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Ecological systems theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211914/eco-evolutionary-feedbacks-can-rescue-cooperation-in-microbial-populations
#1
Clara Moreno-Fenoll, Matteo Cavaliere, Esteban Martínez-García, Juan F Poyatos
Bacterial populations whose growth depends on the cooperative production of public goods are usually threatened by the rise of cheaters that do not contribute but just consume the common resource. Minimizing cheater invasions appears then as a necessary mechanism to maintain these populations. However, that invasions result instead in the persistence of cooperation is a prospect that has yet remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that the demographic collapse induced by cheaters in the population can actually contribute to the rescue of cooperation, in a clear illustration of how ecology and evolution can influence each other...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208412/neutral-aggregation-in-finite-length-genotype-space
#2
Bahram Houchmandzadeh
The advent of modern genome sequencing techniques allows for a more stringent test of the neutrality hypothesis of Darwinian evolution, where all individuals have the same fitness. Using the individual-based model of Wright and Fisher, we compute the amplitude of neutral aggregation in the genome space, i.e., the probability of finding two individuals at genetic (Hamming) distance k as a function of the genome size L, population size N, and mutation probability per base ν. In well-mixed populations, we show that for Nν<1/L, neutral aggregation is the dominant force and most individuals are found at short genetic distances from each other...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206799/military-service-member-and-veteran-reintegration-a-critical-review-and-adapted-ecological-model
#3
Christine A Elnitsky, Cara L Blevins, Michael P Fisher, Kathryn Magruder
Returning military service members and veterans (MSMVs) experience a wide range of stress-related disorders in addition to social and occupational difficulties when reintegrating to the community. Facilitating reintegration of MSMVs following deployment is a societal priority. With an objective of identifying challenges and facilitators for reintegration of MSMVs of the current war era, we critically review and identify gaps in the literature. We searched 8 electronic databases and identified 1,764 articles...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197129/the-ecological-role-of-type-three-secretion-systems-in-the-interaction-of-bacteria-with-fungi-in-soil-and-related-habitats-is-diverse-and-context-dependent
#4
REVIEW
Rashid Nazir, Sylvie Mazurier, Pu Yang, Philippe Lemanceau, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Bacteria and fungi constitute important organisms in many ecosystems, in particular terrestrial ones. Both organismal groups contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling processes. Ecological theory postulates that bacteria capable of receiving benefits from host fungi are likely to evolve efficient association strategies. The purpose of this review is to examine the mechanisms that underpin the bacterial interactions with fungi in soil and other systems, with special focus on the type III secretion system (T3SS)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187165/the-influence-of-resilience-based-management-on-coral-reef-monitoring-a-systematic-review
#5
Vivian Y Y Lam, Christopher Doropoulos, Peter J Mumby
With rapid changes taking place on coral reefs, managers and scientists are faced with prioritising interventions that might avoid undesirable losses in ecosystem health. The property of resilience captures how reefs react and respond to stressors and environmental changes. Therefore, in principle, management goals are more likely to be realised if resilience theory is used to inform decision making and help set realistic expectations for reef outcomes. Indeed, a new approach to reef management has been termed 'resilience-based management' (RBM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178971/building-social-capital-to-promote-adolescent-wellbeing-a-qualitative-study-with-teens-in-a-latino-agricultural-community
#6
Marissa Raymond-Flesch, Colette Auerswald, Linda McGlone, Megan Comfort, Alexandra Minnis
BACKGROUND: Latino youth, particularly in rural settings, experience significant disparities in rates of teen pregnancy and violence. Few data are available regarding social and structural influences on Latino youth's developmental trajectories, specifically on factors that promote wellbeing and protect them from engagement in high-risk sexual and violence-related behaviors. METHODS: Forty-two youth aged 13 to 19 years old were recruited from middle schools and youth leadership programs to participate in one of eight community-based focus groups in Salinas, a predominantly Latino, urban center in California's rural central coast...
February 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132611/stakeholder-conceptualisation-of-multi-level-hiv-and-aids-determinants-in-a-black-epicentre
#7
Bridgette M Brawner, Janaiya L Reason, Kelsey Hanlon, Barbara Guthrie, Jean J Schensul
HIV has reached epidemic proportions among African Americans in the USA but certain urban contexts appear to experience a disproportionate disease burden. Geographic information systems mapping in Philadelphia indicates increased HIV incidence and prevalence in predominantly Black census tracts, with major differences across adjacent communities. What factors shape these geographic HIV disparities among Black Philadelphians? This descriptive study was designed to refine and validate a conceptual model developed to better understand multi-level determinants of HIV-related risk among Black Philadelphians...
