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Porcine Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608816/mechanisms-of-adaptive-immunity-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#1
REVIEW
Michael C Rahe, Michael P Murtaugh
The adaptive immune response is necessary for the development of protective immunity against infectious diseases. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a genetically heterogeneous and rapidly evolving RNA virus, is the most burdensome pathogen of swine health and wellbeing worldwide. Viral infection induces antigen-specific immunity that ultimately clears the infection. However, the resulting immune memory, induced by virulent or attenuated vaccine viruses, is inconsistently protective against diverse viral strains...
June 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607413/early-gut-microbiota-intervention-suppresses-dss-induced-inflammatory-responses-by-deactivating-tlr-nlr-signalling-in-pigs
#2
Yi Xiao, Honglin Yan, Hui Diao, Bing Yu, Jun He, Jie Yu, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Yuheng Luo, Daiwen Chen
Recent metagenomic studies suggest that innate and adaptive immune phenotypes can be programmed via gut microbiota-host interactions mediated via activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on host cells. In this study, we used two extremely different pig lines (the Yorkshire and the Tibetan) to test the hypothesis that the transplantation of gut microbiota could transfer certain immunologic characteristics from donor to recipient. The faecal microbiota of these two pig lines was transplanted in healthy commercial hybrid newborn piglets to establish the "Tibetan-intervened" and "Yorkshire-intervened" porcine models...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579539/preparation-of-acellular-scaffold-for-corneal-tissue-engineering-by-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-extraction-technology
#3
Yi-Hsun Huang, Fan-Wei Tseng, Wen-Hsin Chang, I-Chen Peng, Dar-Jen Hsieh, Shu-Wei Wu, Ming-Long Yeh
In this study, we developed a novel method using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) to prepare acellular porcine cornea (APC). Under gentle extraction conditions using SCCO2 technology, hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that cells were completely lysed, and cell debris, including nuclei, was efficiently removed from the porcine cornea. The SCCO2-treated corneas exhibited intact stromal structures and appropriate mechanical properties. Moreover, no immunological reactions and neovascularization were observed after lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits...
June 1, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567041/pathogen-reactive-t-helper-cell-analysis-in-the-pig
#4
Friederike Ebner, Patrycja Schwiertz, Svenja Steinfelder, Robert Pieper, Jürgen Zentek, Nicole Schütze, Christoph G Baums, Gottfried Alber, Peter Geldhof, Susanne Hartmann
There is growing interest in studying host-pathogen interactions in human-relevant large animal models such as the pig. Despite the progress in developing immunological reagents for porcine T cell research, there is an urgent need to directly assess pathogen-specific T cells-an extremely rare population of cells, but of upmost importance in orchestrating the host immune response to a given pathogen. Here, we established that the activation marker CD154 (CD40L), known from human and mouse studies, identifies also porcine antigen-reactive CD4(+) T lymphocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526042/c-kit-receptor-immunopositive-interstitial-cells-cajal-type-in-the-porcine-reproductive-tract
#5
Malgorzata Domino, Bartosz Pawlinski, Romuald Zabielski, Zdzislaw Gajewski
BACKGROUND: Interstitial Cajal cells have been suspected as being the pacemaker cells of smooth muscle motor activity and discharging slow triggering waves in the gut as well as in other organs containing smooth muscles where they are known as interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLC). The present study describes ICLC localization and density in the porcine oviduct and uterus. Differences in ICLC density were examined using histological, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent methods and c-kit expression was determined...
May 19, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506570/the-local-liver-ablation-with-pulsed-electric-field-stimulate-systemic-immune-reaction-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc-with-time-dependent-cytokine-profile
#6
Xinhua Chen, Zhigang Ren, Shengyong Yin, Yuning Xu, Danjing Guo, Haiyang Xie, Lin Zhou, Liming Wu, Jianwen Jiang, Hongchun Li, Junhui Sun, Shusen Zheng
AIM: How irreversible electroporation (IRE) affect immune status is still kept unknown. This preclinical study is to investigate its local and systemic immune reaction both on tumor-bearing and tumor free animals. METHODS: Liver ablation was performed by a standard IRE instrument and proposal. Altogether 57 tumor bearing mice and 10 tumor-free porcine livers were ablated. The reaction of survival, radiology image, pathologically and immunologically were followed up...
