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apple a day

Thomas Cahon, Robin Caillon, Sylvain Pincebourde
Arthropods at the surface of plants live in particular microclimatic conditions that can differ from atmospheric conditions. The temperature of plant leaves can deviate from air temperature, and leaf temperature influences the eco-physiology of small insects. The activity of insects feeding on leaf tissues, may, however, induce changes in leaf surface temperatures, but this effect was only rarely demonstrated. Using thermography analysis of leaf surfaces under controlled environmental conditions, we quantified the impact of presence of apple green aphids on the temperature distribution of apple leaves during early infestation...
March 14, 2018: Insects
Justyna Aszyk, Paweł Kubica, Mateusz Kacper Woźniak, Jacek Namieśnik, Andrzej Wasik, Agata Kot-Wasik
Many flavour compounds that are present in e-liquids for e-cigarettes are responsible for specific tastes and smoking sensations for users. Data concerning content and specific types of flavours is often limited and unknown to users. The aim of the research was to define and compare flavour profiles of e-liquids with the same group taste from different manufacturers. Gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used to separate and identify 90 popular compounds (98, including isomers) of interest...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Malik Mukhtar Ahmad, Ashraf Alam Wani, Mubashir Sofi, Ishrat Ara
The study was undertaken to ascertain the persistence of Orchol-13, a mineral oil used against insect pests of horticultural fruit crops in soil and apple following the dormant and summer applications of 2 and 0.75% respectively. Soil samples were collected during dormant, while as both soil and apple samples were collected during summer season. Samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, and 5 days post treatment in both the seasons. Average recoveries of paraffinic constituents (which constitute about 60% of mineral oils by composition) from soil and apple at 1 μg ml-1 spiking level were found to be 74...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jiho Lee, Eunhye Kim, Yongho Shin, Junghak Lee, Jonghwa Lee, Joon-Kwan Moon, Hoon Choi, Wolfgang Maasfeld, Jeong-Han Kim
This study examined dermal and inhalation exposure of agricultural operators to kresoxim-methyl during pesticide mixing/loading and speed sprayer application (10 replicates, each of 3000 L of spray suspension) in an apple orchard and performed risk assessment. For the whole body dosimetry (WBD) exposure protocol, outer clothing, inner clothing, gauze, and nitrile gloves were examined to measure dermal exposure. In contrast, an IOM (institute of occupational medicine) sampler with a glass fiber filter was used to measure inhalation exposure...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Howard M A Thistlewood, Paramjit Gill, Elizabeth H Beers, Peter W Shearer, Doug B Walsh, Brigitte M Rozema, Susanna Acheampong, Steve Castagnoli, Wee L Yee, Peter Smytheman, Alix B Whitener
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), was monitored from 2010 to 2014 in 314-828 sites located in interior fruit-growing regions of OR and WA, United States, and BC, Canada, using traps baited with apple cider vinegar or sugar-water-yeast. Seasonal population dynamics and sex ratios were summarized for berry, cherry, stone fruit, grape, non-crop host plants, non-host sites, and for conventional IPM, certified organic, backyard, and feral sites, by region and year...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Chao Lei, Sheng Fan, Ke Li, Yuan Meng, Jiangping Mao, Mingyu Han, Caiping Zhao, Lu Bao, Dong Zhang
Adventitious root (AR) formation, which is controlled by endogenous and environmental factors, is indispensable for vegetative asexual propagation. However, comprehensive proteomic data on AR formation are still lacking. The aim of this work was to study indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced AR formation in the dwarf apple rootstock 'T337'. In this study, the effect of IBA on AR formation was analysed. Subsequent to treatment with IBA, both the rooting rate and root length of 'T337' increased significantly. An assessment of hormone levels in basal stem cuttings suggested that auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolide were higher in basal stem cuttings that received the exogenous IBA application; while zeatin riboside, gibberellins, and jasmonic acid were lower than non-treated basal stem cuttings...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Y Yusha'u, U A Muhammad, M Nze, J M Egwuma, O J Igomu, M Abdulkadir
Flavonoids have been demonstrated to possess an anti-depressant effect and less adverse effects than tricyclic anti-depressants. For this reason, flavonoids in natural products have attracted growing attention. Rutin is a glycoside flavonoid which belongs to an important class of flavonoids, abundantly found in plants, such as buckwheat seeds, asparagus, red pepper, apples, citrus fruits and leaves of many herbs such as rosemary, dandelion or sage, and black and green tea.  It is a vital nutritional component of food stuff...
