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Porcine Immunology

Rahul Krishnan, David Ko, Clarence E Foster, Wendy Liu, A M Smink, Bart de Haan, Paul De Vos, Jonathan R T Lakey
Transplantation of alginate-encapsulated islets has the potential to treat patients suffering from type I diabetes, a condition characterized by an autoimmune attack against insulin-secreting beta cells. However, there are multiple immunological challenges associated with this procedure, all of which must be adequately addressed prior to translation from trials in small animal and nonhuman primate models to human clinical trials. Principal threats to graft viability include immune-mediated destruction triggered by immunogenic alginate impurities, unfavorable polymer composition and surface characteristics, and release of membrane-permeable antigens, as well as damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by the encapsulated islets themselves...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zhenguang Li, Yanliang He, Xiaoqin Xu, Xue Leng, Shufen Li, Yongjun Wen, Fengxue Wang, Mingqi Xia, Shipeng Cheng, Hua Wu
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) remains a major threat to swine industry all over the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of pathogenesis and immune responses caused by a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). RESULTS: All piglets experimentally infected with a HP-PRRSV TJ strain virus developed typical clinical signs of PRRS. The percentages of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) lymphocytes significantly decreased in the infected group as compared to the uninfected control animals (p < 0...
October 12, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Jizong Li, Tianqi Yu, Feipeng Zhang, Xiaobo Wang, Jinzhu Zhou, Xing Gao, Song Gao, Xiufan Liu
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is subdivided into four genotypes: PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c and PCV2d. Here, for the first time, we compared the efficacy of two experimental inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccines based on genotypes 2b and 2d. Seventeen 3-week-old pigs were divided randomly into four groups. Group 1 and 2 pigs were inoculated with genotype 2b- and 2d-based inactivated vaccines, respectively. At 28 days post-vaccination (DPV), pigs in groups 1-3 were challenged with the PCV2b 0233 strain. All experimental pigs were necropsied at 21 days post-challenge (DPC)...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Virology
Thorsten M Seyler, Daniel N Bracey, Johannes F Plate, Mark O Lively, Sandeep Mannava, Thomas L Smith, Justin M Saul, Gary G Poehling, Mark E Van Dyke, Patrick W Whitlock
PURPOSE: To evaluate the biological, immunological, and biomechanical properties of a scaffold derived by architectural modification of a fresh-frozen porcine patella tendon using a decellularization protocol that combines physical, chemical, and enzymatic modalities. METHODS: Porcine patellar tendons were processed using a decellularization and oxidation protocol that combines physical, chemical, and enzymatic modalities. Scaffolds (n = 88) were compared with native tendons (n = 70) using histologic, structural (scanning electron microscopy, porosimetry, and tensile testing), biochemical (mass spectrometry, peracetic acid reduction, DNA quantification, alpha-galactosidase [α-gal] content), as well as in vitro immunologic (cytocompatibility, cytokine induction) and in vivo immunologic nonhuman primate analyses...
September 27, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Shawn M D Bearson, Bradley L Bearson, Crystal L Loving, Heather K Allen, InSoo Lee, Darin Madson, Marcus E Kehrli
Salmonella colonization of food animals is a concern for animal health and public health as a food safety risk. Various obstacles impede the effort to reduce asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in food animals, including the existence of numerous serovars and the ubiquitous nature of Salmonella. To develop an intervention strategy that is non-specific yet effective against diverse Salmonella serovars, we explored the prophylactic use of a cytokine to decrease Salmonella in swine by boosting the host's innate immune system...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Ingrid D E van Dixhoorn, Inonge Reimert, Jenny Middelkoop, J Elizabeth Bolhuis, Henk J Wisselink, Peter W G Groot Koerkamp, Bas Kemp, Norbert Stockhofe-Zurwieden
Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A...
