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Porcine Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937406/tolerance-in-xenotransplantation
#1
Kazuhiko Yamada, Megan Sykes, David H Sachs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes recent progress in tolerance-inducing strategies across xenogeneic immunological barriers as well as the potential benefit of a tolerance strategy for islets and kidney xenotransplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Using advanced gene editing technologies, xenotransplantation from multitransgenic alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout pigs has demonstrated marked prolongation of renal xenograft survival, ranging from days to greater than several months for life-supporting kidneys, and more than 2 years in a heterotopic nonlife-supporting cardiac xenograft model...
September 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937231/pulmonary-surfactant-and-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-the-interaction-and-its-functional-consequences
#2
M Kolomaznik, Z Nova, A Calkovska
The respiratory system is constantly exposed to pathogens which enter the lungs by inhalation or via blood stream. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also named endotoxin, can reach the airspaces as the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and lead to local inflammation and systemic toxicity. LPS affects alveolar type II (ATII) cells and pulmonary surfactant and although surfactant molecule has the effective protective mechanisms, excessive amount of LPS interacts with surfactant film and leads to its inactivation...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932650/gene-editing-gene-therapy-and-cell-xenotransplantation-cell-transplantation-across-species
#3
REVIEW
Nizar I Mourad, Pierre Gianello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cell xenotransplantation has the potential to provide a safe, ethically acceptable, unlimited source for cell replacement therapies. This review focuses on genetic modification strategies aimed to overcome remaining hurdles standing in the way of clinical porcine islet transplantation and to develop neural cell xenotransplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to previously described genetic modifications aimed to mitigate hyperacute rejection, instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction, and cell-mediated rejection, new data showing the possibility of increasing porcine islet insulin secretion by transgenesis is an interesting addition to the array of genetically modified pigs available for xenotransplantation...
2017: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900043/a-natural-ligand-for-the-orphan-receptor-gpr15-modulates-lymphocyte-recruitment-to-epithelia
#4
Thomas Suply, Sébastien Hannedouche, Nathalie Carte, Jianping Li, Bianka Grosshans, Michael Schaefer, Layla Raad, Valérie Beck, Solange Vidal, Agnès Hiou-Feige, Noémie Beluch, Samuel Barbieri, Johann Wirsching, Nadine Lageyre, Frank Hillger, Corinne Debon, Janet Dawson, Philip Smith, Vincent Lannoy, Michel Detheux, Francis Bitsch, Rocco Falchetto, Tewis Bouwmeester, Jeffrey Porter, Birgit Baumgarten, Keith Mansfield, José M Carballido, Klaus Seuwen, Frédéric Bassilana
GPR15 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is found in lymphocytes. It functions as a co-receptor of simian immunodeficiency virus and HIV-2 and plays a role in the trafficking of T cells to the lamina propria in the colon and to the skin. We describe the purification from porcine colonic tissue extracts of an agonistic ligand for GPR15 and its functional characterization. In humans, this ligand, which we named GPR15L, is encoded by the gene C10ORF99 and has some features similar to the CC family of chemokines...
