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Ecological systems theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132084/integrated-and-ecosystemic-approaches-for-bridging-the-gap-between-environmental-management-and-port-management
#1
Javier García-Onetti, Marinez E G Scherer, Juan Manuel Barragán
The rapid exploitation of coastal and marine ecosystemic capital is on course to reach a critical point. The difficulty of implementing Integrated and ecosystem based management models, taking into the account the great complexity of the marine socio-ecological systems, has resulted in a significant gap between theory and practice. The majority of authors emphasize difficulties in engaging and convincing private stakeholders and a number of economic sectors involved in these processes. This reticence is traditionally more pronounced in the port sector, despite their important role in the transformation of coastal and marine areas...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118138/macroecological-factors-shape-local-scale-spatial-patterns-in-agriculturalist-settlements
#2
Tingting Tao, Sebastián Abades, Shuqing Teng, Zheng Y X Huang, Luís Reino, Bin J W Chen, Yong Zhang, Chi Xu, Jens-Christian Svenning
Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102408/meta-ecosystems-2-0-rooting-the-theory-into-the-field
#3
REVIEW
Isabelle Gounand, Eric Harvey, Chelsea J Little, Florian Altermatt
The meta-ecosystem framework demonstrates the significance of among-ecosystem spatial flows for ecosystem dynamics and has fostered a rich body of theory. The high level of abstraction of the models, however, impedes applications to empirical systems. We argue that further understanding of spatial dynamics in natural systems strongly depends on dense exchanges between field and theory. From empiricists, more and specific quantifications of spatial flows are needed, defined by the major categories of organismal movement (dispersal, foraging, life-cycle, and migration)...
November 1, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083233/the-measurement-and-role-of-ecological-resilience-systems-theory-across-domain-specific-outcomes-the-domain-specific-resilient-systems-scales
#4
John Maltby, Liz Day, Sophie S Hall, Sally Chivers
Research suggests that trait resilience may be best understood within an ecological resilient systems theory, comprising engineering, ecological, and adaptive capacity resilience. However, there is no evidence as to how this theory translates to specific life domains. Data from two samples (the United States, n = 1,278; the United Kingdom, n = 211) facilitated five studies that introduce the Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales for assessing ecological resilient systems theory within work, health, marriage, friendships, and education...
October 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058026/invasion-pinning-in-a-periodically-fragmented-habitat
#5
James Dowdall, Victor LeBlanc, Frithjof Lutscher
Biological invasions can cause great damage to existing ecosystems around the world. Most landscapes in which such invasions occur are heterogeneous. To evaluate possible management options, we need to understand the interplay between local growth conditions and individual movement behaviour. In this paper, we present a geometric approach to studying pinning or blocking of a bistable travelling wave, using ideas from the theory of symmetric dynamical systems. These ideas are exploited to make quantitative predictions about how spatial heterogeneities in dispersal and/or reproduction rates contribute to halting biological invasion fronts in reaction-diffusion models with an Allee effect...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057946/resilience-and-regime-shifts-in-a-marine-biodiversity-hotspot
#6
Paraskevas Vasilakopoulos, Dionysios E Raitsos, Evangelos Tzanatos, Christos D Maravelias
Complex natural systems, spanning from individuals and populations to ecosystems and social-ecological systems, often exhibit abrupt reorganizations in response to changing stressors, known as regime shifts or critical transitions. Theory suggests that such systems feature folded stability landscapes with fluctuating resilience, fold-bifurcations, and alternate basins of attraction. However, the implementation of such features to elucidate response mechanisms in an empirical context is scarce, due to the lack of generic approaches to quantify resilience dynamics in individual natural systems...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042301/towards-a-first-implementation-of-the-wlimes-approach-in-living-system-studies-advancing-the-diagnostics-and-therapy-in-personalized-medicine
#7
Plamen L Simeonov
The goal of this paper is to advance an extensible theory of living systems using an approach to biomathematics and biocomputation that suitably addresses self-organized, self-referential and anticipatory systems with multi-temporal multi-agents. Our first step is to provide foundations for modelling of emergent and evolving dynamic multi-level organic complexes and their sustentative processes in artificial and natural life systems. Main applications are in life sciences, medicine, ecology and astrobiology, as well as robotics, industrial automation, man-machine interface and creative design...
