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Porcine Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177360/genomewide-association-of-piglet-responses-to-infection-with-one-of-two-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-isolates
#1
E H Waide, C K Tuggle, N V L Serão, M Schroyen, A Hess, R R R Rowland, J K Lunney, G Plastow, J C M Dekkers
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating disease in the swine industry. Identification of host genetic factors that enable selection for improved performance during PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection would reduce the impact of this disease on animal welfare and production efficiency. We conducted genomewide association study (GWAS) analyses of data from 13 trials of approximately 200 commercial crossbred nursery-age piglets that were experimentally infected with 1 of 2 type 2 isolates of PRRSV (NVSL 97-7985 [NVSL] and KS2006-72109 [KS06])...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125737/interleukin-21-drives-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-porcine-memory-b-cells-into-antibody-secreting-cells
#2
Michael C Rahe, Michael P Murtaugh
Immunological prevention of infectious disease, especially viral, is based on antigen-specific long-lived memory B cells. To test for cellular proliferation and differentiation factors in swine, an outbred model for humans, CD21+ B cells were activated in vitro with CD40L and stimulated with purported stimulatory cytokines to characterize functional responses. IL-21 induced a 3-fold expansion in total cell numbers with roughly 15% of all B cells differentiating to IgM or IgG antibody secreting cells (ASCs.) However, even with robust proliferation, cellular viability rapidly deteriorated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110785/genetic-diversity-of-orf-4-6-of-type-1-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-naturally-infected-pigs
#3
Dong-Uk Lee, Sung J Yoo, Taeyong Kwon, Sang H Je, Jeong Y Shin, Jeong J Byun, Myung H Kim, Young S Lyoo
Genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been highly prevalent throughout Korea since the virus was first detected in 2005. However, genetic analyses of genotype 1 PRRSV in Korea have been limited to ORF5 and/or ORF7. In the present study, we determined 10 representative sequence covering ORF4 to ORF6 and each individual ORFs of genotype 1 PRRSV in Korea, and performed molecular analyses. The most variable gene among the individual ORFs of field strains was ORF4, and this gene exhibited only 74...
February 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100167/conserved-gene-expression-in-sperm-reservoirs-between-birds-and-mammals-in-response-to-mating
#4
Mohammad Atikuzzaman, Manuel Alvarez-Rodriguez, Alejandro Vicente Carrillo, Martin Johnsson, Dominic Wright, Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez
BACKGROUND: Spermatozoa are stored in the oviductal functional sperm reservoir in animals with internal fertilization, including zoologically distant classes such as pigs or poultry. They are held fertile in the reservoir for times ranging from a couple of days (in pigs), to several weeks (in chickens), before they are gradually released to fertilize the newly ovulated eggs. It is currently unknown whether females from these species share conserved mechanisms to tolerate such a lengthy presence of immunologically-foreign spermatozoa...
January 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063479/positive-immunomodulatory-effects-of-heterologous-dna-vaccine-modified-live-vaccine-prime-boost-immunization-against-the-highly-pathogenic-prrsv-infection
#5
Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Teerawut Nedumpun, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Yonlayong Woonwong, Roongtham Kedkovid, Jirapat Arunorat, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is one of the most important swine pathogens, and causes a major economic impact worldwide. Recently, a new variant type 2 PRRSV, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) has emerged and continued to circulate in Southeast Asia region. Currently, commercially available PRRSV vaccines, modified live PRRS vaccines (MLV) are not able to provide complete protection against HP-PRRSV and been reported to induce negative immunomodulatory effects. Interestingly, a novel DNA vaccine was developed and successfully used to improve PRRSV-specific immune responses following MLV vaccination...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892871/phenotypic-modulation-of-porcine-cd14-monocytes-natural-killer-natural-killer-t-cells-and-cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subsets-by-an-antibody-derived-killer-peptide-kp
#6
Luca Ferrari, Paolo Borghetti, Giulia Ferrarini, Elena De Angelis, Elena Canelli, Giulia Ogno, Alessia Catella, Tecla Ciociola, Walter Magliani, Paolo Martelli
An engineered killer peptide (KP) based on a recombinant anti-idiotypic antibody representing the functional image of a yeast killer toxin (KT) was demonstrated to mediate antimicrobial effects against fungi and viruses. KP binds to murine dendritic cells and macrophages and up-regulate co-receptor expression, thus sustaining CD4+ lymphocyte activation. No immunological data are available in domestic animals thus KP-induced immunomodulation was evaluated in porcine monocyte and lymphocyte subsets. PBMC from healthy adult pigs were stimulated with KP or a scramble peptide (SP), or kept unstimulated for 24, 48 and 72h, and subsequently analyzed by flow cytometry...