December 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Bruna Nunes Teixeira, Paola Aprile, Roberta H Mendonça, Daniel J Kelly, Rossana Mara da Silva Moreira Thiré
The majority of synthetic polymers used in 3 D printing are not designed to promote specific cellular interactions and hence possess limited bioactivity. Most of the strategies proposed to overcome this limitation demand multiple and expensive processing steps. This study aimed to evaluate the surface modification of 3D-printed poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds with polydopamine (PDA) coating as an alternative strategy to enhance their bioactivity and to facilitate the immobilization of type I collagen (COL I) onto the implant surface...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Masoud Rezaei-Nodehi, Seyed Afshin Shorofi, Masoumeh Bagheri-Nesami, Rahman Ghafari, Jamshid Yazdani-Charati, Manizheh Darbeheshti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atelectasis is the most common pulmonary complication after open heart surgery. This study was intended to examine the effects of pleasant olfactory mental imagery on postoperative atelectasis in patients undergoing open heart surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. The sample consisted of 80 patients who were randomly assigned to either practice olfactory mental imagery (test group) or receive routine care (control group)...
February 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Hongmei Liao, Lifen Jiang, Yuliang Cheng, Xiaojun Liao, Ruirui Zhang
The effects of thermosonication (TS) and 100 ppm nisin-assisted TS (TS + nisin) on the inactivation of naturally occurring microorganisms, retention of nutritional quality and extension of shelf life of fresh apple juice were evaluated, with nisin and mild heat (nisin + MH) treatments as control. Fresh apple juice was addressed by nisin + MH, TS and TS + nisin at 37, 42, 47, and 52 °C for 5-40 min. After processing, microbial growth was evaluated during storage at 8 °C at every 5 days...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Smail Ait Bahadou, Abderrahmane Ouijja, Abdelkarim Karfach, Abdessalem Tahiri, Rachid Lahlali
The effectiveness of antagonistic bacteria to control Erwinia amylovora was evaluated under in vitro and field conditions. Among 61 bacteria isolated from soil and flowers of fire blight host plants of different Moroccan areas, 20 bacterial isolates showed higher antagonistic activity against the pathogen during agar-diffusion-test, attached blossoms assay and in a bioassay on immature pear fruits. Effective isolates were identified by using biochemical tests and 16 S rRNA genes sequencing. These isolates were grouped into the following genera: Alcaligenes (ACBC1), Bacillus (CPa12, CPa2, HF6, JB2, LMR2, SF14, SF16, SP10, SP13, and SP18) Brevibacterium (SF3, SF4, SF7, and SF15), Pantoea (ACBC2, ACBP1, and ACBP2), Pseudomonas (SP9), and Serratia (HC4)...
February 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Benedicte Jalbert, Nguyen Toan Tran, Stephan von Düring, Pierre-Alexandre Poletti, Ian Fournier, Catherine Hafner, Celestine Dubost, Laurent Gétaz, Hans Wolff
BACKGROUND: Drug dealers and drug users resort to body stuffing to hastily conceal illicit drugs by ingesting their drug packets. This practice represents a medical challenge because rupture of the often insecure packaging can be toxic and even lethal. In an emergency setting, official guidelines are needed to help the medical team decide on the proper treatment. A preliminary observation period is generally accepted but its duration varies from hours to eventual packet expulsion. CASE PRESENTATION: This case involves a 20-year-old white man in detention who claimed to have ingested one cocaine packet wrapped in plastic food-wrap and a condom in anticipation of an impending cell search...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Miguel Concha, Alejandra Vidal, Annesi Giacaman, Javier Ojeda, Francisca Pavicic, Felipe A Oyarzun-Ampuero, César Torres, Marcela Cabrera, Ignacio Moreno-Villoslada, Sandra L Orellana
In this study, highly neutralized, highly porous, and ultralight polymeric aerogels prepared from aqueous colloidal suspensions of chitosan (CS) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS) nanocomplexes, formulated as quasi-equimolar amounts of both, are described. These aerogels were designed as healing agents under the inspiration of minimizing the amount of matter applied to wounds, reducing the electrostatic potential of the material and avoiding covalent cross-linkers in order to decrease metabolic stress over wounds...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
(no author information available yet)
A randomised study in young subjects of the effects of eating extra fruit or nuts on periodontal inflammation.
