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Ecological systems theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542901/mechanisms-and-implications-of-a-type-iv-functional-response-for-short-term-intake-rate-of-dry-matter-in-large-mammalian-herbivores
#1
J C Mezzalira, O J F Bonnet, P C de F Carvalho, L Fonseca, C Bremm, C C Mezzalira, E A Laca
1.The functional response (i.e. the relationship between consumers' intake rate and resource density) is central in plant-herbivore interactions. Its shape and the biological processes leading to it have significant implications for both foraging theory and ecology of grazing systems. 2.A type IV functional response (i.e. dome-shaped relationship) of short-term intake rate of dry matter (intake while grazing) has rarely been reported for large herbivores and the conditions that can lead to it are poorly understood...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533896/sex-specific-differences-in-functional-traits-and-resource-acquisition-in-five-cycad-species
#2
Christopher Krieg, James E Watkins, Sally Chambers, Chad E Husby
Selective pressures acting on plant life histories can drive extreme specialization. One example of such specialization is the evolution of dioecious breeding systems. Evolutionary and ecological theory posits that dioecy may subject male and female individuals to different selective pressures and result in unique sex-mediated adaptive traits related to resource allocation and ecophysiology. Cycads are the earliest diverging lineage of seed plants with strict dioecy, yet we know almost nothing about the ecology and physiology of this group...
March 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530167/biofilm-community-succession-a-neutral-perspective
#3
Stephen Woodcock, William T Sloan
Although biofilms represent one of the dominant forms of life in aqueous environments, our understanding of the assembly and development of their microbial communities remains relatively poor. In recent years, several studies have addressed this and have extended the concepts of succession theory in classical ecology into microbial systems. From these datasets, niche-based conceptual models have been developed explaining observed biodiversity patterns and their dynamics. These models have not, however, been formulated mathematically and so remain untested...
May 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528276/a-review-of-neighborhood-effects-and-early-child-development-how-where-and-for-whom-do-neighborhoods-matter
#4
REVIEW
Anita Minh, Nazeem Muhajarine, Magdalena Janus, Marni Brownell, Martin Guhn
This paper describes a scoping review of 42 studies of neighborhood effects on developmental health for children ages 0-6, published between 2009 and 2014. It focuses on three themes: (1) theoretical mechanisms that drive early childhood development, i.e. how neighborhoods matter for early childhood development; (2) dependence of such mechanisms on place-based characteristics i.e. where neighborhood effects occur; (3) dependence of such mechanisms on child characteristics, i.e. for whom is development most affected...
May 18, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516321/evaluating-local-adaptation-of-a-complex-phenotype-reciprocal-tests-of-pigmy-rattlesnake-venoms-on-treefrog-prey
#5
Sarah A Smiley-Walters, Terence M Farrell, H Lisle Gibbs
Theory predicts that predator-prey interactions can generate reciprocal selection pressures on species pairs, which can result in local adaptation, yet the presence and pattern of local adaptation is poorly studied in vertebrate predator-prey systems. Here, we used a reciprocal common garden (laboratory) experimental design involving comparisons between local and foreign populations to determine if local adaptation was present between a generalist predator-the pigmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius)-and a co-occurring prey-the squirrel treefrog (Hyla squirella)...
May 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509389/a-revised-sociogenomic-model-of-personality-traits
#6
Brent W Roberts
In this paper, I seek to update the sociogenomic model of personality traits (Roberts & Jackson, 2008). Specifically, I seek to outline a broader and more comprehensive theoretical perspective on personality traits than offered in the original version of the sociogenomic model of personality traits. First, I review the major points of our 2008 paper. Second, I update our earlier model mostly with insights derived from a deeper reading of evolutionary theoretical systems, such as those found in life-history theory and ecological-evolutionary-developmental biology...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496954/sexual-risk-behaviors-constructed-in-iranian-women-s-life-with-substance-use-disorders-a-new-implication-of-human-ecological-theory
#7
Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh, Seyed Abbas Mousavi, Effat Merghati-Khoei, Mohammad Hassan Emamian, Afsaneh Keramat
BACKGROUND: Drug abuse is one of the important variables influencing protective sexual behavior. The objective of this study was to explore how risky sexual behaviors develop in drug abusing women using human ecological theory. METHODS: In this study, we used a descriptive exploratory approach. The participants were 32 drug abusing women from two of the selected drop-in centers (DICs) in south Tehran, Iran, where we could have access to a vast number of female drug users...