October 16, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038487/the-microbiome-beyond-the-horizon-of-ecological-and-evolutionary-theory
#8
REVIEW
Britt Koskella, Lindsay J Hall, C Jessica E Metcalf
The ecological and evolutionary study of community formation, diversity, and stability is rooted in general theory and reinforced by decades of system-specific empirical work. Deploying these ideas to study the assembly, complexity, and dynamics of microbial communities living in and on eukaryotes has proved seductive, but challenging. The success of this research endeavour depends on our capacity to observe and characterize the distributions, abundances, and functional traits of microbiota, representing an array of technical and analytical challenges...
October 16, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034456/trait-fitness-relationships-determine-how-trade-off-shapes-affect-species-coexistence
#9
Elias Ehrlich, Lutz Becks, Ursula Gaedke
Trade-offs between functional traits are ubiquitous in nature and can promote species coexistence depending on their shape. Classic theory predicts that convex trade-offs facilitate coexistence of specialized species with extreme trait values (extreme species) while concave trade-offs promote species with intermediate trait values (intermediate species). We show here that this prediction becomes insufficient when the traits translate non-linearly into fitness which frequently occurs in nature, e.g. an increasing length of spines reduces grazing losses only up to a certain threshold resulting in a saturating or sigmoid trait-fitness function...
October 15, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033780/evolutionary-musicology-meets-embodied-cognition-biocultural-coevolution-and-the-enactive-origins-of-human-musicality
#10
REVIEW
Dylan van der Schyff, Andrea Schiavio
Despite evolutionary musicology's interdisciplinary nature, and the diverse methods it employs, the field has nevertheless tended to divide into two main positions. Some argue that music should be understood as a naturally selected adaptation, while others claim that music is a product of culture with little or no relevance for the survival of the species. We review these arguments, suggesting that while interesting and well-reasoned positions have been offered on both sides of the debate, the nature-or-culture (or adaptation vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027338/stoichiometric-distribution-models-ecological-stoichiometry-at-the-landscape-extent
#11
Shawn J Leroux, Eric Vander Wal, Yolanda F Wiersma, Louis Charron, Jonathan D Ebel, Nichola M Ellis, Christopher Hart, Emilie Kissler, Paul W Saunders, Lucie Moudrá, Amy L Tanner, Semra Yalcin
Human activities are altering the fundamental geography of biogeochemicals. Yet we lack an understanding of how the spatial patterns in organismal stoichiometry affect biogeochemical processes and the tools to predict the impacts of global changes on biogeochemical processes. In this contribution we develop stoichiometric distribution models (StDMs), which allow us to map spatial structure in resource elemental composition across a landscape and evaluate spatial responses of consumers. We parameterise StDMs for a consumer-resource (moose-white birch) system and demonstrate that we can develop predictive models of resource stoichiometry across a landscape and that such models could improve our predictions of consumer space use...
October 12, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017333/predicting-sexual-revictimization-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-longitudinal-examination-using-ecological-systems-theory
#12
Samantha L Pittenger, Jessica K Pogue, David J Hansen
A substantial proportion of sexual abuse victims report repeat sexual victimization within childhood or adolescence; however, there is limited understanding of factors contributing to revictimization for youth. Thus, the present study examined predictors of sexual revictimization prior to adulthood using ecological systems theory. Records of 1,915 youth presenting to a Child Advocacy Center (CAC) were reviewed to identify individual, familial, and community factors as well as initial abuse characteristics associated with risk for revictimization...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992142/researching-safety-culture-deliberative-dialogue-with-a-restorative-lens
#13
Elisiane Lorenzini, Nelly D Oelke, Patricia Beryl Marck, Clarice Maria Dall'agnol
Safety culture is a key component of patient safety. Many patient safety strategies in health care have been adapted from high-reliability organizations (HRO) such as aviation. However, to date, attempts to transform the cultures of health care settings through HRO approaches have had mixed results. We propose a methodological approach for safety culture research, which integrates the theory and practice of restoration science with the principles and methods of deliberative dialogue to support active engagement in critical reflection and collective debate...
October 1, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992053/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-approaches-to-understanding-trade-offs-food-sex-aggression-stress-and-longevity-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#14
Jill E Schneider, Pierre Deviche
Life history strategies are composed of multiple fitness components, each of which incurs costs and benefits. Consequently, organisms cannot maximize all fitness components simultaneously. This situation results in a dynamic array of trade-offs in which some fitness traits prevail at the expense of others, often depending on context. The identification of specific constraints and trade-offs has helped elucidate physiological mechanisms that underlie variation in behavioral and physiological life history strategies...
