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Ecological systems theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893775/extinction-debt-and-colonizer-credit-on-a-habitat-perturbed-fishing-bank
#1
Daniel E Duplisea, Michael G Frisk, Verena M Trenkel
Temporal changes in occupancy of the Georges Bank (NE USA) fish and invertebrate community were examined and interpreted in the context of systems ecological theory of extinction debt (EDT). EDT posits that in a closed system with a mix of competitor and colonizer species and experiencing habitat fragmentation and loss, the competitor species will show a gradual decline in fitness (occupancy) eventually leading to their extinction (extirpation) over multiple generations. A corollary of this is a colonizer credit, where colonizer species occupancy may increase with fragmentation because the disturbance gives that life history a transient relative competitive advantage...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879110/population-models-with-quasi-constant-yield-harvest-rates
#2
Kunquan Lan, Wei Lin
One-dimensional logistic population models with quasi-constant-yield harvest rates are studied under the assumptions that a population inhabits a patch of dimensionless width and no members of the population can survive outside of the patch. The essential problem is to determine the size of the patch and the ranges of the harvesting rate functions under which the population survives or becomes extinct. This is the first paper which discusses such models with the Dirichlet boundary conditions and can tell the exact quantity of harvest rates of the species without having the population die out...
April 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870051/chemical-similarity-and-local-community-assembly-in-the-species-rich-tropical-genus-piper
#3
Diego Salazar, M Alejandra Jaramillo, Robert J Marquis
Community ecologists have strived to find mechanisms that mediate the assembly of natural communities. Recent evidence suggests that natural enemies could play an important role in the assembly of hyper-diverse tropical plant systems. Classic ecological theory predicts that in order for coexistence to occur, species differences must be maximized across biologically important niche dimensions. For plant-herbivore interactions, it has been recently suggested that, within a particular community, plant species that maximize the difference in chemical defense profiles compared to neighboring taxa will have a relative competitive advantage...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866106/denitrification-in-an-integrated-bioelectro-photocatalytic-system
#4
Zhi-Qi Lin, Shi-Jie Yuan, Wen-Wei Li, Jie-Jie Chen, Guo-Ping Sheng, Han-Qing Yu
Since nitrate causes severe ecological and health risks, nitrate contamination of drinking water sources has become one of the most important water quality concerns all over the world. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate to molecular nitrogen presents a promising approach to remove nitrate from drinking water sources. However, harmful intermediates like NO2(-), NO, NO2 and N2O are usually formed, and metal loading or hole scavengers are generally needed to reduce the recombination of photo-generated electrons and holes, which will cause secondary pollution to drinking water...
November 14, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859849/the-evolution-of-intrinsic-reproductive-isolation-in-the-genus-cakile-brassicaceae
#5
Charles G Willis, Kathleen Donohue
In theory, adaptive divergence can increase intrinsic post-zygotic reproductive isolation (RI), either directly via selection on loci associated with RI, or indirectly via linkage of incompatibility loci with loci under selection. To test this hypothesis, we measured RI at five intrinsic post-zygotic reproductive barriers between 18 taxa from the genera Cakile and Erucaria (Brassicaceae). Using a comparative framework, we tested whether the magnitude of RI was associated with genetic distance, geographic distance, ecological divergence, and parental mating system...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859064/testing-the-trait-based-community-framework-do-functional-traits-predict-competitive-outcomes
#6
Jennifer L Funk, Amelia A Wolf
Plant traits can be used to understand a range of ecological processes, including competition with invasive species. The extent to which native and invasive species are competing via limiting similarity or trait hierarchies has important implications for the management of invaded communities. We screened 47 native species that co-occur with Festuca perennis, a dominant invader in California serpentine grassland, for traits pertaining to resource use and acquisition. We then grew F. perennis with 10 species spanning a range of functional similarity in pairwise competition trials...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856059/operationalizing-network-theory-for-ecosystem-service-assessments
#7
REVIEW
Laura E Dee, Stefano Allesina, Aletta Bonn, Anna Eklöf, Steven D Gaines, Jes Hines, Ute Jacob, Eve McDonald-Madden, Hugh Possingham, Matthias Schröter, Ross M Thompson
Managing ecosystems to provide ecosystem services in the face of global change is a pressing challenge for policy and science. Predicting how alternative management actions and changing future conditions will alter services is complicated by interactions among components in ecological and socioeconomic systems. Failure to understand those interactions can lead to detrimental outcomes from management decisions. Network theory that integrates ecological and socioeconomic systems may provide a path to meeting this challenge...
