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Ecological systems theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289263/fast-killing-parasites-can-be-favoured-in-spatially-structured-populations
#1
Helen C Leggett, Geoff Wild, Stuart A West, Angus Buckling
It is becoming increasingly clear that the evolution of infectious disease is influenced by host population structure. Theory predicts that parasites should be more 'prudent'-less transmissible-in spatially structured host populations. However, here we (i) highlight how low transmission, the phenotype being selected for in this in context, may also be achieved by rapacious host exploitation, if fast host exploitation confers a local, within-host competitive advantage and (ii) test this novel concept in a bacteria-virus system...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285464/shodagor-family-strategies-balancing-work-and-family-on-the-water
#2
Kathrine E Starkweather
The Shodagor of Matlab, Bangladesh, are a seminomadic community of people who live and work on small wooden boats, within the extensive system of rivers and canals that traverse the country. This unique ecology places particular constraints on family and economic life and leads to Shodagor parents employing one of four distinct strategies to balance childcare and provisioning needs. The purpose of this paper is to understand the conditions that lead a family to choose one strategy over another by testing predictions about socioecological factors that impact the sexual division of labor, including a family's stage in the domestic cycle, aspects of the local ecology, and the availability of alloparents...
March 11, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279937/can-nutrient-pathways-and-biotic-interactions-control-eutrophication-in-riverine-ecosystems-evidence-from-a-model-driven-mesocosm-experiment
#3
Christoph G Jäger, Jeske Hagemann, Dietrich Borchardt
Ecological theory predicts that the relative importance of benthic to planktonic primary production usually changes along the rivers' continuum from a predomination of benthic algae in lower stream orders to a predomination of planktonic algae at higher orders. Underlying mechanisms driving the interaction between algae in these habitats, its controlling factors and consequences for riverine ecosystems are, however, only partly understood. We present a mechanistic analysis of the governing ecological processes using a simplified, numerical model and examine how abiotic factors and biotic interactions influence benthic and planktonic algae by changing resource competition...
February 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276582/ecological-factors-in-human-development
#4
William E Cross
Urie Bronfenbrenner (1992) helped developmental psychologists comprehend and define "context" as a rich, thick multidimensional construct. His ecological systems theory consists of five layers, and within each layer are developmental processes unique to each layer. The four articles in this section limit the exploration of context to the three innermost systems: the individual plus micro- and macrolayers. Rather than examine both the physical features and processes, the articles tend to focus solely on processes associated with a niche...
March 9, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262485/recent-visual-experience-shapes-visual-processing-in-rats-through-stimulus-specific-adaptation-and-response-enhancement
#5
Kasper Vinken, Rufin Vogels, Hans Op de Beeck
From an ecological point of view, it is generally suggested that the main goal of vision in rats and mice is navigation and (aerial) predator evasion [1-3]. The latter requires fast and accurate detection of a change in the visual environment. An outstanding question is whether there are mechanisms in the rodent visual system that would support and facilitate visual change detection. An experimental protocol frequently used to investigate change detection in humans is the oddball paradigm, in which a rare, unexpected stimulus is presented in a train of stimulus repetitions [4]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242201/examining-the-role-of-individual-movement-in-promoting-coexistence-in-a-spatially-explicit-prisoner-s-dilemma
#6
Andrew E F Burgess, Tommaso Lorenzi, Pietà G Schofield, Stephen F Hubbard, Mark A J Chaplain
The emergence of cooperation is a major conundrum of evolutionary biology. To unravel this evolutionary riddle, several models have been developed within the theoretical framework of spatial game theory, focussing on the interactions between two general classes of player, "cooperators" and "defectors". Generally, explicit movement in the spatial domain is not considered in these models, with strategies moving via imitation or through colonisation of neighbouring sites. We present here a spatially explicit stochastic individual-based model in which pure cooperators and defectors undergo random motion via diffusion and also chemotaxis guided by the gradient of a semiochemical...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223529/social-ecological-network-analysis-of-scale-mismatches-in-estuary-watershed-restoration
#7
Jesse S Sayles, Jacopo A Baggio
