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Porcine Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899562/immunome-differences-between-porcine-ileal-and-jejunal-peyer-s-patches-revealed-by-global-transcriptome-sequencing-of-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissues
#1
T Maroilley, M Berri, G Lemonnier, D Esquerré, C Chevaleyre, S Mélo, F Meurens, J L Coville, J J Leplat, A Rau, B Bed'hom, S Vincent-Naulleau, M J Mercat, Y Billon, P Lepage, C Rogel-Gaillard, J Estellé
The epithelium of the intestinal mucosa and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) constitute an essential physical and immunological barrier against pathogens. In order to study the specificities of the GALT transcriptome in pigs, we compared the transcriptome profiles of jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches (PPs), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and peripheral blood (PB) of four male piglets by RNA-Seq. We identified 1,103 differentially expressed (DE) genes between ileal PPs (IPPs) and jejunal PPs (JPPs), and six times more DE genes between PPs and MLNs...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899552/the-radiated-deep-frozen-xenogenic-meniscal-tissue-regenerated-the-total-meniscus-with-chondroprotection
#2
Dong Jiang, Zheng-Zheng Zhang, Feng Zhao, Shao-Jie Wang, Yan-Song Qi, Li-Heng Zhao, Ji-Ying Zhang, Jia-Kuo Yu
Meniscal allograft transplantation yields good and excellent results but is limited by donor availability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of radiated deep-frozen xenogenic meniscal tissue (RDF-X) as an alternative graft choice in meniscal transplantation. The xenogenic meniscal tissues were harvested from the inner 1/3 part of the porcine meniscus and then irradiated and deeply frozen. The medial menisci of rabbits were replaced by the RDF-X. Meniscal allograft transplantation, meniscectomy and sham operation served as controls...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593715/comparative-analysis-of-the-regulatory-t-cells-dynamics-in-peripheral-blood-in-human-and-porcine-polytrauma
#3
Rafael Serve, Ramona Sturm, Lukas Schimunek, Philipp Störmann, David Heftrig, Michel P J Teuben, Elsie Oppermann, Klemens Horst, Roman Pfeifer, Tim P Simon, Yannik Kalbas, Hans-Christoph Pape, Frank Hildebrand, Ingo Marzi, Borna Relja
Background: Severely injured patients experience substantial immunological stress in the aftermath of traumatic insult, which often results in systemic immune dysregulation. Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a key role in the suppression of the immune response and in the maintenance of immunological homeostasis. Little is known about their presence and dynamics in blood after trauma, and nothing is known about Treg in the porcine polytrauma model. Here, we assessed different subsets of Treg in trauma patients (TP) and compared those to either healthy volunteers (HV) or data from porcine polytrauma...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589172/utilization-of-phage-display-to-identify-antigenic-regions-in-the-pcv2-capsid-protein-for-the-evaluation-of-serological-responses-in-mice-and-pigs
#4
Marcus Rebouças Santos, Viviane Sisdelli Assao, Fabiana de Almeida Araújo Santos, Rafael Locatelli Salgado, Ana Paula Carneiro, Juliana Lopes Rangel Fietto, Gustavo Costa Bressan, Márcia Rogéria de Almeida, Zelia Inês Portela Lobato, Carlos Ueira-Veira, Luíz Ricardo Goulart, Abelardo Silva-Júnior
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is associated with a series of swine diseases. There is a great interest in improving our understanding of the immunology of PCV2, especially the properties of the viral capsid protein Cap-PCV2 and how they relate to the immunogenicity of the virus and the subsequent development of vaccines. Phage display screening has been widely used to study binding affinities for target proteins. The aim of this study was to use phage display screening to identify antigenic peptides in the PCV2 capsid protein...
