keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Ecological systems theory

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330534/when-increasing-population-density-can-promote-the-evolution-of-metabolic-cooperation
#1
Richard J Lindsay, Bogna J Pawlowska, Ivana Gudelj
Microbial cooperation drives ecological and epidemiological processes and is affected by the ecology and demography of populations. Population density influences the selection for cooperation, with spatial structure and the type of social dilemma, namely public-goods production or self-restraint, shaping the outcome. While existing theories predict that in spatially structured environments increasing population density can select either for or against cooperation, experimental studies with both public-goods production and self-restraint systems have only ever shown that increasing population density favours cheats...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302610/what-theory-for-whom-and-in-which-context-reflections-on-the-application-of-theory-in-the-development-and-evaluation-of-complex-population-health-interventions
#2
Graham F Moore, Rhiannon E Evans
Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on the value of building and testing middle range theory throughout the development and evaluation of complex population health interventions. We agree that a coherent theoretical basis for intervention development, and use of evaluation to test key causal assumptions and build theory, are crucial. However, in this editorial, we argue that such recommendations have often been operationalised in somewhat simplistic terms with potentially perverse consequences, and that an uncritical assumption that an intervention explicitly based on theory is inherently superior carries significant risks...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291108/do-it-yourself-networks-a-novel-method-of-generating-weighted-networks
#3
D W Shanafelt, K R Salau, J A Baggio
Network theory is finding applications in the life and social sciences for ecology, epidemiology, finance and social-ecological systems. While there are methods to generate specific types of networks, the broad literature is focused on generating unweighted networks. In this paper, we present a framework for generating weighted networks that satisfy user-defined criteria. Each criterion hierarchically defines a feature of the network and, in doing so, complements existing algorithms in the literature. We use a general example of ecological species dispersal to illustrate the method and provide open-source code for academic purposes...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280332/making-ecological-models-adequate
#4
Wayne M Getz, Charles R Marshall, Colin J Carlson, Luca Giuggioli, Sadie J Ryan, Stephanie S Romañach, Carl Boettiger, Samuel D Chamberlain, Laurel Larsen, Paolo D'Odorico, David O'Sullivan
Critical evaluation of the adequacy of ecological models is urgently needed to enhance their utility in developing theory and enabling environmental managers and policymakers to make informed decisions. Poorly supported management can have detrimental, costly or irreversible impacts on the environment and society. Here, we examine common issues in ecological modelling and suggest criteria for improving modelling frameworks. An appropriate level of process description is crucial to constructing the best possible model, given the available data and understanding of ecological structures...
December 27, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250086/dianthus-chinensis-l-the-structural-difference-between-vascular-bundles-in-the-placenta-and-ovary-wall-suggests-their-different-origin
#5
Xue-Min Guo, Ying-Ying Yu, Lan Bai, Rong-Fu Gao
Dianthus chinensis is a perennial herbaceous plant with great ornamental, botanical, ecological, and medicinal value. The pistil of D. chinensis is composed of two fused carpels with free central placenta and two separate styles. The placenta is a columnar structure extending about two-thirds the length of the maturing fruit, which is typical of the Caryophyllaceous. Traditionally, free central placenta is thought to have evolved from axial placenta by septal disappearance, and axial placenta to have occurred through fusion of conduplicate carpels with marginal placenta...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227946/cross-disciplinary-links-in-environmental-systems-science-current-state-and-claimed-needs-identified-in-a-meta-review-of-process-models
#6
REVIEW
Daniel Ayllón, Volker Grimm, Sabine Attinger, Michael Hauhs, Clemens Simmer, Harry Vereecken, Gunnar Lischeid
Terrestrial environmental systems are characterised by numerous feedback links between their different compartments. However, scientific research is organized into disciplines that focus on processes within the respective compartments rather than on interdisciplinary links. Major feedback mechanisms between compartments might therefore have been systematically overlooked so far. Without identifying these gaps, initiatives on future comprehensive environmental monitoring schemes and experimental platforms might fail...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223121/from-information-to-participation-and-self-organization-visions-for-european-river-basin-management
#7
Johannes Euler, Sonja Heldt
The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD, 2000) calls for active inclusion of the public in the governance of waterbodies to enhance the effectiveness and legitimacy of water management schemes across the EU. As complex socio-ecological systems, river basins in western Europe could benefit from further support for inclusive management schemes. This paper makes use of case studies from Germany, England and Spain to explore the potential opportunities and challenges of different participatory management approaches...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202312/bernstein-s-levels-of-movement-construction-a-contemporary-perspective
#8
Vitor L S Profeta, Michael T Turvey
Explanation of how goal-directed movements are made manifest is the ultimate aim of the field classically referred to as "motor control". Essential to the sought-after explanation is comprehension of the supporting functional architecture. Seven decades ago, the Russian physiologist and movement scientist Nikolai A. Bernstein proposed a hierarchical model to explain the construction of movements. In his model, the levels of the hierarchy share a common language (i.e., they are commensurate) and perform complementing functions to bring about dexterous movements...