December 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872471/recent-progress-in-xenotransplantation-with-emphasis-on-virological-safety
#7
Joachim Denner
Xenotransplantation is a new technology that may help to overcome the shortage of human tissues and organs available for the treatment of tissue and organ failure. Remarkable progress has recently been made in this field. First, understanding of the mechanisms of immunological rejection, mainly of the hyperacute rejection, allowed generating numerous genetically modified pigs to overcome rejection. Second, based on these genetically modified animals and new immunosuppression regimens, long-term survival of non-human primate recipients of heart, kidney, and islet cell cells has been reported...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836662/crip1-a-novel-immune-related-protein-activated-by-enterococcus-faecalis-in-porcine-gastrointestinal-epithelial-cells
#8
Haiming Cai, Jiawei Chen, Jie Liu, Min Zeng, Feiping Ming, Zhipeng Lu, Qingmei Cheng, Jun Yang, Linghua Zhang
Cysteine-rich intestinal protein 1 (CRIP1) is an important transcriptional regulation factor during the tumor development. Although it was largely studied in the human or mouse, no report has provided functional evidence for it in the swine. To date, the real sequence of porcine CRIP1 (poCRIP1) was also still unknown. In this study, clear characteristics for the poCRIP1 were represented. A 552bp poCRIP1 cDNA was obtained from porcine brain tissue using real time reverse transcriptase PCR. The poCRIP1 showed 89% and 93% homologous with human and cattle, respectively...
January 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823818/progress-in-transplantation-will-it-be-achieved-in-big-steps-or-by-marginal-gains
#9
Jeremy R Chapman
A wish for progress in transplantation assumes that there are needs not met by the currently available therapy and that the barriers to resolving the problems can be surmounted. There are 5 major unmet needs: the potential to avoid transplantation either by prevention of disease or provision of an alternative to natural biological organ replacement; geographic heterogeneity of access to, and quality of, transplantation; availability of transplantation to those in need of it; survival of the patient and the transplant; and the avoidance of adverse effects of immunosuppression...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738946/immunological-challenges-facing-translation-of-alginate-encapsulated-porcine-islet-xenotransplantation-to-human-clinical-trials
#10
Rahul Krishnan, David Ko, Clarence E Foster, Wendy Liu, A M Smink, Bart de Haan, Paul De Vos, Jonathan R T Lakey
Transplantation of alginate-encapsulated islets has the potential to treat patients suffering from type I diabetes, a condition characterized by an autoimmune attack against insulin-secreting beta cells. However, there are multiple immunological challenges associated with this procedure, all of which must be adequately addressed prior to translation from trials in small animal and nonhuman primate models to human clinical trials. Principal threats to graft viability include immune-mediated destruction triggered by immunogenic alginate impurities, unfavorable polymer composition and surface characteristics, and release of membrane-permeable antigens, as well as damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by the encapsulated islets themselves...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733150/pathological-and-immunological-characteristics-of-piglets-infected-experimentally-with-a-hp-prrsv-tj-strain
#11
Zhenguang Li, Yanliang He, Xiaoqin Xu, Xue Leng, Shufen Li, Yongjun Wen, Fengxue Wang, Mingqi Xia, Shipeng Cheng, Hua Wu
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) remains a major threat to swine industry all over the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of pathogenesis and immune responses caused by a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). RESULTS: All piglets experimentally infected with a HP-PRRSV TJ strain virus developed typical clinical signs of PRRS. The percentages of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) lymphocytes significantly decreased in the infected group as compared to the uninfected control animals (p < 0...