2016: PloS One
Paul W Holzer, David A Leonard, Kumaran Shanmugarajah, Krysta N Moulton, Zhi Yang Ng, Curtis L Cetrulo, David H Sachs
The clinical use of frozen, human allogeneic skin grafts is considered a suitable alternative to freshly harvested allogeneic skin grafts when the latter are not available. However, limited functional and histological information exists regarding the effects of cryopreservation on allogeneic skin grafts, especially those across mismatched histocompatibility barriers. Thus, we performed a side-by-side comparative study of fresh vs frozen skin grafts, across both minor and major histocompatibility barriers, in a miniature swine model...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
C Anton Fries, Carole Y Villamaria, Jerry R Spencer, Rory F Rickard, Vijay S Gorantla, Michael R Davis
BACKGROUND: The restoration of complex tissue deficits with vascularized composite allotransplantation is a paradigm shift in reconstructive surgery. Clinical adoption of vascularized composite allotransplantation is limited by the need for systemic immunosuppression, with associated morbidity and mortality. Small-animal models lack the biological fidelity and preclinical relevance to enable translation of immunologic insights to humans. Large-animal models have been described; however, limitations persist, including the inability of heterotopic models to evaluate functional nerve regeneration, and the sensitivity of primates to toxicity of immunosuppressive drugs...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
B Martínez-Vallespín, W Vahjen, J Zentek
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have been suggested as an alternative to the use of antibiotics in animal nutrition with promising results. First, we studied the sensitivity of Salmonella Enteritidis and an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain against caprylic (C8), capric (C10) and lauric (C12) acids. A porcine in vitro model using the porcine cell line IPEC-J2 was used to test the effects of MCFAs on structural and immunological traits without and with a concomitant challenge with E. coli or S. Enteritidis...
October 2016: Cytotechnology
Jiwoon Jeong, Kyuhyung Choi, Ikjae Kang, Changhoon Park, Chanhee Chae
Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) was first isolated in Korea in 1994. The commercial PRRS modified live vaccine (Ingelvac(®) PRRS MLV, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, Missouri, USA) based on type 2 PRRSV, was first licensed for use in 3- to 18-week-old pigs in Korea in 1996. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of this 20year old commercial PRRS modified live vaccine (MLV) against two recent PRRSV isolates. Two genetically distant type 2 PRRSV strains (SNUVR150004 for lineage 1 and SNUVR150324 for lineage 5), isolated in 2015, were used as challenge virus...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Kairat Tabynov, Abylay Sansyzbay, Zhanara Tulemissova, Kaissar Tabynov, Santosh Dhakal, Aigul Samoltyrova, Gourapura J Renukaradhya, Muratbay Mambetaliyev
The efficacy of a novel BEI-inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) candidate vaccine in pigs, developed at RIBSP Republic of Kazakhstan and delivered with an adjuvant Montanide™ Gel 01 ST (D/KV/ADJ) was compared with a commercial killed PRRSV vaccine (NVDC-JXA1, C/KV/ADJ) used widely in swine herds of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Clinical parameters (body temperature and respiratory disease scores), virological and immunological profiles [ELISA and virus neutralizing (VN) antibody titers], macroscopic lung lesions and viral load in the lungs (quantitative real-time PCR and cell culture assay) were assessed in vaccinated and both genotype 1 and 2 PRRSV challenged pigs...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Beibei Sun, Jintao Guo, Nan Ge, Siyu Sun, Sheng Wang, Xiang Liu, Guoxin Wang, Linlin Feng
OBJECTIVE: The secure closure of the wall defect is a critical stage of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR). The aim of this study was to compare the closure of post-EFTR defects using an endoscopic ultrasound-guided puncture suture device (PSD) with the metal clip (MC) technique in a randomized, comparative, porcine study. METHODS: We performed a randomized comparative survival study that included 18 pigs. The circular EFTR defects with a diameter of approximately 20 mm were closed with either a PSD or MC...
July 2016: Endoscopic Ultrasound
David Liuwantara, Yi Vee Chew, Emmanuel J Favaloro, Joanne M Hawkes, Heather L Burns, Philip J O'Connell, Wayne J Hawthorne
INTRODUCTION: The instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) causes major loss of islets after transplantation and consequently represents the initial barrier to survival of porcine neonatal islet cell clusters (NICC) after xenotransplantation. METHODS: This study used novel assays designed to characterize the various immunologic components responsible for xenogeneic IBMIR to identify initiators and investigate processes of IBMIR-associated coagulation, complement activation and neutrophil infiltration...