December 1, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183296/theories-models-and-frameworks-used-in-capacity-building-interventions-relevant-to-public-health-a-systematic-review
#9
Kim Bergeron, Samiya Abdi, Kara DeCorby, Gloria Mensah, Benjamin Rempel, Heather Manson
BACKGROUND: There is limited research on capacity building interventions that include theoretical foundations. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify underlying theories, models and frameworks used to support capacity building interventions relevant to public health practice. The aim is to inform and improve capacity building practices and services offered by public health organizations. METHODS: Four search strategies were used: 1) electronic database searching; 2) reference lists of included papers; 3) key informant consultation; and 4) grey literature searching...
November 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180825/novel-predators-emit-novel-cues-a-mechanism-for-prey-naivety-towards-alien-predators
#10
Alexandra J R Carthey, Martin P Bucknall, Kaja Wierucka, Peter B Banks
Detecting enemies is crucial for survival and a trait that develops over an evolutionary timeframe. Introduced species disrupt coevolved systems of communication and detection in their new ranges, often leading to devastating impacts. The classic example is prey naivety towards alien predators, whereby prey fail to recognise a new predator. Yet exactly why native prey fail to recognise alien predators remains puzzling. Naivety theory predicts that it is because novel predators emit novel cues. Distantly related animals have distinct evolutionary histories, physiologies and ecologies, predicting they will emit different cues...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176955/affording-sustainability-adopting-a-theory-of-affordances-as-a-guiding-heuristic-for-environmental-policy
#11
Roope O Kaaronen
Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition 'to the brain,' focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175607/stability-of-two-species-communities-drift-environmental-stochasticity-storage-effect-and-selection
#12
Matan Danino, David A Kessler, Nadav M Shnerb
The dynamics of two competing species in a finite size community is one of the most studied problems in population genetics and community ecology. Stochastic fluctuations lead, inevitably, to the extinction of one of the species, but the relevant timescale depends on the underlying dynamics. The persistence time of the community has been calculated both for neutral models, where the only drive of the system is drift (demographic stochasticity) and for models with strong selection. Following recent analyses that stress the importance of environmental stochasticity in empirical systems, we present here a general theory of persistence time of two-species community where drift, environmental variations and time independent selective advantage are all taken into account...
November 23, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167925/why-do-children-and-adolescents-bully-their-peers-a-critical-review-of-key-theoretical-frameworks
#13
REVIEW
Hannah J Thomas, Jason P Connor, James G Scott
Bullying is a significant public health problem for children and adolescents worldwide. Evidence suggests that both being bullied (bullying victimisation) and bullying others (bullying perpetration) are associated with concurrent and future mental health problems. The onset and course of bullying perpetration are influenced by individual as well as systemic factors. Identifying effective solutions to address bullying requires a fundamental understanding of why it occurs. Drawing from multi-disciplinary domains, this review provides a summary and synthesis of the key theoretical frameworks applied to understanding and intervening on the issue of bullying...
