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Porcine Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471443/board-invited-review-immunomodulatory-potential-of-dietary-soybean-derived-isoflavones-and-saponins-in-pigs
#1
B N Smith, R N Dilger
In this review, the potential for use of soy-derived bioactive compounds as immunomodulatory feed additives in pigs is discussed. Soy is a major component of the modern U.S. swine diet in today's commercial industry, providing the bulk of dietary AA necessary for growth and production. However, soy use has generally been limited in early growth phases, during which the risks of immunological insult and disease are among the highest. Improvements of soybean processing and development of soy protein products with little to no antinutritional factors have made soy more appropriate for use in young pigs but additional processing may impact bioactive compound levels in the feed...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427659/construction-of-emsc-islet-co-localizing-composites-for-xenogeneic-porcine-islet-transplantation
#2
Jung-Sik Kim, Hyunwoo Chung, Nari Byun, Seong-Jun Kang, Sunho Lee, Jun-Seop Shin, Chung-Gyu Park
Pancreatic islet transplantation is an ultimate solution for treating patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The pig is an ideal donor of islets for replacing scarce human islets. Besides immunological hurdles, non-immunological hurdles including fragmentation and delayed engraftment of porcine islets need solutions to succeed in porcine islet xenotransplantation. In this study, we suggest a simple but effective modality, a cell/islet co-localizing composite, to overcome these challenges. Endothelial-like mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), differentiated from bone-marrow derived mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and MSCs evenly coated the surface of porcine islets (>85%) through optimized culture conditions...
February 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408442/porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-provide-in-vivo-cross-protection-to-prrsv1-and-prrsv2-viral-challenge
#3
Sally R Robinson, Michael C Rahe, Diem K Gray, Kyra V Martins, Michael P Murtaugh
Vaccine control and prevention of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), the most important disease of swine, is difficult to achieve. However, the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibody activity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) under typical field conditions opens the door to new immunologic approaches for robust protection. We show here that passive administration of purified immunoglobulins with neutralizing antibodies reduced PRRSV2 infection by up to 96%, and PRRSV1 infection by up to 87%, whereas immune immunoglobulins lacking neutralizing activity had no effect on viral infection...
February 3, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397454/reduced-antigen-presentation-capability-and-modified-inflammatory-immunosuppressive-cytokine-expression-of-induced-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-from-peripheral-blood-of-piglets-infected-with-porcine-circovirus-type-2
#4
Ning Yang, Jiandong Li, Qian Yang, Jinzeng Qiao, Defeng Cui, Fenghua Liu, Huanrong Li, Shuanghai Zhou
The efficiency of immune responses and host defense against pathogens largely depends on the function of dendritic cells (DCs). Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection causes viremia and extensive modulation of immune activities in the blood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of PCV2 infection in vivo on the immunological function of DCs induced from peripheral blood monocytes (MoDCs). At different points after infection with PCV2, peripheral blood monocytes from PCV2-infected pigs were used to induce differentiation of DCs in vitro...
February 3, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382967/comparison-of-3-vaccination-strategies-against-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-and-porcine-circovirus-type-2-on-a-3-pathogen-challenge-model
#5
Jiwoon Jeong, Ikjae Kang, Seeun Kim, Kee Hwan Park, Changhoon Park, Chanhee Chae
The objective of this study was to compare clinical, microbiologic, immunologic, and pathologic parameters in pigs each concurrently administered porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine from 1 of 2 commercial sources at 21 days of age and challenged with field strains of each of the 3 pathogens. Pigs were challenged with PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae at 42 days of age (-14 days post-challenge, dpc) followed by a challenge with PCV2 at 56 days of age (0 dpc)...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306151/enhancement-of-immune-response-of-piglets-to-pcv-2-vaccine-by-porcine-il-2-and-fusion-il-4-6-gene-entrapped-in-chitosan-nanoparticles
#6
Yi Chen, Tingyu Song, Yong-Le Xiao, Xiaoping Wan, Luyi Yang, Jinghai Li, Guangzhi Zeng, Pengfei Fang, Ze-Zhou Wang, Rong Gao
In order to develop a novel effective immunomodulator to enhance pig resistance against post-weaning multi systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a recombinant plasmid co-expressing pig interleukin-2 (IL-2) and fusion interleukin-4/6 (IL-4/6) genes, designated VRIL4/6-2, was constructed and encapsulated in chitosan (CS) nanoparticles prepared by the ionotropic gelation method. Then 21-day old piglets were divided into two groups and intramuscularly injected respectively with VPIL4/6-2-CS and saline along with the porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) vaccine...