January 30, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114339/biomass-reallocation-between-juveniles-and-adults-mediates-food-web-stability-by-distributing-energy-away-from-strong-interactions
#8
Amanda L Caskenette, Kevin S McCann
Ecological theory has uncovered dynamical differences between food web modules (i.e. low species food web configurations) with only species-level links and food web modules that include within-species links (e.g. non-feeding links between mature and immature individuals) and has argued that these differences ought to cause food web theory that includes within-species links to contrast with classical food web theory. It is unclear, however, if life-history will affect the observed connection between interaction strength and stability in species-level theory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108759/from-microhabitat-of-floral-nectar-up-to-biogeographic-scale-novel-insights-on-neutral-and-niche-bacterial-assemblies
#9
Yana Aizenberg-Gershtein, Ido Izhaki, Malka Halpern
Microbial model systems are very useful in addressing macro-ecological questions. Two major theories exist to date, to explain the community structure of organisms: (1) the dispersal (neutral) assembly theory which predicts that community similarity decreases with increasing geographic distance, independent of any environmental variables, and (2) the niche assembly theory which predicts that the communities' compositions are more homogeneous among sites characterized by similar environmental conditions. Our study system offered a unique opportunity to investigate the relative role of environmental conditions and spatial factors in shaping community composition...
January 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102267/a-theoretical-foundation-for-multi-scale-regular-vegetation-patterns
#10
Corina E Tarnita, Juan A Bonachela, Efrat Sheffer, Jennifer A Guyton, Tyler C Coverdale, Ryan A Long, Robert M Pringle
Self-organized regular vegetation patterns are widespread and thought to mediate ecosystem functions such as productivity and robustness, but the mechanisms underlying their origin and maintenance remain disputed. Particularly controversial are landscapes of overdispersed (evenly spaced) elements, such as North American Mima mounds, Brazilian murundus, South African heuweltjies, and, famously, Namibian fairy circles. Two competing hypotheses are currently debated. On the one hand, models of scale-dependent feedbacks, whereby plants facilitate neighbours while competing with distant individuals, can reproduce various regular patterns identified in satellite imagery...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100374/-study-of-disease-burden-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-c-patients-in-shanghai-based-on-bronfenbrenner-s-ecological-systems-theory-a-community-based-survey
#11
H Ren, Y Shi, W Meng, J Y Hu, Y H Chen, Q C Pan
Objective: To systemically analyze family burden, quality of life of chronic hepatitis B and C patients in Shanghai and related influencing factors. Methods: A representative sample of chronic hepatitis patients (n=1 478) and their family members (n=1 478) was randomly selected through a multi-stage cluster sampling from 30 communities in 10 districts of Shanghai. One patient and one family member of each family were interviewed using different questionnaires to collect related information. Based on Bronfenbrenner' s ecological systems, psychological measurement, two-level random intercept model and multivariable structural equation model were applied to determine the effects and directions of the factors between life quality of chronic hepatitis patients and family burden...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094146/the-role-of-dynamic-energy-budget-theory-in-predictive-modeling-of-stressor-impacts-on-ecological-systems-comment-on-physics-of-metabolic-organization-by-marko-jusup-et-al
#12
Nika Galic, Valery E Forbes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092408/network-structure-and-local-adaptation-in-coevolving-bacteria-phage-interactions
#13
James Gurney, Lafi Aldakak, Alex Betts, Claire Gougat-Barbera, Timothée Poisot, Oliver Kaltz, Michael E Hochberg
Numerous theoretical and experimental studies have investigated antagonistic coevolution between parasites and their hosts. Although experimental tests of theory from a range of biological systems are largely concordant regarding the influence of several driving processes, we know little as to how mechanisms acting at the smallest scales (individual molecular and phenotypic changes) may result in the emergence of structures at larger scales, such as coevolutionary dynamics and local adaptation. We capitalized on methods commonly employed in community ecology to quantify how the structure of community interaction matrices, so called 'bipartite networks', reflected observed coevolutionary dynamics, and how phages from these communities may or may not have adapted locally to their bacterial hosts...