November 22, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166289/a-statistical-method-for-analysing-cospeciation-in-tritrophic-ecology-using-electrical-circuit-theory
#14
Colleen Nooney, Stuart Barber, Arief Gusnanto, Walter R Gilks
We introduce a new method to test efficiently for cospeciation in tritrophic systems. Our method utilises an analogy with electrical circuit theory to reduce higher order systems into bitrophic data sets that retain the information of the original system. We use a sophisticated permutation scheme that weights interactions between two trophic layers based on their connection to the third layer in the system. Our method has several advantages compared to the method of Mramba et al. [Mramba, L. K., S. Barber, K...
November 27, 2017: Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146901/genome-driven-evolutionary-game-theory-helps-understand-the-rise-of-metabolic-interdependencies-in-microbial-communities
#15
Ali R Zomorrodi, Daniel Segrè
Metabolite exchanges in microbial communities give rise to ecological interactions that govern ecosystem diversity and stability. It is unclear, however, how the rise of these interactions varies across metabolites and organisms. Here we address this question by integrating genome-scale models of metabolism with evolutionary game theory. Specifically, we use microbial fitness values estimated by metabolic models to infer evolutionarily stable interactions in multi-species microbial "games". We first validate our approach using a well-characterized yeast cheater-cooperator system...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144848/watching-the-evolution-of-the-american-family-amazon-s-transparent-ecological-systems-theory-and-the-changing-dynamics-of-public-opinion
#16
Amy B Becker, Maureen E Todd
Using Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological systems theory as an organizing framework, the research closely examines the text of the Amazon Studios hit show, Transparent, and by extension the evolution of public opinion towards transgender individuals. By examining the Pfefferman family in detail and their related microsystem and macrosystem, we are able to closely unpack the transition of Jeffrey Tambor's character from Mort to Maura and the show's connections with broader developments in the Los Angeles LGBT community and the Jewish diaspora in postwar and contemporary Los Angeles...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132084/integrated-and-ecosystemic-approaches-for-bridging-the-gap-between-environmental-management-and-port-management
#17
Javier García-Onetti, Marinez E G Scherer, Juan Manuel Barragán
The rapid exploitation of coastal and marine ecosystemic capital is on course to reach a critical point. The difficulty of implementing Integrated and ecosystem based management models, taking into the account the great complexity of the marine socio-ecological systems, has resulted in a significant gap between theory and practice. The majority of authors emphasize difficulties in engaging and convincing private stakeholders and a number of economic sectors involved in these processes. This reticence is traditionally more pronounced in the port sector, despite their important role in the transformation of coastal and marine areas...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118138/macroecological-factors-shape-local-scale-spatial-patterns-in-agriculturalist-settlements
#18
Tingting Tao, Sebastián Abades, Shuqing Teng, Zheng Y X Huang, Luís Reino, Bin J W Chen, Yong Zhang, Chi Xu, Jens-Christian Svenning
Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102408/meta-ecosystems-2-0-rooting-the-theory-into-the-field
#19
REVIEW
Isabelle Gounand, Eric Harvey, Chelsea J Little, Florian Altermatt
The meta-ecosystem framework demonstrates the significance of among-ecosystem spatial flows for ecosystem dynamics and has fostered a rich body of theory. The high level of abstraction of the models, however, impedes applications to empirical systems. We argue that further understanding of spatial dynamics in natural systems strongly depends on dense exchanges between field and theory. From empiricists, more and specific quantifications of spatial flows are needed, defined by the major categories of organismal movement (dispersal, foraging, life-cycle, and migration)...
November 1, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083233/the-measurement-and-role-of-ecological-resilience-systems-theory-across-domain-specific-outcomes-the-domain-specific-resilient-systems-scales
#20
John Maltby, Liz Day, Sophie S Hall, Sally Chivers
Research suggests that trait resilience may be best understood within an ecological resilient systems theory, comprising engineering, ecological, and adaptive capacity resilience. However, there is no evidence as to how this theory translates to specific life domains. Data from two samples (the United States, n = 1,278; the United Kingdom, n = 211) facilitated five studies that introduce the Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales for assessing ecological resilient systems theory within work, health, marriage, friendships, and education...
October 1, 2017: Assessment
keyword
keyword
103264
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"