July 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493505/resilience-in-ecotoxicology-towards-a-multiple-equilibrium-concept
#8
REVIEW
Mirco Bundschuh, Ralf Schulz, Ralf B Schäfer, Craig R Allen, David G Angeler
The term resilience describes stress-response patterns across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly define resilience based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used to describe the ability of organisms to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), being the rate of recovery. By contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change; that is, when ecosystems reorganize into a new regime following disturbance. Under this new regime, structural and functional aspects change considerably relative to the previous regime, without recovery...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483871/learning-from-single-extreme-events
#9
REVIEW
Res Altwegg, Vernon Visser, Liam D Bailey, Birgit Erni
Extreme climatic events (ECEs) have a disproportionate effect on ecosystems. Yet much of what we know about the ecological impact of ECEs is based on observing the effects of single extreme events. We examined what characteristics affect the strength of inference that can be drawn from single-event studies, which broadly fell into three categories: opportunistic observational studies initiated after an ECE, long-term observational studies with data before and after an ECE and experiments. Because extreme events occur rarely, inference from such single-event studies cannot easily be made under the usual statistical paradigm that relies on replication and control...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471258/developing-interprofessional-education-online-an-ecological-systems-theory-analysis
#10
Patricia Bluteau, Lynn Clouder, Debra Cureton
This article relates the findings of a discourse analysis of an online asynchronous interprofessional learning initiative involving two UK universities. The impact of the initiative is traced over three intensive periods of online interaction, each of several-weeks duration occurring over a three-year period, through an analysis of a random sample of discussion forum threads. The corpus of rich data drawn from the forums is interpreted using ecological systems theory, which highlights the complexity of interaction of individual, social and cultural elements...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443052/gih-qi-beyond-affordance
#11
Yang Lee, Robert E Shaw, Zheng Jin
Ancient Eastern thought posited the ontological integration of the "mind-body world". The body-mind syncretism was a foundational precept in Eastern philosophy in which "Gih" ("Qi") was considered the basic entity of the universe and the human being. This study attempts to build a meta-theory and to demonstrate empirical designs for Gih, discussing the problems of the mind and body, or the subject and object, compared with the concept of "affordance" proposed by ecological approaches. The notion of Gih extends beyond that of affordance in that Gih activates a psychosomatic process between the physical condition and the mental state that facilitates the bi-directional interactions between subject and object...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436265/recruiting-african-american-children-for-research-an-ecological-systems-theory-approach
#12
Diane Graves, Jane P Sheldon
With health disparities still pervasive and persistent in the United States, medical researchers and social scientists continue to develop recruitment strategies to increase the inclusion of racial/ethnic minority groups in research and interventions. Effective methods for recruiting samples of African American participants for pediatric research may be best understood when situated within an overarching conceptual model-one that serves to organize and explain effective recruitment strategies. A theoretical framework well suited for this purpose is Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, which views individuals as influencing and being influenced by (both directly and indirectly) a series of interconnected social systems...