June 2016: Transplantation Direct
Shunichi Suzuki, Masaki Iwamoto, Michiko Hashimoto, Misae Suzuki, Michiko Nakai, Daiichiro Fuchimoto, Shoichiro Sembon, Tomoko Eguchi-Ogawa, Hirohide Uenishi, Akira Onishi
Pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) are versatile animal models for human medical research because of their biological similarities to humans, suitable body size, and longevity for practical research. SCID pigs with defined mutation(s) can be an invaluable tool for research on porcine immunity. In this study, we produced RAG2-knockout pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer and analyzed their phenotype. The V(D)J recombination processes were confirmed as being inactivated. They consistently lacked mature T and B cells but had substantial numbers of cells considered to be T- or B-cell progenitors as well as NK cells...
October 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Mihail Climov, Abraham J Matar, Evan A Farkash, Erika Medeiros, Jizeng Qiao, Edward Harrington, Ashley Gusha, Ahmad Al-Musa, David H Sachs, Mark Randolph, Thomas J Bollenbach, Christene A Huang
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of autologous skin for reconstruction of severe wounds is a major problem in plastic surgery. Autologous substitutes can provide additional coverage, but due to the duration of production, treatment is significantly delayed. The allogeneic approach offers a potential of having an off-the-shelf solution for the immediate application. METHODS: In this study, we assess the engraftment and immunogenicity of allogeneic bilayered bioengineered skin prepared by a self-assembly method...
October 2016: Transplantation
Dimitra Kotsougiani, Caroline A Hundepool, Liselotte F Bulstra, Patricia Friedrich, Alexander Y Shin, Allen T Bishop
Current vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) transplantation protocols rely upon life-long immune modulation to maintain tissue perfusion. Alternatively, bone-only VCA viability may be maintained in small animal models using surgical angiogenesis from implanted autogenous vessels to develop a neoangiogenic bone circulation that will not be rejected. This study tests the method's efficacy in a large animal model as a bridge to clinical practice, quantifying the remodeling and mechanical properties of porcine tibial VCAs...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Marga García Durán, Sofia Costa, Javier Sarraseca, Nuria de la Roja, Julia García, Isabel García, Maria José Rodríguez
The causative agent of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is an enveloped ssRNA (+) virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family. Gp5 and M proteins form disulfide-linked heterodimers that constitute the major components of PRRSV envelope. Gp2, Gp3, Gp4 and E are the minor structural proteins, being the first three incorporated as multimeric complexes in the virus surface. The disease has become one of the most important causes of economic losses in the swine industry. Despite efforts to design an effective vaccine, the available ones allow only partial protection...
October 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Bojlul Bahar, John V O'Doherty, Stafford Vigors, Torres Sweeney
The technique of challenging post-mortem tissue explant with inflammation inducer such as LPS followed by gene expression analysis is widely used for evaluating the immune suppressing effect of bioactives. Using porcine colonic tissue as an ex-vivo model of mammalian intestinal gut, this study evaluated the effect of incubation time on the integrity of gene transcripts and activation of inflammatory immune gene cascade by LPS treatment. Post-slaughter colon was surgically removed and explants were incubated for 0, 3, 6 and 12 h and the abundance of mRNA transcripts of a panel of 92 immune genes were evaluated using quantitative PCR (qPCR) arrays...
July 12, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Kyuhyung Choi, Changhoon Park, Jiwoon Jeong, Chanhee Chae
The objective of this study was to compare protection provided by type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) against homologous and heterologous challenge based on clinical, virological, immunological, and pathological analysis. At 3 and 8 weeks of age, pigs were inoculated intranasally with either 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) TCID50/mL of type 1 PRRSV or 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) TCID50/mL of type 2 PRRSV. The homologous challenges resulted in a significant boost of the neutralizing antibodies (NA) and interferon-γ secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) compared to heterologous challenges...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Erwin Rieder, Anneliese Steinacher-Nigisch, Günter Weigel
BACKGROUND: Immunological knowledge on processed biological implants and mesh-prostheses is still mainly based on animal models, lacking information on the species-specific human immune response. We hypothesized that in contrast to human tissue even decellularized xenogenic specimens would lead to significant and tissue source dependent human immune reactions. METHODS: Specimens from processed allogenic and xenogenic pulmonary arteries, pericardium or dermis, were co-cultured with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC)...
June 27, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
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