May 12, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413045/effector-mechanisms-of-humoral-immunity-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#7
REVIEW
Michael C Rahe, Michael P Murtaugh
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to afflict swine nearly 30 years after it was first discovered as the causative agent of "mystery swine disease". Immunological tools of vaccination and exposure to virulent viruses have not succeeded in achieving control and prevention of PRRSV. Humoral immunity, mediated by antibodies, is a hallmark of anti-viral immunity, but little is known about the effector mechanisms of humoral immunity against PRRSV. It is essential to understand the immunological significance of antibody functions, including recently described broadly neutralizing antibodies and potential non-neutralizing activities, in the immune response to PRRSV...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388908/evaluation-of-antigen-induced-synovitis-in-a-porcine-model-immunological-arthroscopic-and-kinetic-studies
#8
Francisco-Javier Vela, Francisco-Miguel Sánchez-Margallo, Rebeca Blázquez, Verónica Álvarez, Raquel Tarazona, M Teresa Mangas-Ballester, Alejandro Cristo, Javier G Casado
BACKGROUND: Synovitis is an inflammation-related disease linked to rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, infections and trauma. This inflammation is accompanied by immune cells infiltration which initiates an inflammatory response causing pain, discomfort and affecting the normal joint function. The treatment of synovitis is based on the administration of anti-inflammatory drugs or biological agents such as platelet rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cells. However, the evaluation and validation of more effective therapies of synovitis requires the establishment of clinically relevant animal models...
April 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341332/the-viral-innate-immune-antagonism-and-an-alternative-vaccine-design-for-prrs-virus
#9
REVIEW
Hanzhong Ke, Dongwan Yoo
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) remains one of the most economically significant diseases in the swine industry worldwide. The current vaccines are less satisfactory to confer protections from heterologous infections and long-term persistence, and the need for better vaccines are urgent. The immunological hallmarks in PRRSV-infected pigs include the unusually poor production of type I interferons (IFNs-α/β) and the aberrant and delayed adaptive immune responses, indicating that PRRSV has the ability to suppress both innate and adaptive immune responses in the host...
March 18, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327531/porcine-dendritic-cells-as-an-in-vitro-model-to-assess-the-immunological-behaviour-of-streptococcus-suis-subunit-vaccine-formulations-and-the-polarizing-effect-of-adjuvants
#10
Léa Martelet, Sonia Lacouture, Guillaume Goyette-Desjardins, Guy Beauchamp, Charles Surprenant, Marcelo Gottschalk, Mariela Segura
An in vitro porcine bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (DC) culture was developed as a model for evaluating immune polarization induced by adjuvants when administered with immunogens that may become vaccine candidates if appropriately formulated. The swine pathogen Streptococcus suis was chosen as a prototype to evaluate proposed S. suis vaccine candidates in combination with the adjuvants Poly I:C, Quil A ®, Alhydrogel ®, TiterMax Gold ® and Stimune ®. The toll-like receptor ligand Poly I:C and the saponin Quil A ® polarized swine DC cytokines towards a type 1 phenotype, with preferential production of IL-12 and TNF-α...
March 22, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323545/creation-of-a-bioengineered-skin-flap-scaffold-with-a-perfusable-vascular-pedicle
#11
Bernhard J Jank, Jeremy Goverman, Jacques P Guyette, Jon M Charest, Mark A Randolph, Glenn R Gaudette, Joshua R Gershlak, Martin Purschke, Emilia Javorsky, Rosalynn M Nazarian, David A Leonard, Curtis L Cetrulo, William G Austen, Harald Christian Ott
Full thickness skin loss is a challenging problem due to limited reconstructive options, demanding 75 million surgical procedures annually in the United States. Autologous skin grafting is the gold standard treatment, but results in donor site morbidity and poor aesthetics. Numerous skin substitutes are available on the market to date, however, none truly function as full thickness skin due to their lack of a vascular network. The creation of an autologous full thickness skin analogue with a vascular pedicle would result in a paradigm shift in the management of wounds and in reconstruction of full thickness skin defects...
March 21, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299922/fabrication-of-electrospun-mucoadhesive-membranes-for-therapeutic-applications-in-oral-medicine
#12
Martin E Santocildes-Romero, Lucie Hadley, Katharina H Clitherow, Jens Hansen, Craig Murdoch, Helen E Colley, Martin H Thornhill, Paul V Hatton
Oral mucosal lesions are related to several etiologies, including trauma, infection, and immunologic and neoplastic diseases. Their prevalence varies greatly depending on ethnicity, gender, and exposure to risk factors. Currently, most oral mucosal lesions are treated with creams, mouthwashes, or gels containing suitable drugs. However, topical medications may be relatively ineffective as they are removed rapidly from oral surfaces, limiting drug contact times. Systemic medications might be more effective but are associated with unacceptable off-target side effects...
March 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252516/decellularization-of-the-porcine-ear-generates-a-biocompatible-nonimmunogenic-extracellular-matrix-platform-for-face-subunit-bioengineering
#13
Jérôme Duisit, Giuseppe Orlando, Donovan Debluts, Louis Maistriaux, Daela Xhema, Yann-Alex J de Bisthoven, Cesare Galli, Andrea Peloso, Catherine Behets, Benoît Lengelé, Pierre Gianello
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether perfusion-decellularization technology could be applied to facial grafts. BACKGROUND: Facial allotransplantation remains an experimental procedure. Regenerative medicine techniques allow fabrication of transplantable organs from an individual's own cells, which are seeded into extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds from animal or human organs. Therefore, we hypothesized that ECM scaffolds also can be created from facial subunits...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240817/liver-ex-situ-machine-perfusion-preservation-a-review-of-the-methodology-and-results-of-large-animal-studies-and-clinical-trials
#14
REVIEW
Hazel Marecki, Adel Bozorgzadeh, Robert J Porte, Henri G Leuvenink, Korkut Uygun, Paulo N Martins
Ex vivo machine perfusion (MP) is a promising way to better preserve livers prior to transplantation. Currently, no methodology has a verified benefit over simple cold storage. Before becoming clinically feasible, MP requires validation in models that reliably predict human performance. Such a model has been found in porcine liver, whose physiological, anatomical, and immunological characteristics closely resemble the human liver. Since the 1930s, researchers have explored MP as preservation, but only recently have clinical trials been performed...