September 12, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879168/the-oncopig-cancer-model-an-innovative-large-animal-translational-oncology-platform
#5
REVIEW
Kyle M Schachtschneider, Regina M Schwind, Jordan Newson, Nickolas Kinachtchouk, Mark Rizko, Nasya Mendoza-Elias, Paul Grippo, Daniel R Principe, Alex Park, Nana H Overgaard, Gregers Jungersen, Kelly D Garcia, Ajay V Maker, Laurie A Rund, Howard Ozer, Ron C Gaba, Lawrence B Schook
Despite an improved understanding of cancer molecular biology, immune landscapes, and advancements in cytotoxic, biologic, and immunologic anti-cancer therapeutics, cancer remains a leading cause of death worldwide. More than 8.2 million deaths were attributed to cancer in 2012, and it is anticipated that cancer incidence will continue to rise, with 19.3 million cases expected by 2025. The development and investigation of new diagnostic modalities and innovative therapeutic tools is critical for reducing the global cancer burden...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871190/new-insights-about-functional-and-cross-reactive-properties-of-antibodies-generated-against-recombinant-tbpbs-of-haemophilus-parasuis
#6
Bibiana Martins Barasuol, João Antônio Guizzo, Jamie Elisabeth Fegan, Sonia Martínez-Martínez, Elías Fernando Rodríguez-Ferri, César Bernardo Gutiérrez-Martín, Luiz Carlos Kreutz, Anthony Bernard Schryvers, Rafael Frandoloso
Vaccines have become fundamental in the control and elimination of Glässer Disease, a systemic disease of pigs caused by Haemophilus parasuis. The classic vaccines available for prevention of this infection were developed without a robust knowledge about host immunological mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrated the presence of cross-reactive epitopes on both the N-lobe and C-lobe of variants of transferrin binding protein B (TbpBs) expressed on the surface of 6 virulent serovars of H. parasuis. Antibodies against TbpB-derived antigens were capable of increasing the phagocytic capacity of neutrophils and were also capable of blocking porcine transferrin from binding to TbpB...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855873/molecular-characterization-of-barrier-properties-in-follicle-associated-epithelium-of-porcine-peyer-s-patches-reveals-major-sealing-function-of-claudin-4
#7
Judith Radloff, Evgeny L Falchuk, Alexander G Markov, Salah Amasheh
The pig represents a preferred model for the analysis of intestinal immunology. However, the barrier of the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering porcine Peyer's patches (PP) has not yet been characterized in detail. This study aimed to perform this characterization in order to pave the way toward an understanding of the functional contribution of epithelial barrier properties in gut immunology. Porcine tissue specimens were taken from the distal small intestine in order to obtain electrophysiological data of PP FAE and neighboring villous epithelium (VE), employing the Ussing chamber technique...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840696/-effects-of-curcumae-rhizoma-vinegar-processed-curcumae-rhizoma-on-immune-hepatic-fibrosis-proliferation-of-hsc-t6-and-expression-of-%C3%AE-sma-and-procollagen-i
#8
Ji Zhang, Yan Song, Qiao-Han Wang, Lin Li, De Ji, Wei Gu, Min Hao, Tu-Lin Lu, Chun-Qin Mao
To compare the effects of Curcumae Rhizoma/vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizomaon immune hepatic fibrosis, proliferation of HSC-T6, and expressions of α-SMA and Procollagen I. The immunological liver fibrosis model was prepared through intraperitoneal injection with porcine serum 0.5 mL in each rat, twice a week, for 14 weeks. Expressions of serum ALT, AST, PC-Ⅲ, IV-C, LN, HA and HYP, MDA in liver tissues were observed after administration of Curcumae Rhizoma/vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma (0.95, 1.90 g•kg⁻¹)...
July 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829409/surgical-angiogenesis-in-porcine-tibial-allotransplantation-a-new-large-animal-bone-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-model
#9
Dimitra Kotsougiani, Caroline A Hundepool, Joost I Willems, Patricia Friedrich, Alexander Y Shin, Allen T Bishop
Segmental bone loss resulting from trauma, infection malignancy and congenital anomaly remains a major reconstructive challenge. Current therapeutic options have significant risk of failure and substantial morbidity. Use of bone vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) would offer both a close match of resected bone size and shape and the healing and remodeling potential of living bone. At present, life-long drug immunosuppression (IS) is required. Organ toxicity, opportunistic infection and neoplasm risks are of concern to treat such non-lethal indications...
August 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817375/effect-of-maternal-antibody-transfer-on-antibody-dynamics-and-control-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-in-offspring
#10
Cheryl M T Dvorak, Brian J Payne, Jessica L Seate, Michael P Murtaugh
Sow immunity plays an important role in preventing viral infection and disease in newborn piglets. Vertical transmission of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) may perpetuate porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in newborn and growing pigs. Hence, the immunological effects of maternal immunoglobulin transfer of PCV2-specific antibodies on PCV2 viremia and immune response in piglets in commercial swine herds were evaluated. Sow vaccination has been shown to reduce viral shedding and viremia, and increases the neutralizing antibody (NA) titers...