December 29, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278679/cell-specific-expression-and-signal-transduction-of-c-c-motif-chemokine-ligand-2-and-atypical-chemokine-receptors-in-the-porcine-endometrium-during-early-pregnancy
#7
Whasun Lim, Hyocheol Bae, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Chemokines and atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs; also known as chemokine decoy receptors) play an important role in reproductive immunology by recruiting leukocytes during early pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and ACKRs in the endometrium during estrous cycle and early pregnancy, and to investigate the functional effects of CCL2 on porcine uterine luminal epithelial (pLE) cells. Our results indicated that CCL2, ACKR1, ACKR3, and ACKR4 were strongly detected in the glandular and luminal epithelium of the endometrium during early pregnancy compared to that in non-pregnant pigs...
December 23, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261104/biology-of-porcine-parvovirus-ungulate-parvovirus-1
#8
REVIEW
István Mészáros, Ferenc Olasz, Attila Cságola, Peter Tijssen, Zoltán Zádori
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is among the most important infectious agents causing infertility in pigs. Until recently, it was thought that the virus had low genetic variance, and that prevention of its harmful effect on pig fertility could be well-controlled by vaccination. However, at the beginning of the third millennium, field observations raised concerns about the effectiveness of the available vaccines against newly emerging strains. Subsequent investigations radically changed our view on the evolution and immunology of PPV, revealing that the virus is much more diverse than it was earlier anticipated, and that some of the "new" highly virulent isolates cannot be neutralized effectively by antisera raised against "old" PPV vaccine strains...
December 20, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259556/the-oncopig-cancer-model-as-a-complementary-tool-for-phenotypic-drug-discovery
#9
REVIEW
Natalia V Segatto, Mariana H Remião, Kyle M Schachtschneider, Fabiana K Seixas, Lawrence B Schook, Tiago Collares
The screening of potential therapeutic compounds using phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) is being embraced once again by researchers and pharmaceutical companies as an approach to enhance the development of new effective therapeutics. Before the genomics and molecular biology era and the consecutive emergence of targeted-drug discovery approaches, PDD was the most common platform used for drug discovery. PDD, also known as phenotypic screening, consists of screening potential compounds in either in vitro cellular or in vivo animal models to identify compounds resulting in a desirable phenotypic change...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259232/cardiac-depression-in-pigs-after-multiple-trauma-characterization-of-posttraumatic-structural-and-functional-alterations
#10
M Kalbitz, S Schwarz, B Weber, B Bosch, J Pressmar, F M Hoenes, C K Braun, K Horst, T P Simon, R Pfeifer, P Störmann, H Hummler, F Gebhard, H C Pape, M Huber-Lang, F Hildebrand
The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between cardiac depression and morphological and immunological alterations in cardiac tissue after multiple trauma. However, the mechanistic basis of depressed cardiac function after trauma is still elusive. In a porcine polytrauma model including blunt chest trauma, liver laceration, femur fracture and haemorrhage serial trans-thoracic echocardiography was performed and correlated with cellular cardiac injury as well as with the occurrence of extracellular histones in serum...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238731/porcine-to-human-heart-transplantation-is-clinical-application-now-appropriate
#11
REVIEW
Christopher G A McGregor, Guerard W Byrne
Cardiac xenotransplantation (CXTx) is a promising solution to the chronic shortage of donor hearts. Recent advancements in immune suppression have greatly improved the survival of heterotopic CXTx, now extended beyond 2 years, and life-supporting kidney XTx. Advances in donor genetic modification (B4GALNT2 and CMAH mutations) with proven Gal-deficient donors expressing human complement regulatory protein(s) have also accelerated, reducing donor pig organ antigenicity. These advances can now be combined and tested in life-supporting orthotopic preclinical studies in nonhuman primates and immunologically appropriate models confirming their efficacy and safety for a clinical CXTx program...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237423/deciphering-the-genetic-regulation-of-peripheral-blood-transcriptome-in-pigs-through-expression-genome-wide-association-study-and-allele-specific-expression-analysis