May 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237390/clinical-xenotransplantation-a-closer-reality-literature-review
#15
Ana María Aristizabal, Luis Armando Caicedo, Juan Manuel Martínez, Manuel Moreno, Gabriel J Echeverri
Xenotransplantation could provide an unlimited supply of organs and solve the current shortage of organs for transplantation. To become a reality in clinical practice, the immunological and physiological barriers and the risk of xenozoonosis that they possess should be resolved. From the immunological point of view, in the last 30 years a significant progress in the production of transgenic pigs has prevented the hyperacute rejection. About xenozoonosis, attention has been focused on the risk of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses; however, today, it is considered that the risk is very low and the inevitable transmission should not prevent the clinical xenotransplantation...
February 22, 2017: Cirugía Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177360/genomewide-association-of-piglet-responses-to-infection-with-one-of-two-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-isolates
#16
E H Waide, C K Tuggle, N V L Serão, M Schroyen, A Hess, R R R Rowland, J K Lunney, G Plastow, J C M Dekkers
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating disease in the swine industry. Identification of host genetic factors that enable selection for improved performance during PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection would reduce the impact of this disease on animal welfare and production efficiency. We conducted genomewide association study (GWAS) analyses of data from 13 trials of approximately 200 commercial crossbred nursery-age piglets that were experimentally infected with 1 of 2 type 2 isolates of PRRSV (NVSL 97-7985 [NVSL] and KS2006-72109 [KS06])...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125737/interleukin-21-drives-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-porcine-memory-b-cells-into-antibody-secreting-cells
#17
Michael C Rahe, Michael P Murtaugh
Immunological prevention of infectious disease, especially viral, is based on antigen-specific long-lived memory B cells. To test for cellular proliferation and differentiation factors in swine, an outbred model for humans, CD21+ B cells were activated in vitro with CD40L and stimulated with purported stimulatory cytokines to characterize functional responses. IL-21 induced a 3-fold expansion in total cell numbers with roughly 15% of all B cells differentiating to IgM or IgG antibody secreting cells (ASCs.) However, even with robust proliferation, cellular viability rapidly deteriorated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110785/genetic-diversity-of-orf-4-6-of-type-1-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-naturally-infected-pigs
#18
Dong-Uk Lee, Sung J Yoo, Taeyong Kwon, Sang H Je, Jeong Y Shin, Jeong J Byun, Myung H Kim, Young S Lyoo
Genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been highly prevalent throughout Korea since the virus was first detected in 2005. However, genetic analyses of genotype 1 PRRSV in Korea have been limited to ORF5 and/or ORF7. In the present study, we determined 10 representative sequence covering ORF4 to ORF6 and each individual ORFs of genotype 1 PRRSV in Korea, and performed molecular analyses. The most variable gene among the individual ORFs of field strains was ORF4, and this gene exhibited only 74...
February 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100167/conserved-gene-expression-in-sperm-reservoirs-between-birds-and-mammals-in-response-to-mating
#19
Mohammad Atikuzzaman, Manuel Alvarez-Rodriguez, Alejandro Vicente Carrillo, Martin Johnsson, Dominic Wright, Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez
BACKGROUND: Spermatozoa are stored in the oviductal functional sperm reservoir in animals with internal fertilization, including zoologically distant classes such as pigs or poultry. They are held fertile in the reservoir for times ranging from a couple of days (in pigs), to several weeks (in chickens), before they are gradually released to fertilize the newly ovulated eggs. It is currently unknown whether females from these species share conserved mechanisms to tolerate such a lengthy presence of immunologically-foreign spermatozoa...
January 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063479/positive-immunomodulatory-effects-of-heterologous-dna-vaccine-modified-live-vaccine-prime-boost-immunization-against-the-highly-pathogenic-prrsv-infection
#20
Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Teerawut Nedumpun, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Yonlayong Woonwong, Roongtham Kedkovid, Jirapat Arunorat, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is one of the most important swine pathogens, and causes a major economic impact worldwide. Recently, a new variant type 2 PRRSV, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) has emerged and continued to circulate in Southeast Asia region. Currently, commercially available PRRSV vaccines, modified live PRRS vaccines (MLV) are not able to provide complete protection against HP-PRRSV and been reported to induce negative immunomodulatory effects. Interestingly, a novel DNA vaccine was developed and successfully used to improve PRRSV-specific immune responses following MLV vaccination...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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