April 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421267/potential-distribution-of-mountain-cloud-forest-in-michoac%C3%A3-n-mexico-prioritization-for-conservation-in-the-context-of-landscape-connectivity
#13
Camilo A Correa Ayram, Manuel E Mendoza, Andrés Etter, Diego R Pérez Salicrup
Landscape connectivity is essential in biodiversity conservation because of its ability to reduce the effect of habitat fragmentation; furthermore is a key property in adapting to climate change. Potential distribution models and landscape connectivity studies have increased with regard to their utility to prioritizing areas for conservation. The objective of this study was to model the potential distribution of Mountain cloud forests in the Transversal Volcanic System, Michoacán and to analyze the role of these areas in maintaining landscape connectivity...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416694/experimental-dispersal-reveals-characteristic-scales-of-biodiversity-in-a-natural-landscape
#14
Rachel M Germain, Sharon Y Strauss, Benjamin Gilbert
Ecological theory posits that dispersal among habitat patches links local communities and is a key "regional" process that maintains biological diversity. However, manipulations required to experimentally test regional processes are infeasible for most systems, and thus more work is needed to detect the scales at which regional processes manifest and their overall effect on diversity. In a Californian grassland, a hotspot for global biodiversity, we used a seed vacuum to increase dispersal at spatial scales varying from 1 m to 10 km while maintaining a realistic spatial structure of species pools and environmental conditions...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412270/how-surgeons-conceptualize-talent-a-qualitative-study-using-sport-science-as-a-lens
#15
Rune Dall Jensen, Mette Krogh Christensen, Kori A LaDonna, Mikkel Seyer-Hansen, Sayra Cristancho
OBJECTIVES: Debates prevail regarding the definition of surgical talent, and how individuals with the potential to become talented surgeons can be identified and developed. However, over the past 30 years, talent has been studied extensively in other domains. The objectives of this study is to explore notions of talent in surgery and sport in order to investigate if the field of surgical education can benefit from expanding its view on talented performances. Therefore, this study aims to use the sport literature as a lens when exploring how surgeons conceptualize and define talent...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410029/ecological-pleiotropy-suppresses-the-dynamic-feedback-generated-by-a-rapidly-changing-trait
#16
John P DeLong
Population dynamics may carry a signature of an ecology-evolution-ecology feedback, known as eco-evolutionary dynamics, when functionally important traits change. Given current theory, the absence of a feedback from a trait with strong links to species interactions should not occur. In a previous study with the Didinium-Paramecium predator-prey system, however, rapid and large-magnitude changes in predator cell volume occurred without any noticeable effect on the population dynamics. Here I resolve this theory-data conflict by showing that ecological pleiotropy-when a trait has more than one functional effect on an ecological process-suppresses shifts in dynamics that would arise, given the links between cell volume and the species interaction...
May 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405367/shifts-in-rotifer-life-history-in-response-to-stable-isotope-enrichment-testing-theories-of-isotope-effects-on-organismal-growth
#17
Elena Gorokhova
In ecology, stable isotope labelling is commonly used for tracing material transfer in trophic interactions, nutrient budgets and biogeochemical processes. The main assumption in this approach is that the enrichment with a heavy isotope has no effect on the organism growth and metabolism. This assumption is, however, challenged by theoretical considerations and experimental studies on kinetic isotope effects in vivo. Here, I demonstrate profound changes in life histories of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis fed (15)N-enriched algae (0...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379556/fusing-biodiversity-metrics-into-investigations-of-daily-life-illustrations-and-recommendations-with-emodiversity
#18
Lizbeth Benson, Nilam Ram, David M Almeida, Alex J Zautra, Anthony D Ong
Objectives: Functionalist emotion and ecological systems theories suggest emodiversity-the variety and relative abundance of individuals' emotion experiences-is beneficial for psychological and physical health and may change with age. This paper examines and provides recommendations for operationalization of diversity-type intraindividual variability (IIV) constructs using intensive longitudinal data, and demonstrates the utility of emodiversity by examining its links to physical health moderated by mean levels of emotion and age...
March 30, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369917/food-web-structure-of-willow-galling-sawflies-and-their-natural-enemies-across-europe
#19
Jens-Peter Kopelke, Tommi Nyman, Kévin Cazelles, Dominique Gravel, Steve Vissault, Tomas Roslin
Communities consist of species and their interactions. They can thus be described as networks, with species as nodes and interactions as links. Within such networks, the diversity of nodes and the distribution of links may affect patterns of energy transfer between trophic levels, the dynamics of the system, and the outcome in terms of ecosystem functioning. To date, most descriptions of networks have focused on single or relatively few sites, and have oftentimes been built on poorly resolved nodes and links...
March 29, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369822/improving-the-assessment-of-predator-functional-responses-by-considering-alternate-prey-and-predator-interactions
#20
K Chan, S Boutin, T J Hossie, C J Krebs, M O'Donoghue, D L Murray
To improve understanding of the complex and variable patterns of predator foraging behavior in natural systems, it is critical to determine how density-dependent predation and predator hunting success are mediated by alternate prey or predator interference. Despite considerable theory and debate seeking to place predator-prey interactions in a more realistic context, few empirical studies have quantified the role of alternate prey or intraspecific interactions on predator-prey dynamics. We assessed functional responses of 2 similarly-sized, sympatric carnivores, lynx (Lynx canadensis) and coyotes (Canis latrans), foraging on common primary (snowshoe hares; Lepus americanus) and alternate (red squirrels; Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) prey in a natural system...
March 29, 2017: Ecology
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