#12
T Maroilley, G Lemonnier, J Lecardonnel, D Esquerré, Y Ramayo-Caldas, M J Mercat, C Rogel-Gaillard, J Estellé
BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve sustainability in livestock production systems have focused on two objectives: investigating the genetic control of immune function as it pertains to robustness and disease resistance, and finding predictive markers for use in breeding programs. In this context, the peripheral blood transcriptome represents an important source of biological information about an individual's health and immunological status, and has been proposed for use as an intermediate phenotype to measure immune capacity...
December 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229731/activation-of-porcine-alveolar-macrophages-by-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-lipopolysaccharide-via-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-pathway
#13
Bi Li, Jing Fang, Zhicai Zuo, Sirui Yin, Tingting He, Mingxian Yang, Junliang Deng, Liuhong Shen, Xiaoping Ma, Shumin Yu, Ya Wang, Zhihua Ren
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is a causative agent of the porcine contagious pleuropneumonia. Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and Resistin in lung is an important feature of A. pleuropneumoniae infection. These pro-inflammatory cytokines enhance inflammatory and immunological responses. However, the mechanism that leads to cytokines production remains unclear. As a major virulent factor of A. pleuropneumoniae, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may act as a potent stimulator of TLR4, triggering a number of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
December 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225150/decellularised-conjunctiva-for-ocular-surface-reconstruction
#14
Joana Witt, Sonja Mertsch, Maria Borrelli, Jana Dietrich, Gerd Geerling, Stefan Schrader, Kristina Spaniol
Conjunctival reconstruction is an integral component of ocular surface restoration. Decellularised tissues are frequently used clinically for tissue engineering. This study identifies porcine decellularised conjunctiva (PDC) and human decellularised conjunctiva (HDC) as promising substitutes for conjunctival reconstruction. PDC and HDC were nearly DNA-free, structurally intact and showed no cytotoxic effects in vitro, which was confirmed by DNA quantification, histology, transmission electron microscopy, collagen quantification and cytotoxicity assay...
December 7, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222694/preparation-and-evaluation-of-decellularized-porcine-carotid-arteries-cross-linked-by-genipin-the-preliminary-results
#15
Yongquan Gu, Fei Wang, Rong Wang, Jianxin Li, Cong Wang, Liqiang Li, Zeqin Xu, Jian Zhang
Decellularized arteries have been considered as promising scaffolds for small-diameter vascular substitutes. However, weakened mechanical properties, immunological rejection and rapid degradation after transplantation still exist after decellularization. Previous studies indicated that genipin cross-linking can solve these problems. Therefore, genipin was selected as the cross-linking agent for the pre-treatment of decellularized arteries in our study. Histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties analysis and subcutaneous embedding experiment were adopted to investigate the efficiency of decellularization and the effect of genipin cross-linking on improving mechanical, structural and biological properties of decellularized arteries...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191508/in-vivo-performance-of-freeze-dried-decellularized-pulmonary-heart-valve-allo-and-xenografts-orthotopically-implanted-into-juvenile-sheep
#16
Tobias Goecke, Karolina Theodoridis, Igor Tudorache, Anatol Ciubotaru, Serghei Cebotari, Robert Ramm, Klaus Höffler, Samir Sarikouch, Andrés Vásquez-Rivera, Axel Haverich, Willem F Wolkers, Andres Hilfiker
The decellularization of biological tissues decreases immunogenicity, allows repopulation with cells, and may lead to improved long-term performance after implantation. Freeze drying these tissues would ensure off-the-shelf availability, save storage costs, and facilitates easy transport. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of freeze-dried decellularized heart valves in juvenile sheep. TritonX-100 and sodium dodecylsulfate decellularized ovine and porcine pulmonary valves (PV) were freeze-dried in a lyoprotectant sucrose solution...