March 27, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546034/the-immunological-regulation-roles-of-porcine-%C3%AE-1-4-galactosyltransferase-v-b4galt5-in-prrsv-infection
#5
Lei Zhang, Jie Ren, Peidian Shi, Dong Lu, Chengxue Zhao, Yanxin Su, Lilin Zhang, Jinhai Huang
B4GALT5, also known as β-1, 4 galactosyltransferase V, is one of the members of β-1, 4 galactosyltransferase gene (B4GALT) family, which was concerned with embryonic development, tumor generation, other malignant diseases. In this study, we firstly cloned porcine B4GALT (pB4GALT5) from porcine alveolar macrophages, and predicted the structural domain and function of seven porcine β-1, 4 galactosyltransferase (I-VII) based on transcriptome analysis of PRRSV infected cells. Additionally, the upregulated porcine B4GALT5 expression was detected from PRRSV infected porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471443/immunomodulatory-potential-of-dietary-soybean-derived-isoflavones-and-saponins-in-pigs
#6
Brooke Nicole Smith, Ryan Neil Dilger
In this review, the potential for use of soy-derived bioactive compounds as immunomodulatory feed additives in pigs is discussed. Soy is a major component of the modern U.S. swine diet in today's commercial industry, providing the bulk of dietary AA necessary for growth and production. However, soy use has generally been limited in early growth phases, during which the risks of immunological insult and disease are among the highest. Improvements of soybean processing and development of soy protein products with little to no antinutritional factors have made soy more appropriate for use in young pigs but additional processing may affect bioactive compound levels in the feed...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427659/construction-of-emsc-islet-co-localizing-composites-for-xenogeneic-porcine-islet-transplantation
#7
Jung-Sik Kim, Hyunwoo Chung, Nari Byun, Seong-Jun Kang, Sunho Lee, Jun-Seop Shin, Chung-Gyu Park
Pancreatic islet transplantation is an ultimate solution for treating patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The pig is an ideal donor of islets for replacing scarce human islets. Besides immunological hurdles, non-immunological hurdles including fragmentation and delayed engraftment of porcine islets need solutions to succeed in porcine islet xenotransplantation. In this study, we suggest a simple but effective modality, a cell/islet co-localizing composite, to overcome these challenges. Endothelial-like mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), differentiated from bone-marrow derived mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and MSCs evenly coated the surface of porcine islets (>85%) through optimized culture conditions...
March 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408442/porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-provide-in-vivo-cross-protection-to-prrsv1-and-prrsv2-viral-challenge
#8
Sally R Robinson, Michael C Rahe, Diem K Gray, Kyra V Martins, Michael P Murtaugh
Vaccine control and prevention of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), the most important disease of swine, is difficult to achieve. However, the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibody activity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) under typical field conditions opens the door to new immunologic approaches for robust protection. We show here that passive administration of purified immunoglobulins with neutralizing antibodies reduced PRRSV2 infection by up to 96%, and PRRSV1 infection by up to 87%, whereas immune immunoglobulins lacking neutralizing activity had no effect on viral infection...
March 15, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397454/reduced-antigen-presentation-capability-and-modified-inflammatory-immunosuppressive-cytokine-expression-of-induced-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-from-peripheral-blood-of-piglets-infected-with-porcine-circovirus-type-2
#9
Ning Yang, Jiandong Li, Qian Yang, Jinzeng Qiao, Defeng Cui, Fenghua Liu, Huanrong Li, Shuanghai Zhou
The efficiency of immune responses and host defense against pathogens largely depends on the function of dendritic cells (DCs). Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection causes viremia and extensive modulation of immune activities in the blood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of PCV2 infection in vivo on the immunological function of DCs induced from peripheral blood monocytes (MoDCs). At different points after infection with PCV2, peripheral blood monocytes from PCV2-infected pigs were used to induce differentiation of DCs in vitro...