November 14, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844461/antecedents-of-suicide-among-youth-aged-11-15-a-multistate-mixed-methods-analysis
#8
Kristin M Holland, Alana M Vivolo-Kantor, Joseph E Logan, Ruth W Leemis
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for youth aged 11 to 15, taking over 5,500 lives from 2003 to 2014. Suicide among this age group is linked to risk factors such as mental health problems, family history of suicidal behavior, biological factors, family problems, and peer victimization and bullying. However, few studies have examined the frequency with which such problems occur among youth suicide decedents or the context in which decedents experience these risk factors and the complex interplay of risk that results in a decedent's decision to take his/her own life...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833807/the-ecology-of-stress-linking-life-history-traits-with-physiological-control-mechanisms-in-free-living-guanacos
#9
Ramiro J A Ovejero Aguilar, Graciela A Jahn, Mauricio Soto-Gamboa, Andrés J Novaro, Pablo Carmanchahi
BACKGROUND: Providing the context for the evolution of life-history traits, habitat features constrain successful ecological and physiological strategies. In vertebrates, a key response to life's challenges is the activation of the Stress (HPA) and Gonadal (HPG) axes. Much of the interest in stress ecology is motivated by the desire to understand the physiological mechanisms in which the environment affects fitness. As reported in the literature, several intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect variability in hormone levels...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822558/microbial-communities-are-well-adapted-to-disturbances-in-energy-input
#10
Nuria Fernandez-Gonzalez, Julie A Huber, Joseph J Vallino
Although microbial systems are well suited for studying concepts in ecological theory, little is known about how microbial communities respond to long-term periodic perturbations beyond diel oscillations. Taking advantage of an ongoing microcosm experiment, we studied how methanotrophic microbial communities adapted to disturbances in energy input over a 20-day cycle period. Sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes together with quantification of microbial abundance and ecosystem function were used to explore the long-term dynamics (510 days) of methanotrophic communities under continuous versus cyclic chemical energy supply...
September 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817927/assessing-the-cumulative-environmental-effects-of-marine-renewable-energy-developments-establishing-common-ground
#11
REVIEW
Edward Willsteed, Andrew B Gill, Silvana N R Birchenough, Simon Jude
Assessing and managing the cumulative impacts of human activities on the environment remains a major challenge to sustainable development. This challenge is highlighted by the worldwide expansion of marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) in areas already subject to multiple activities and climate change. Cumulative effects assessments in theory provide decision makers with adequate information about how the environment will respond to the incremental effects of licensed activities and are a legal requirement in many nations...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810464/defensive-symbionts-mediate-host-parasite-interactions-at-multiple-scales
#12
REVIEW
Skylar R Hopkins, Jeremy M Wojdak, Lisa K Belden
In protection mutualisms, defensive symbionts protect their hosts from natural enemies, including parasites. Protection mutualisms were historically considered rare ecological relationships, but recent examples demonstrate that defensive symbionts are both quite common and diverse. Defensive symbionts can have surprisingly large effects on host and parasite ecology at the individual, population, guild, and community scales. However, the highly context-dependent nature of protection mutualisms makes it difficult to identify and quantify the roles that defensive symbionts play in host-parasite systems...
October 31, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802680/spatial-self-organization-in-hybrid-models-of-multicellular-adhesion
#13
Adriano Bonforti, Salva Duran-Nebreda, Raúl Montañez, Ricard Solé
Spatial self-organization emerges in distributed systems exhibiting local interactions when nonlinearities and the appropriate propagation of signals are at work. These kinds of phenomena can be modeled with different frameworks, typically cellular automata or reaction-diffusion systems. A different class of dynamical processes involves the correlated movement of agents over space, which can be mediated through chemotactic movement or minimization of cell-cell interaction energy. A classic example of the latter is given by the formation of spatially segregated assemblies when cells display differential adhesion...