October 12, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722993/inactivated-chimeric-porcine-circovirus-pcv-1-2-vaccines-based-on-genotypes-2b-and-2d-exhibit-similar-immunological-effectiveness-in-protecting-pigs-against-challenge-with-pcv2b-strain-0233
#12
Jizong Li, Tianqi Yu, Feipeng Zhang, Xiaobo Wang, Jinzhu Zhou, Xing Gao, Song Gao, Xiufan Liu
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is subdivided into four genotypes: PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c and PCV2d. Here, for the first time, we compared the efficacy of two experimental inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccines based on genotypes 2b and 2d. Seventeen 3-week-old pigs were divided randomly into four groups. Group 1 and 2 pigs were inoculated with genotype 2b- and 2d-based inactivated vaccines, respectively. At 28 days post-vaccination (DPV), pigs in groups 1-3 were challenged with the PCV2b 0233 strain. All experimental pigs were necropsied at 21 days post-challenge (DPC)...
January 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692557/the-development-of-a-xenograft-derived-scaffold-for-tendon-and-ligament-reconstruction-using-a-decellularization-and-oxidation-protocol
#13
Thorsten M Seyler, Daniel N Bracey, Johannes F Plate, Mark O Lively, Sandeep Mannava, Thomas L Smith, Justin M Saul, Gary G Poehling, Mark E Van Dyke, Patrick W Whitlock
PURPOSE: To evaluate the biological, immunological, and biomechanical properties of a scaffold derived by architectural modification of a fresh-frozen porcine patella tendon using a decellularization protocol that combines physical, chemical, and enzymatic modalities. METHODS: Porcine patellar tendons were processed using a decellularization and oxidation protocol that combines physical, chemical, and enzymatic modalities. Scaffolds (n = 88) were compared with native tendons (n = 70) using histologic, structural (scanning electron microscopy, porosimetry, and tensile testing), biochemical (mass spectrometry, peracetic acid reduction, DNA quantification, alpha-galactosidase [α-gal] content), as well as in vitro immunologic (cytocompatibility, cytokine induction) and in vivo immunologic nonhuman primate analyses...
February 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610361/prophylactic-administration-of-vector-encoded-porcine-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-reduces-salmonella-shedding-tonsil-colonization-and-microbiota-alterations-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-salmonella-challenged-swine
#14
Shawn M D Bearson, Bradley L Bearson, Crystal L Loving, Heather K Allen, InSoo Lee, Darin Madson, Marcus E Kehrli
Salmonella colonization of food animals is a concern for animal health and public health as a food safety risk. Various obstacles impede the effort to reduce asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in food animals, including the existence of numerous serovars and the ubiquitous nature of Salmonella. To develop an intervention strategy that is non-specific yet effective against diverse Salmonella serovars, we explored the prophylactic use of a cytokine to decrease Salmonella in swine by boosting the host's innate immune system...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606818/enriched-housing-reduces-disease-susceptibility-to-co-infection-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-virus-prrsv-and-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-a-pleuropneumoniae-in-young-pigs
#15
Ingrid D E van Dixhoorn, Inonge Reimert, Jenny Middelkoop, J Elizabeth Bolhuis, Henk J Wisselink, Peter W G Groot Koerkamp, Bas Kemp, Norbert Stockhofe-Zurwieden
Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606556/a-comparative-examination-of-the-clinical-outcome-and-histological-appearance-of-cryopreserved-and-fresh-split-thickness-skin-grafts
#16
Paul W Holzer, David A Leonard, Kumaran Shanmugarajah, Krysta N Moulton, Zhi Yang Ng, Curtis L Cetrulo, David H Sachs
The clinical use of frozen, human allogeneic skin grafts is considered a suitable alternative to freshly harvested allogeneic skin grafts when the latter are not available. However, limited functional and histological information exists regarding the effects of cryopreservation on allogeneic skin grafts, especially those across mismatched histocompatibility barriers. Thus, we performed a side-by-side comparative study of fresh vs frozen skin grafts, across both minor and major histocompatibility barriers, in a miniature swine model...