August 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803115/immunological-response-to-nitroglycerin-loaded-shear-responsive-liposomes-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Marzia Buscema, Sofiya Matviykiv, Tamás Mészáros, Gabriela Gerganova, Andreas Weinberger, Ute Mettal, Dennis Mueller, Frederik Neuhaus, Etienne Stalder, Takashi Ishikawa, Rudolf Urbanics, Till Saxer, Thomas Pfohl, János Szebeni, Andreas Zumbuehl, Bert Müller
Liposomes formulated from the 1,3-diamidophospholipid Pad-PC-Pad are shear-responsive and thus promising nano-containers to specifically release a vasodilator at stenotic arteries. The recommended preclinical safety tests for therapeutic liposomes of nanometer size include the in vitro assessment of complement activation and the evaluation of the associated risk of complement activation-related pseudo-allergy (CARPA) in vivo. For this reason, we measured complement activation by Pad-PC-Pad formulations in human and porcine sera, along with the nanopharmaceutical-mediated cardiopulmonary responses in pigs...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798043/inactivation-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-in-pigs-using-crispr-cas9
#12
Dong Niu, Hong-Jiang Wei, Lin Lin, Haydy George, Tao Wang, I-Hsiu Lee, Hong-Ye Zhao, Yong Wang, Yinan Kan, Ellen Shrock, Emal Lesha, Gang Wang, Yonglun Luo, Yubo Qing, Deling Jiao, Heng Zhao, Xiaoyang Zhou, Shouqi Wang, Hong Wei, Marc Güell, George M Church, Luhan Yang
Xenotransplantation is a promising strategy to alleviate the shortage of organs for human transplantation. In addition to the concerns about pig-to-human immunological compatibility, the risk of cross-species transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) has impeded the clinical application of this approach. We previously demonstrated the feasibility of inactivating PERV activity in an immortalized pig cell line. We now confirm that PERVs infect human cells, and we observe the horizontal transfer of PERVs among human cells...
September 22, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759334/b-cell-tetramer-development-for-veterinary-vaccinology
#13
Michael C Rahe, Kevin L Gustafson, Michael P Murtaugh
Immunological memory is elicited after either vaccination or natural exposure to a pathogen and is essential for protection against re-exposure. Despite its critical importance, the ability to interrogate the veterinary animal memory immune response has long been hindered by a paucity of tools to assess immunological memory. As a result, the evaluation and analysis of protective immune responses that predict immune protection in food and fiber animals and facilitate vaccine development are obstructed. To fill this gap in knowledge in swine, we created a B cell tetramer to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nonstructural protein 7 (nsp7) to efficiently and effectively investigate the memory B cell response, a hallmark of anti-viral immunity...
July 31, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733026/effects-of-supplementation-with-spray-dried-porcine-plasma-on-blood-variables-on-piglets-feed-with-diet-contaminated-by-mycotoxins
#14
Lucieli K F Müller, Aleksandro S da Silva, Matheus D Baldissera, Janio M Santurio, Patricia Glombowsky, Jeferson Gugel, Gabriela Campigotto, Eduardo M Gloria, Diovani Paiano, Gustavo Machado
The aim of this study was to evaluate the supplementation spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) effects on body weight, glucose levels and hematological and immunology variables for piglets fed with diet contaminated with low or high aflatoxin and fumonisin levels. Thus, 24 piglets were allotted in four groups, and the group A received a control diet; the group B received a diet with 6% of SDPP; the group C 300 μg/kg of aflatoxins and 8000 μg/kg of fumonisin; the group D 300 μg/kg of aflatoxins, 8000 μg/kg of fumonisin and 6% of SDPP, respectively...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725106/development-of-porcine-circovirus-2-pcv2-open-reading-frame-2-dna-vaccine-with-different-adjuvants-and-comparison-with-commercial-pcv2-subunit-vaccine-in-an-experimental-challenge
#15
Changhoon Park, Jiwoon Jeong, Kyuhyung Choi, Su-Jin Park, Ikjae Kang, Chanhee Chae
The objective of this study was to compare the protection against challenge with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) induced by an experimental vaccine based on open reading frame (ORF) 2 of PCV2 DNA plus an adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide, cobalt oxide, or liposome) and a commercial PCV2 subunit vaccine. A total of 35 colostrum-fed, cross-bred, conventional piglets were randomly divided into 7 groups. The commercial vaccine was more efficacious against PCV2 challenge than the 4 experimental vaccines according to immunologic, virologic, and pathological outcomes...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716191/effect-of-immunologic-solutions-on-sows-and-gilts-on-time-to-stability-and-production-losses-in-breeding-herds-infected-with-1-7-4-prrsv