November 27, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175001/contribution-of-the-swine-model-in-the-study-of-human-sexually-transmitted-infections
#17
Tobias Käser, Fanny Renois, Heather L Wilson, Thomas Cnudde, Volker Gerdts, Jo-Anne R Dillon, Gregers Jungersen, Jørgen S Agerholm, François Meurens
The pig has garnered more and more interest as a model animal to study various conditions in humans. The growing success of the pig as an experimental animal model is explained by its similarities with humans in terms of anatomy, genetics, immunology, and physiology, by their manageable behavior and size, and by the general public acceptance of using pigs for experimental purposes. In addition, the immunological toolbox of pigs has grown substantially in the last decade. This development led to a boost in the use of pigs as a preclinical model for various human infections including sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) like Chlamydia trachomatis...
November 23, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159765/characteristic-comparison-of-meningitis-and-non-meningitis-of-streptococcus-suis-in-an-experimentally-infected-porcine-model
#18
Yingying Sun, Hongtao Liu, Rui Du, Shuguang Li, Guanggang Qu, Rining Zhu, Shuang Zhao, Jingmin Gu, Changjiang Sun, Xin Feng, Wenyu Han, Liancheng Lei
This study tested the differences of meningitis and non-meningitis of Streptococcus suis (SS). In this study, an infected pig model of streptococcal meningitis was established. Compared with the non-meningitis Streptococcus suis group (JZLQ001 group), the meningitis Streptococcus suis group (JZLQ022) exhibited neurological symptoms, such as ataxia and foaming at the mouth, and the brain showed a large area of congestion at 5 days post-infection (p.i.). Moreover, bacterial counts, white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and blood glucose in the blood reached a peak and were significantly higher than those of the JZLQ001 group at 3 days p...
November 20, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143761/antibody-cross-reactivity-between-porcine-cytomegalovirus-pcmv-and-human-herpesvirus-6-hhv-6
#19
Uwe Fiebig, Angela Holzer, Daniel Ivanusic, Elena Plotzki, Hartmut Hengel, Frank Neipel, Joachim Denner
Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) infection is widely prevalent among pigs, and PCMV is one of the viruses which may be transmitted during xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues, or organs. While human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major risk factor for allotransplantation, it is still unclear whether PCMV is able to infect human cells or pose a risk for xenotransplantation. Previously, it was shown that transmission of PCMV after pig kidney to non-human primate transplantations resulted in a significantly reduced survival time of the transplanted organ...
October 28, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142122/adaptive-immune-responses-following-senecavirus-a-infection-in-pigs
#20
Mayara F Maggioli, Steve Lawson, Marcelo de Lima, Lok R Joshi, Tatiane C Faccin, Fernando V Bauermann, Diego G Diel
Senecavirus A (SVA), an emerging picornavirus of swine, causes vesicular disease (VD) that is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in pigs. Many aspects of SVA interactions with the host and the host immune responses to infection, however, remain unknown. In the present study, humoral and cellular immune responses to SVA were evaluated following infection in pigs. We show that SVA infection elicited an early and robust neutralizing antibody (NA) response, which coincided with and was strongly correlated with VP2- and VP3-specific IgM responses...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
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