the N-terminal PRL fragment of 16 kDa, is generated by the lysosomal representative protease cathepsin D (Cath D). Because the normal growth and involution of the mammary gland (MG) are profoundly affected by the expansion and regression of blood vessels and also because PRL stimulates the growth and differentiation of MG, we proposed that intact PRL produced during lactation contributes to MG angiogenesis and increased blood flow, whereas during involution, the N-terminal PRL fragment would have proapoptotic effects on mammary epithelial cells (MECs)...
June 2014: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Jin Kyung Lee, Hye Jin Chung, Liam Fischer, James Fischer, Frank J Gonzalez, Hyunyoung Jeong
The state of pregnancy is known to alter hepatic drug metabolism. Hormones that rise during pregnancy are potentially responsible for the changes. Here we report the effects of prolactin (PRL), placental lactogen (PL), and growth hormone variant (GH-v) on expression of major hepatic cytochromes P450 expression and a potential molecular mechanism underlying CYP2E1 induction by PL. In female human hepatocytes, PRL and GH-v showed either no effect or small and variable effects on mRNA expression of CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4, and 3A5...
April 2014: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Louise Maymann Nitze, Elisabeth Douglas Galsgaard, Nanni Din, Vibe Luja Lund, Birgitte Bruun Rasmussen, Martin Werner Berchtold, Leif Christensen, Svetlana Panina
The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) has been implicated in tumourigenesis. Expression of PRL and its receptor (PRLR) was reported in human breast epithelium and breast cancer cells. It was suggested that PRL may act as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. Here, we addressed the role of locally synthesised PRL in breast cancer. We analysed the expression of PRL in human breast cancer tumours using qPCR analysis and in situ hybridization (ISH). PRL mRNA expression was very low or undetectable in the majority of samples in three cDNA arrays representing samples from 144 breast cancer patients and in 13 of 14 breast cancer cell lines when analysed by qPCR...
November 2013: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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