#16
D C L Linhares, C Betlach, R B Morrison
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) is an economically significant swine pathogen causing production losses in the global swine industry. Clinical impact depends on many factors including the virus itself. One method to sub-type PRRSv is using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The RFLP pattern 1-7-4 emerged within the United States swine industry in 2014 and has become prevalent since then. This was a field study that prospectively followed 1-7-4-infected breeding herds (n=107) and compared time to stability (TTS), time to baseline production (TTBP) and total loss per 1000 sows between herds using modified-live virus vaccine (MLV) on sows and gilts (MLV-MLV), MLV on sows and MLV in addition to field virus exposure on gilts (MLV-MLV/FVE) or not deliberately exposing sows or gilts to PRRSv (Natural-Natural)...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653038/interleukins-and-large-domestic-animals-a-bibliometric-analysis
#17
Emmanuelle Moreau, François Meurens
Interleukins have been well described in mice and humans. In large domestic animals the situation is drastically different and there is still a need for further researches aiming at identifying all the homologous interleukins and comparing their functions among species. We performed here a bibliometric analysis of all interleukins described in the literature in various large animal species to identify what is known so far and to underline where there is a need for new studies. Using indicators such as H index but also M quotient, A index, G index, GH ratio, and HG index we ranked 39 interleukins identified so far in bovine, caprine, equine, ovine, and porcine, the main large domestic animals...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608816/mechanisms-of-adaptive-immunity-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#18
REVIEW
Michael C Rahe, Michael P Murtaugh
The adaptive immune response is necessary for the development of protective immunity against infectious diseases. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a genetically heterogeneous and rapidly evolving RNA virus, is the most burdensome pathogen of swine health and wellbeing worldwide. Viral infection induces antigen-specific immunity that ultimately clears the infection. However, the resulting immune memory, induced by virulent or attenuated vaccine viruses, is inconsistently protective against diverse viral strains...
June 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607413/early-gut-microbiota-intervention-suppresses-dss-induced-inflammatory-responses-by-deactivating-tlr-nlr-signalling-in-pigs
#19
Yi Xiao, Honglin Yan, Hui Diao, Bing Yu, Jun He, Jie Yu, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Yuheng Luo, Daiwen Chen
Recent metagenomic studies suggest that innate and adaptive immune phenotypes can be programmed via gut microbiota-host interactions mediated via activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on host cells. In this study, we used two extremely different pig lines (the Yorkshire and the Tibetan) to test the hypothesis that the transplantation of gut microbiota could transfer certain immunologic characteristics from donor to recipient. The faecal microbiota of these two pig lines was transplanted in healthy commercial hybrid newborn piglets to establish the "Tibetan-intervened" and "Yorkshire-intervened" porcine models...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579539/preparation-of-acellular-scaffold-for-corneal-tissue-engineering-by-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-extraction-technology
#20
Yi-Hsun Huang, Fan-Wei Tseng, Wen-Hsin Chang, I-Chen Peng, Dar-Jen Hsieh, Shu-Wei Wu, Ming-Long Yeh
In this study, we developed a novel method using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) to prepare acellular porcine cornea (APC). Under gentle extraction conditions using SCCO2 technology, hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that cells were completely lysed, and cell debris, including nuclei, was efficiently removed from the porcine cornea. The SCCO2-treated corneas exhibited intact stromal structures and appropriate mechanical properties. Moreover, no immunological reactions and neovascularization were observed after lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits...
June 1, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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