Resource management boundaries seldom align with environmental systems, which can lead to social and ecological problems. Mapping and analyzing how resource management organizations in different areas collaborate can provide vital information to help overcome such misalignment. Few quantitative approaches exist, however, to analyze social collaborations alongside environmental patterns, especially among local and regional organizations (i.e., in multilevel governance settings). This paper develops and applies such an approach using social-ecological network analysis (SENA), which considers relationships among and between social and ecological units...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221835/social-information-on-fear-and-food-drives-animal-grouping-and-fitness
#8
Michael A Gil, Zachary Emberts, Harrison Jones, Colette M St Mary
Empirical studies in select systems suggest that social information-the incidental or deliberate information produced by animals and available to other animals-can fundamentally shape animal grouping behavior. However, to understand the role of social information in animal behavior and fitness, we must establish general theory that quantifies effects of social information across ecological contexts and generates expectations that can be applied across systems. Here we used dynamic state variable modeling to isolate effects of social information about food and predators on grouping behavior and fitness...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220677/toward-a-sociology-of-oceans
#9
John Hannigan
Despite covering around 70 percent of the earth's surface, the ocean has long been ignored by sociology or treated as merely an extension of land-based systems. Increasingly, however, oceans are assuming a higher profile, emerging both as a new resource frontier, a medium for geopolitical rivalry and conflict, and a unique and threatened ecological hot spot. In this article, I propose a new sociological specialty area, the "sociology of oceans" to be situated at the interface between environmental sociology and traditional maritime studies...
February 2017: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218805/functional-nonredundancy-of-elephants-in-a-disturbed-tropical-forest
#10
Nitin Sekar, Chia-Lo Lee, Raman Sukumar
Conservation efforts are often motivated by the threat of global extinction. Yet if conservationists had more information suggesting that the local extirpation of individual species could lead to undesirable ecological effects, conservationists might more frequently attempt to protect or restore such species across their range even if they are not in danger of global extinction. Scientists have seldom measured or quantitatively predicted the functional consequences of species loss, even for large, extinction-prone species that theory suggests should be functionally unique...
February 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217892/animal-pee-in-the-sea-consumer-mediated-nutrient-dynamics-in-the-world-s-changing-oceans
#11
REVIEW
Jacob E Allgeier, Deron E Burkepile, Craig A Layman
Humans have drastically altered the abundance of animals in marine ecosystems via exploitation. Reduced abundance can destabilize food webs, leading to cascading indirect effects that dramatically reorganize community structure and shift ecosystem function. However, the additional implications of these top-down changes for biogeochemical cycles via consumer-mediated nutrient dynamics (CND) are often overlooked in marine systems, particularly in coastal areas. Here, we review research that underscores the importance of this bottom-up control at local, regional, and global scales in coastal marine ecosystems, and the potential implications of anthropogenic change to fundamentally alter these processes...
February 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211914/eco-evolutionary-feedbacks-can-rescue-cooperation-in-microbial-populations
#12
Clara Moreno-Fenoll, Matteo Cavaliere, Esteban Martínez-García, Juan F Poyatos
Bacterial populations whose growth depends on the cooperative production of public goods are usually threatened by the rise of cheaters that do not contribute but just consume the common resource. Minimizing cheater invasions appears then as a necessary mechanism to maintain these populations. However, that invasions result instead in the persistence of cooperation is a prospect that has yet remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that the demographic collapse induced by cheaters in the population can actually contribute to the rescue of cooperation, in a clear illustration of how ecology and evolution can influence each other...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208412/neutral-aggregation-in-finite-length-genotype-space
#13
Bahram Houchmandzadeh
The advent of modern genome sequencing techniques allows for a more stringent test of the neutrality hypothesis of Darwinian evolution, where all individuals have the same fitness. Using the individual-based model of Wright and Fisher, we compute the amplitude of neutral aggregation in the genome space, i.e., the probability of finding two individuals at genetic (Hamming) distance k as a function of the genome size L, population size N, and mutation probability per base ν. In well-mixed populations, we show that for Nν<1/L, neutral aggregation is the dominant force and most individuals are found at short genetic distances from each other...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206799/military-service-member-and-veteran-reintegration-a-critical-review-and-adapted-ecological-model
#14
Christine A Elnitsky, Cara L Blevins, Michael P Fisher, Kathryn Magruder