October 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791072/interactions-of-social-terrestrial-and-marine-sub-systems-in-the-galapagos-islands-ecuador
#14
Stephen J Walsh, Carlos F Mena
Galapagos is often cited as an example of the conflicts that are emerging between resource conservation and economic development in island ecosystems, as the pressures associated with tourism threaten nature, including the iconic and emblematic species, unique terrestrial landscapes, and special marine environments. In this paper, two projects are described that rely upon dynamic systems models and agent-based models to examine human-environment interactions. We use a theoretical context rooted in complexity theory to guide the development of our models that are linked to social-ecological dynamics...
October 10, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785355/integrating-succession-and-community-assembly-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Cynthia Chang, Janneke HilleRisLambers
Succession and community assembly research overlap in many respects, such as through their focus on how ecological processes like dispersal, environmental filters, and biotic interactions influence community structure. Indeed, many recent advances have been made by successional studies that draw on modern analytical techniques introduced by contemporary community assembly studies. However, community assembly studies generally lack a temporal perspective, both on how the forces structuring communities might change over time and on how historical contingency (e...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772536/the-adaptive-calibration-model-of-stress-responsivity-an-empirical-test-in-the-tracking-adolescents-individual-lives-survey-study
#16
Bruce J Ellis, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Esther Nederhof
The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is a theory of developmental programing focusing on calibration of stress response systems and associated life history strategies to local environmental conditions. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescent males (11-16 years old; N = 351). Measures of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and adrenocortical activation, reactivity to, and recovery from social-evaluative stress validated the four-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via latent profile analysis, though with some deviations from expected patterns...
October 24, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761333/aboveground-and-belowground-arthropods-experience-different-relative-influences-of-stochastic-versus-deterministic-community-assembly-processes-following-disturbance
#17
Scott Ferrenberg, Alexander S Martinez, Akasha M Faist
BACKGROUND: Understanding patterns of biodiversity is a longstanding challenge in ecology. Similar to other biotic groups, arthropod community structure can be shaped by deterministic and stochastic processes, with limited understanding of what moderates the relative influence of these processes. Disturbances have been noted to alter the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes on community assembly in various study systems, implicating ecological disturbances as a potential moderator of these forces...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756414/implementation-context-and-complexity
#18
Carl R May, Mark Johnson, Tracy Finch
BACKGROUND: Context is a problem in research on health behaviour change, knowledge translation, practice implementation and health improvement. This is because many intervention and evaluation designs seek to eliminate contextual confounders, when these represent the normal conditions into which interventions must be integrated if they are to be workable in practice. DISCUSSION: We present an ecological model of the ways that participants in implementation and health improvement processes interact with contexts...
October 19, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755718/the-ethological-trap-functional-and-numerical-responses-of-highly-efficient-invasive-predators-driving-prey-extinctions
#19
Ricky-John Spencer, James U Van Dyke, Michael B Thompson
Ecological traps are threats to organisms, and exist in a range of biological systems. A subset of ecological trap theory is the "ethological trap," whereby behaviors canalized by past natural selection become traps when environments change rapidly. Invasive predators are major threats to imperiled species and their ability to exploit canalized behaviors of naive prey is particularly important for the establishment of the predator and the decline of the native prey. Our study uses ecological theory to demonstrate that invasive predator controls require shifts in management priorities...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755713/combining-statistical-inference-and-decisions-in-ecology
#20
Perry J Williams, Mevin B Hooten
Statistical decision theory (SDT) is a sub-field of decision theory that formally incorporates statistical investigation into a decision-theoretic framework to account for uncertainties in a decision problem. SDT provides a unifying analysis of three types of information: statistical results from a data set, knowledge of the consequences of potential choices (i.e., loss), and prior beliefs about a system. SDT links the theoretical development of a large body of statistical methods, including point estimation, hypothesis testing, and confidence interval estimation...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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