May 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382967/comparison-of-3-vaccination-strategies-against-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-and-porcine-circovirus-type-2-on-a-3-pathogen-challenge-model
#10
Jiwoon Jeong, Ikjae Kang, Seeun Kim, Kee Hwan Park, Changhoon Park, Chanhee Chae
The objective of this study was to compare clinical, microbiologic, immunologic, and pathologic parameters in pigs each concurrently administered porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine from 1 of 2 commercial sources at 21 days of age and challenged with field strains of each of the 3 pathogens. Pigs were challenged with PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae at 42 days of age (-14 days post-challenge, dpc) followed by a challenge with PCV2 at 56 days of age (0 dpc)...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306151/enhancement-of-immune-response-of-piglets-to-pcv-2-vaccine-by-porcine-il-2-and-fusion-il-4-6-gene-entrapped-in-chitosan-nanoparticles
#11
Yi Chen, Tingyu Song, Yong-Le Xiao, Xiaoping Wan, Luyi Yang, Jinghai Li, Guangzhi Zeng, Pengfei Fang, Ze-Zhou Wang, Rong Gao
In order to develop a novel effective immunomodulator to enhance pig resistance against post-weaning multi systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a recombinant plasmid co-expressing pig interleukin-2 (IL-2) and fusion interleukin-4/6 (IL-4/6) genes, designated VRIL4/6-2, was constructed and encapsulated in chitosan (CS) nanoparticles prepared by the ionotropic gelation method. Then 21-day old piglets were divided into two groups and intramuscularly injected respectively with VPIL4/6-2-CS and saline along with the porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) vaccine...
April 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278679/cell-specific-expression-and-signal-transduction-of-c-c-motif-chemokine-ligand-2-and-atypical-chemokine-receptors-in-the-porcine-endometrium-during-early-pregnancy
#12
Whasun Lim, Hyocheol Bae, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Chemokines and atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs; also known as chemokine decoy receptors) play an important role in reproductive immunology by recruiting leukocytes during early pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and ACKRs in the endometrium during estrous cycle and early pregnancy, and to investigate the functional effects of CCL2 on porcine uterine luminal epithelial (pLE) cells. Our results indicated that CCL2, ACKR1, ACKR3, and ACKR4 were strongly detected in the glandular and luminal epithelium of the endometrium during early pregnancy compared to that in non-pregnant pigs...
April 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261104/biology-of-porcine-parvovirus-ungulate-parvovirus-1
#13
REVIEW
István Mészáros, Ferenc Olasz, Attila Cságola, Peter Tijssen, Zoltán Zádori
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is among the most important infectious agents causing infertility in pigs. Until recently, it was thought that the virus had low genetic variance, and that prevention of its harmful effect on pig fertility could be well-controlled by vaccination. However, at the beginning of the third millennium, field observations raised concerns about the effectiveness of the available vaccines against newly emerging strains. Subsequent investigations radically changed our view on the evolution and immunology of PPV, revealing that the virus is much more diverse than it was earlier anticipated, and that some of the "new" highly virulent isolates cannot be neutralized effectively by antisera raised against "old" PPV vaccine strains...
December 20, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259556/the-oncopig-cancer-model-as-a-complementary-tool-for-phenotypic-drug-discovery
#14
REVIEW
Natalia V Segatto, Mariana H Remião, Kyle M Schachtschneider, Fabiana K Seixas, Lawrence B Schook, Tiago Collares
The screening of potential therapeutic compounds using phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) is being embraced once again by researchers and pharmaceutical companies as an approach to enhance the development of new effective therapeutics. Before the genomics and molecular biology era and the consecutive emergence of targeted-drug discovery approaches, PDD was the most common platform used for drug discovery. PDD, also known as phenotypic screening, consists of screening potential compounds in either in vitro cellular or in vivo animal models to identify compounds resulting in a desirable phenotypic change...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259232/cardiac-depression-in-pigs-after-multiple-trauma-characterization-of-posttraumatic-structural-and-functional-alterations
#15
M Kalbitz, S Schwarz, B Weber, B Bosch, J Pressmar, F M Hoenes, C K Braun, K Horst, T P Simon, R Pfeifer, P Störmann, H Hummler, F Gebhard, H C Pape, M Huber-Lang, F Hildebrand