Returning military service members and veterans (MSMVs) experience a wide range of stress-related disorders in addition to social and occupational difficulties when reintegrating to the community. Facilitating reintegration of MSMVs following deployment is a societal priority. With an objective of identifying challenges and facilitators for reintegration of MSMVs of the current war era, we critically review and identify gaps in the literature. We searched 8 electronic databases and identified 1,764 articles...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197129/the-ecological-role-of-type-three-secretion-systems-in-the-interaction-of-bacteria-with-fungi-in-soil-and-related-habitats-is-diverse-and-context-dependent
#15
REVIEW
Rashid Nazir, Sylvie Mazurier, Pu Yang, Philippe Lemanceau, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Bacteria and fungi constitute important organisms in many ecosystems, in particular terrestrial ones. Both organismal groups contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling processes. Ecological theory postulates that bacteria capable of receiving benefits from host fungi are likely to evolve efficient association strategies. The purpose of this review is to examine the mechanisms that underpin the bacterial interactions with fungi in soil and other systems, with special focus on the type III secretion system (T3SS)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187165/the-influence-of-resilience-based-management-on-coral-reef-monitoring-a-systematic-review
#16
Vivian Y Y Lam, Christopher Doropoulos, Peter J Mumby
With rapid changes taking place on coral reefs, managers and scientists are faced with prioritising interventions that might avoid undesirable losses in ecosystem health. The property of resilience captures how reefs react and respond to stressors and environmental changes. Therefore, in principle, management goals are more likely to be realised if resilience theory is used to inform decision making and help set realistic expectations for reef outcomes. Indeed, a new approach to reef management has been termed 'resilience-based management' (RBM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178971/building-social-capital-to-promote-adolescent-wellbeing-a-qualitative-study-with-teens-in-a-latino-agricultural-community
#17
Marissa Raymond-Flesch, Colette Auerswald, Linda McGlone, Megan Comfort, Alexandra Minnis
BACKGROUND: Latino youth, particularly in rural settings, experience significant disparities in rates of teen pregnancy and violence. Few data are available regarding social and structural influences on Latino youth's developmental trajectories, specifically on factors that promote wellbeing and protect them from engagement in high-risk sexual and violence-related behaviors. METHODS: Forty-two youth aged 13 to 19 years old were recruited from middle schools and youth leadership programs to participate in one of eight community-based focus groups in Salinas, a predominantly Latino, urban center in California's rural central coast...
February 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132611/stakeholder-conceptualisation-of-multi-level-hiv-and-aids-determinants-in-a-black-epicentre
#18
Bridgette M Brawner, Janaiya L Reason, Kelsey Hanlon, Barbara Guthrie, Jean J Schensul
HIV has reached epidemic proportions among African Americans in the USA but certain urban contexts appear to experience a disproportionate disease burden. Geographic information systems mapping in Philadelphia indicates increased HIV incidence and prevalence in predominantly Black census tracts, with major differences across adjacent communities. What factors shape these geographic HIV disparities among Black Philadelphians? This descriptive study was designed to refine and validate a conceptual model developed to better understand multi-level determinants of HIV-related risk among Black Philadelphians...
January 30, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114339/biomass-reallocation-between-juveniles-and-adults-mediates-food-web-stability-by-distributing-energy-away-from-strong-interactions
#19
Amanda L Caskenette, Kevin S McCann
Ecological theory has uncovered dynamical differences between food web modules (i.e. low species food web configurations) with only species-level links and food web modules that include within-species links (e.g. non-feeding links between mature and immature individuals) and has argued that these differences ought to cause food web theory that includes within-species links to contrast with classical food web theory. It is unclear, however, if life-history will affect the observed connection between interaction strength and stability in species-level theory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108759/from-microhabitat-of-floral-nectar-up-to-biogeographic-scale-novel-insights-on-neutral-and-niche-bacterial-assemblies
#20
Yana Aizenberg-Gershtein, Ido Izhaki, Malka Halpern
Microbial model systems are very useful in addressing macro-ecological questions. Two major theories exist to date, to explain the community structure of organisms: (1) the dispersal (neutral) assembly theory which predicts that community similarity decreases with increasing geographic distance, independent of any environmental variables, and (2) the niche assembly theory which predicts that the communities' compositions are more homogeneous among sites characterized by similar environmental conditions. Our study system offered a unique opportunity to investigate the relative role of environmental conditions and spatial factors in shaping community composition...
January 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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