February 9, 2018: British Dental Journal
Ioannis K Karoussis, Kyriaki Kyriakidou, Joseph Papaparaskevas, Ioannis A Vrotsos, Mara Simopoulou, Georgios A Kotsakis
Bacterial peri-implant biofilms, and the chemotherapeutics for their removal alter titanium surface cytocompatibility. In this study we aimed to assess the adjunctive use of an osteostimulative biomaterial utilizing a peri-implantitis model under the hypothesis that it will increase cell migration towards treated titanium surfaces. Acid-etched titanium surfaces were inoculated with a multi-species biofilm model and treated with 1.5% NaOCl in a previously characterized in vitro peri-implantitis model. Cell migration of MG63 cells towards the treated titanium surface (CTRL) was significantly reduced following inoculation with biofilm and chemotherapeutic treatment as compared to sterile controls...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
K Murray, P Moyer, F Wu, J B Goyette, K Warriner
This study evaluated the efficacy of using sequential forced air ozone followed by an advanced oxidative process (AOP) treatment to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes on and within Empire apples. The forced air ozone treatment consisted of a reactor that introduced ozone (6 g/h) into an airstream that flowed through an apple bed (ca. 30 cm in depth). Before treatment, the apples were conditioned at 4°C to ensure that condensate had formed before the apples were transferred to the reactor. The condensate ensured sufficient relative humidity to enhance the antimicrobial action of ozone...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Shuang Guo, Yuehua Wang, Shurui Chou, Huijun Cui, Dongnan Li, Bin Li
In the present study, the DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging activity of eight types of apples decreased (P < 0.05) during the 70-day storage at 4°C. The Fushi (F2) apples from Xin Jiang showed the highest radical scavenging activity. For in vivo study, 40 male Kunming mice (body weight 20-25 g) were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (10 mice per group). The F2 groups (F2S, F2 + sterile saline and F2L, F2 + lipopolysaccharide) were administered with 0.3 mL F2 filtrate via gastric intubation daily for 28 days...
2018: PloS One
Hirokazu Fujisawa, Yu Mori, Atsushi Kogure, Hidetatsu Tanaka, Masayuki Kamimura, Naoya Masahashi, Shuji Hanada, Eiji Itoi
The influence of Young's moduli of materials on the fracture healing process remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the effects of intramedullary nails composed of materials with low Young's moduli on fracture repair. We previously developed a β-type Ti-Nb-Sn alloy with low Young's modulus close to that of human cortical bone. Here, we prepared two Ti-Nb-Sn alloys with Young's moduli of 45 and 78 GPa by heat treatment, and compared their effects on fracture healing. Fracture and nailing were performed in the right tibiae of C57BL/6 mice...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
José de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, Brenda M Quintana-Gallegos, Pilar Escalante-Minakata, Jaime Reyes-Hernández, Jaime D Pérez-Martínez, Claudio Rios-Velasco, Saul Ruiz-Cruz
Firmness at harvest determines the postharvest storability and quality of apples. The climate change has altered the physiological processes of fruits and the reliability of ripening indicators typically used to determine the harvest time, compromising fruit firmness. In this study, 'Golden Delicious' apples were harvested at several developmental/ripening stages (107, 122, 137, 152 and 167 days after full bloom, DAFB) and evaluated for physicochemical attributes, which were correlated with fruit firmness...
January 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Anton M Pluschke, Barbara A Williams, Dagong Zhang, Michael J Gidley
The effects of refined pectin and mango pulp on macronutrient digestion and small intestinal enzyme activity were studied in grower pigs. Diets based on wheat starch with and without apple pectin or dried mango fruit pulp were fed to 30 grower pigs for 21 days. Pigs were euthanized two hours postprandially, and their gastrointestinal contents recovered. Starch and protein digestion as well as α-amylase activity were all increased in pigs fed pectin. In contrast, fat digestion, lipase and protease (trypsin) activities were all significantly reduced in these pigs...
January 17, 2018: Food & Function
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