January 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556621/a-porcine-orthotopic-forelimb-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-model-technical-considerations-and-translational-implications
#17
C Anton Fries, Carole Y Villamaria, Jerry R Spencer, Rory F Rickard, Vijay S Gorantla, Michael R Davis
BACKGROUND: The restoration of complex tissue deficits with vascularized composite allotransplantation is a paradigm shift in reconstructive surgery. Clinical adoption of vascularized composite allotransplantation is limited by the need for systemic immunosuppression, with associated morbidity and mortality. Small-animal models lack the biological fidelity and preclinical relevance to enable translation of immunologic insights to humans. Large-animal models have been described; however, limitations persist, including the inability of heterotopic models to evaluate functional nerve regeneration, and the sensitivity of primates to toxicity of immunosuppressive drugs...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553650/effects-of-medium-chain-fatty-acids-on-the-structure-and-immune-response-of-ipec-j2-cells
#18
B Martínez-Vallespín, W Vahjen, J Zentek
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have been suggested as an alternative to the use of antibiotics in animal nutrition with promising results. First, we studied the sensitivity of Salmonella Enteritidis and an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain against caprylic (C8), capric (C10) and lauric (C12) acids. A porcine in vitro model using the porcine cell line IPEC-J2 was used to test the effects of MCFAs on structural and immunological traits without and with a concomitant challenge with E. coli or S. Enteritidis...
October 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527771/evaluation-of-a-20year-old-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-prrs-modified-live-vaccine-ingelvac-%C3%A2-prrs-mlv-against-two-recent-type-2-prrs-virus-isolates-in-south-korea
#19
Jiwoon Jeong, Kyuhyung Choi, Ikjae Kang, Changhoon Park, Chanhee Chae
Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) was first isolated in Korea in 1994. The commercial PRRS modified live vaccine (Ingelvac(®) PRRS MLV, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, Missouri, USA) based on type 2 PRRSV, was first licensed for use in 3- to 18-week-old pigs in Korea in 1996. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of this 20year old commercial PRRS modified live vaccine (MLV) against two recent PRRSV isolates. Two genetically distant type 2 PRRSV strains (SNUVR150004 for lineage 1 and SNUVR150324 for lineage 5), isolated in 2015, were used as challenge virus...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527768/inactivated-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccine-adjuvanted-with-montanide%C3%A2-gel-01-st-elicits-virus-specific-cross-protective-inter-genotypic-response-in-piglets
#20
Kairat Tabynov, Abylay Sansyzbay, Zhanara Tulemissova, Kaissar Tabynov, Santosh Dhakal, Aigul Samoltyrova, Gourapura J Renukaradhya, Muratbay Mambetaliyev
The efficacy of a novel BEI-inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) candidate vaccine in pigs, developed at RIBSP Republic of Kazakhstan and delivered with an adjuvant Montanide™ Gel 01 ST (D/KV/ADJ) was compared with a commercial killed PRRSV vaccine (NVDC-JXA1, C/KV/ADJ) used widely in swine herds of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Clinical parameters (body temperature and respiratory disease scores), virological and immunological profiles [ELISA and virus neutralizing (VN) antibody titers], macroscopic lung lesions and viral load in the lungs (quantitative real-time PCR and cell culture assay) were assessed in vaccinated and both genotype 1 and 2 PRRSV challenged pigs...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
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