The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between cardiac depression and morphological and immunological alterations in cardiac tissue after multiple trauma. However, the mechanistic basis of depressed cardiac function after trauma is still elusive. In a porcine polytrauma model including blunt chest trauma, liver laceration, femur fracture and haemorrhage serial trans-thoracic echocardiography was performed and correlated with cellular cardiac injury as well as with the occurrence of extracellular histones in serum...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238731/porcine-to-human-heart-transplantation-is-clinical-application-now-appropriate
#16
REVIEW
Christopher G A McGregor, Guerard W Byrne
Cardiac xenotransplantation (CXTx) is a promising solution to the chronic shortage of donor hearts. Recent advancements in immune suppression have greatly improved the survival of heterotopic CXTx, now extended beyond 2 years, and life-supporting kidney XTx. Advances in donor genetic modification (B4GALNT2 and CMAH mutations) with proven Gal-deficient donors expressing human complement regulatory protein(s) have also accelerated, reducing donor pig organ antigenicity. These advances can now be combined and tested in life-supporting orthotopic preclinical studies in nonhuman primates and immunologically appropriate models confirming their efficacy and safety for a clinical CXTx program...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237423/deciphering-the-genetic-regulation-of-peripheral-blood-transcriptome-in-pigs-through-expression-genome-wide-association-study-and-allele-specific-expression-analysis
#17
T Maroilley, G Lemonnier, J Lecardonnel, D Esquerré, Y Ramayo-Caldas, M J Mercat, C Rogel-Gaillard, J Estellé
BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve sustainability in livestock production systems have focused on two objectives: investigating the genetic control of immune function as it pertains to robustness and disease resistance, and finding predictive markers for use in breeding programs. In this context, the peripheral blood transcriptome represents an important source of biological information about an individual's health and immunological status, and has been proposed for use as an intermediate phenotype to measure immune capacity...
December 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229731/activation-of-porcine-alveolar-macrophages-by-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-lipopolysaccharide-via-the-toll-like-receptor-4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-pathway
#18
Bi Li, Jing Fang, Zhicai Zuo, Sirui Yin, Tingting He, Mingxian Yang, Junliang Deng, Liuhong Shen, Xiaoping Ma, Shumin Yu, Ya Wang, Zhihua Ren
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia. Overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and resistin, in the lung is an important feature of A. pleuropneumoniae infection. These proinflammatory cytokines enhance inflammatory and immunological responses. However, the mechanism that leads to cytokine production remains unclear. As a major virulence factor of A. pleuropneumoniae , lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may act as a potent stimulator of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), triggering a number of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines...
March 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225150/decellularised-conjunctiva-for-ocular-surface-reconstruction
#19
Joana Witt, Sonja Mertsch, Maria Borrelli, Jana Dietrich, Gerd Geerling, Stefan Schrader, Kristina Spaniol
Conjunctival reconstruction is an integral component of ocular surface restoration. Decellularised tissues are frequently used clinically for tissue engineering. This study identifies porcine decellularised conjunctiva (PDC) and human decellularised conjunctiva (HDC) as promising substitutes for conjunctival reconstruction. PDC and HDC were nearly DNA-free, structurally intact and showed no cytotoxic effects in vitro, which was confirmed by DNA quantification, histology, transmission electron microscopy, collagen quantification and cytotoxicity assay...
February 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222694/preparation-and-evaluation-of-decellularized-porcine-carotid-arteries-cross-linked-by-genipin-the-preliminary-results
#20
Yongquan Gu, Fei Wang, Rong Wang, Jianxin Li, Cong Wang, Liqiang Li, Zeqin Xu, Jian Zhang
Decellularized arteries have been considered as promising scaffolds for small-diameter vascular substitutes. However, weakened mechanical properties, immunological rejection and rapid degradation after transplantation still exist after decellularization. Previous studies indicated that genipin cross-linking can solve these problems. Therefore, genipin was selected as the cross-linking agent for the pre-treatment of decellularized arteries in our study. Histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties analysis and subcutaneous embedding experiment were adopted to investigate the efficiency of decellularization and the effect of genipin cross-linking on improving mechanical, structural and biological properties of decellularized arteries...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
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