January 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081570/the-population-ecology-of-technology-an-empirical-study-of-us-biotechnology-patents-from-1976-to-2003
#14
Ad van den Oord, Arjen van Witteloostuijn
A detailed understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process is currently not well understood. To increase our understanding, we build upon theory from organizational ecology to develop a model of endogenous technological growth and determine to what extent the pattern of technological growth can be attributed to the structural or systemic characteristics of the technology itself. Through an empirical investigation of patent data in the biotechnology industry from 1976 to 2003, we find that a technology's internal (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060362/cheating-fosters-species-co-existence-in-well-mixed-bacterial-communities
#15
Anne Leinweber, R Fredrik Inglis, Rolf Kümmerli
Explaining the enormous biodiversity observed in bacterial communities is challenging because ecological theory predicts that competition between species occupying the same niche should lead to the exclusion of less competitive community members. Competitive exclusion should be particularly strong when species compete for a single limiting resource or live in unstructured habitats that offer no refuge for weaker competitors. Here, we describe the 'cheating effect', a form of intra-specific competition that can counterbalance between-species competition, thereby fostering biodiversity in unstructured habitats...
January 6, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054801/longitudinal-associations-between-marital-stress-and-externalizing-behavior-does-parental-sense-of-competence-mediate-processes
#16
Willemijn M van Eldik, Peter Prinzie, Maja Deković, Amaranta D de Haan
Ecological theories emphasize associations between children and elements within their family system, such as the marital relationship. Within a developmental perspective, we longitudinally examined (a) dynamic associations between marital stress and children's externalizing behavior, (b) mediation of these associations by parental sense of competence, and (c) the extent to which associations are similar for mothers and fathers. The sample consisted of 369 two-parent families (46.1% boys; Mage at Time 1 = 7...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049833/antibiotic-stress-selects-against-cooperation-in-the-pathogenic-bacterium-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Marie Vasse, Robert J Noble, Andrei R Akhmetzhanov, Clara Torres-Barceló, James Gurney, Simon Benateau, Claire Gougat-Barbera, Oliver Kaltz, Michael E Hochberg
Cheats are a pervasive threat to public goods production in natural and human communities, as they benefit from the commons without contributing to it. Although ecological antagonisms such as predation, parasitism, competition, and abiotic environmental stress play key roles in shaping population biology, it is unknown how such stresses generally affect the ability of cheats to undermine cooperation. We used theory and experiments to address this question in the pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Although public goods producers were selected against in all populations, our competition experiments showed that antibiotics significantly increased the advantage of nonproducers...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042886/spatial-variation-in-soil-biota-mediates-plant-adaptation-to-a-foliar-pathogen
#18
Sini Mursinoff, Ayco J M Tack
Theory suggests that below-ground spatial heterogeneity may mediate host-parasite evolutionary dynamics and patterns of local adaptation, but this has rarely been tested in natural systems. Here, we test experimentally for the impact of spatial variation in the abiotic and biotic soil environment on the evolutionary outcome of the interaction between the host plant Plantago lanceolata and its specialist foliar pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis. Plants showed no adaptation to the local soil environment in the absence of natural enemies...
January 2, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039973/tangent-map-intermittency-as-an-approximate-analysis-of-intermittency-in-a-high-dimensional-fully-stochastic-dynamical-system-the-tangled-nature-model
#19
Alvaro Diaz-Ruelas, Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen, Duccio Piovani, Alberto Robledo
It is well known that low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic maps close to a tangent bifurcation exhibit intermittency and this circumstance has been exploited, e.g., by Procaccia and Schuster [Phys. Rev. A 28, 1210 (1983)], to develop a general theory of 1/f spectra. This suggests it is interesting to study the extent to which the behavior of a high-dimensional stochastic system can be described by such tangent maps. The Tangled Nature (TaNa) Model of evolutionary ecology is an ideal candidate for such a study, a significant model as it is capable of reproducing a broad range of the phenomenology of macroevolution and ecosystems...
December 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035282/trade-off-between-early-emergence-and-herbivore-susceptibility-mediates-exotic-success-in-an-experimental-california-plant-community
#20
Joseph Waterton, Elsa E Cleland
Ecological trade-offs are fundamental to theory in community ecology; critical for understanding species coexistence in diverse plant communities, as well as the evolution of diverse life-history strategies. Invasions by exotic species can provide insights into the importance of trade-offs in community assembly, because the ecological strategies of invading species often differ from those present in the native species pool. Exotic annual species have invaded many Mediterranean-climate areas around the globe, and often germinate and emerge earlier in the growing season than native species...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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