September 11, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983517/competing-species-leave-many-potential-niches-unfilled
#15
Ben Ashby, Eleanor Watkins, Jose Lourenco, Sunetra Gupta, Kevin R Foster
A cornerstone of biology is that coexisting species evolve to occupy separate ecological niches. Classical theory predicts that interspecific competition should lead to all potential niches being occupied, yet observational data suggest that many niches are unfilled. Here we show that theory can be reconciled with observational data by reconceptualising competition in the Hutchinsonian niche space to distinguish between substitutable and non-substitutable resources. When resources are substitutable (e.g. seeds of different size), the components of competition along the niche axes combine multiplicatively, leading to a densely packed niche space...
October 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973938/interhost-dispersal-alters-microbiome-assembly-and-can-overwhelm-host-innate-immunity-in-an-experimental-zebrafish-model
#16
Adam R Burns, Elizabeth Miller, Meghna Agarwal, Annah S Rolig, Kathryn Milligan-Myhre, Steve Seredick, Karen Guillemin, Brendan J M Bohannan
The diverse collections of microorganisms associated with humans and other animals, collectively referred to as their "microbiome," are critical for host health, but the mechanisms that govern their assembly are poorly understood. This has made it difficult to identify consistent host factors that explain variation in microbiomes across hosts, despite large-scale sampling efforts. While ecological theory predicts that the movement, or dispersal, of individuals can have profound and predictable consequences on community assembly, its role in the assembly of animal-associated microbiomes remains underexplored...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944555/biological-hierarchies-and-the-nature-of-extinction
#17
Curtis R Congreve, Amanda R Falk, James C Lamsdell
Hierarchy theory recognises that ecological and evolutionary units occur in a nested and interconnected hierarchical system, with cascading effects occurring between hierarchical levels. Different biological disciplines have routinely come into conflict over the primacy of different forcing mechanisms behind evolutionary and ecological change. These disconnects arise partly from differences in perspective (with some researchers favouring ecological forcing mechanisms while others favour developmental/historical mechanisms), as well as differences in the temporal framework in which workers operate...
September 24, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940809/effects-of-age-and-sex-ratios-on-offspring-recruitment-rates-in-translocated-black-rhinoceros
#18
Jay V Gedir, Peter R Law, Pierre du Preez, Wayne L Linklater
Success of animal translocations depends on improving post-release demographic rates toward establishment and subsequent growth of released populations. Short-term metrics for evaluating translocation success and its drivers, like post-release survival and fecundity, are unlikely to represent longer-term outcomes. We used information theory to investigate 25 years of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) translocations using the offspring recruitment rate (ORR) of translocated females - a metric integrating survival, fecundity and offspring recruitment at sexual maturity - to detect determinants of success...
September 22, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937447/community-general-pediatricians-perspectives-on-providing-autism-diagnoses-in-ontario-canada-a-qualitative-study
#19
Melanie Penner, Gillian A King, Laura Hartman, Evdokia Anagnostou, Michelle Shouldice, Charlotte Moore Hepburn
OBJECTIVE: Community general pediatricians (CGPs) are a potential resource to increase capacity for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic assessments. The objective of this study was to explore factors influencing CGPs' perspectives on and practices of providing ASD diagnoses. METHODS: This qualitative study used a constructivist modified grounded theory approach. Participants included CGPs who had attended ASD educational events or had referred a child with suspected ASD to a tertiary rehabilitation center...
October 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931738/biological-and-statistical-processes-jointly-drive-population-aggregation-using-host-parasite-interactions-to-understand-taylor-s-power-law
#20
Pieter T J Johnson, Mark Q Wilber
The macroecological pattern known as Taylor's power law (TPL) represents the pervasive tendency of the variance in population density to increase as a power function of the mean. Despite empirical illustrations in systems ranging from viruses to vertebrates, the biological significance of this relationship continues to be debated. Here we combined collection of a unique dataset involving 11 987 amphibian hosts and 332 684 trematode parasites with experimental measurements of core epidemiological outcomes to explicitly test the contributions of hypothesized biological processes in driving aggregation...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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