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Cytokine adjuvant

Namrita Lall, Vivek Kumar, Debra Meyer, Nomasomi Gasa, Chris Hamilton, Motlalepula Matsabisa, Carel Oosthuizen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Natal gwarri or Natal ebony (Euclea natalensis A.DC.) is a deciduous tree found widespread throughout southern Africa, especially in Kwazulu-Natal and the southern cost. It has been widely used by indigenous communities such as the Zulus, Tsongas and Vendas for symptoms related to tuberculosis (TB). The decoctions made from the plant parts are administered for chest diseases to treat complications such as chest pains, bronchitis, pleurisy and asthma...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Karen K Yam, Angela Brewer, Virginie Bleau, Édith Beaulieu, Corey P Mallett, Brian J Ward
We investigated the long-term immune profiles of dose-sparing, AS03-adjuvanted vaccines compared to a traditional high-dose, unadjuvated influenza vaccine formulations. BALB/c mice received 2 IM injections of influenza A/Uruguay/716/2007 (H3N2) split vaccine antigen: high-dose (HD) (3 µg hemagglutinin (HA)/dose) or low-dose (LD) formulations (0.03 µg or 0.003 µg HA) with AS03 and were followed to 34 weeks post-boost (pb). We examined serologic responses, spleen and bone marrow (BM) HA-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) by ELISpot, influenza-specific cytokine/chemokine production in re-stimulated splenocytes by multiplex ELISA, and antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that express cytokines (IL-2, IFNγ, TNFa and IL-5) by flow cytometry...
October 21, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Izabela Jatczak-Pawlik, Michal Gorzkiewicz, Maciej Studzian, Dietmar Appelhans, Brigitte Voit, Lukasz Pulaski, Barbara Klajnert-Maculewicz
PURPOSE: Fourth-generation poly(propylene imine) dendrimers fully surface-modified by maltose (dense shell, PPI-m DS) were shown to be biocompatible in cellular models, which is important for their application in drug delivery. We decided to verify also their inherent bioactivity, including immunomodulatory activity, for potential clinical applications. We tested their effects on the THP-1 monocytic cell line model of innate immunity effectors. METHODS: To estimate the cytotoxicity of dendrimers the reasazurin assay was performed...
October 20, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Erika Vacchelli, Norma Bloy, Fernando Aranda, Aitziber Buqué, Isabelle Cremer, Sandra Demaria, Alexander Eggermont, Silvia Chiara Formenti, Wolf Hervé Fridman, Jitka Fucikova, Jérôme Galon, Radek Spisek, Eric Tartour, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Malignant cells succumbing to some forms of radiation therapy are particularly immunogenic and hence can initiate a therapeutically relevant adaptive immune response. This reflects the intrinsic antigenicity of malignant cells (which often synthesize a high number of potentially reactive neo-antigens) coupled with the ability of radiation therapy to boost the adjuvanticity of cell death as it stimulates the release of endogenous adjuvants from dying cells. Thus, radiation therapy has been intensively investigated for its capacity to improve the therapeutic profile of several anticancer immunotherapies, including (but not limited to) checkpoint blockers, anticancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, cytokines, and several small molecules with immunostimulatory effects...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Patricia Rubio Reyes, Natalie A Parlane, D Neil Wedlock, Bernd H A Rehm
Traditional approaches to vaccine development have failed to identify better vaccines to replace or supplement BCG for the control of tuberculosis (TB). Subunit vaccines offer a safer and more reproducible alternative for the prevention of diseases. In this study, the immunogenicity of bacterially derived polyester beads displaying three different Rv antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated. Polyester beads displaying the antigens Rv1626, Rv2032, Rv1789, respectively, were produced in an endotoxin-free Escherichia coli strain...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Nayana Venugopal Yadav, Sadashivaiah, Breetha Ramaiyan, Pooja Acharya, Lokesh Belur, Ramaprasad Ravichandra Talahalli
Though present in small amounts, the minor constituents of dietary oils may supplement the dietary therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hence, in the present study, we assessed the effect of minor constituents from sesame oil (SO) and rice bran oil (RBO) and their fatty acids on the severity of adjuvant-induced arthritis in experimental rats. Rats were gavaged with 1 mL of SO or RBO or groundnut oil (GNO, control) with or without its minor components for a period 15 days before and 15 days after the induction of arthritis...
October 17, 2016: Lipids
Xuanyi Meng, Xin Li, Jinyan Gao, Hongbing Chen
Bovine α-lactalbumin (ALA) is a known food allergen present in milk to induce anaphylaxis. A previous study demonstrated that irradiated ALA (iALA) decreased the IgE-binding properties and weakened the degranulation capacity of basophils in vitro. The present study aimed to further assess the potential allergenicity of iALA in vivo in a BALB/c mouse model. The mice (n = 10/group) were intragastrically sensitized and orally challenged with either iALA or ALA using cholera toxin as adjuvant. In contrast to the ALA group, the iALA group did not show anaphylactic shock symptoms...
October 13, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Tetsuo Nakayama
The humoral and cellular immune responses of adaptive immunity are induced following immunization with effective vaccines. They induce functional cytokines and chemokines through the binding of vaccine components or adjuvants to innate immune receptors. Alum-adjuvanted vaccines induce local inflammatory nodules at injection sites, and the systemic and local production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, has been reported to occur three hours after vaccinations. Furthermore, G-CSF levels increase at injection sites...
October 13, 2016: Vaccine
Matthew R Collinson-Pautz, Kevin M Slawin, Jonathan M Levitt, David M Spencer
Therapeutic DNA-based vaccines aim to prime an adaptive host immune response against tumor-associated antigens, eliminating cancer cells primarily through CD8+ cytotoxic T cell-mediated destruction. To be optimally effective, immunological adjuvants are required for the activation of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells responses by DNA vaccination. Here, we describe enhanced anti-tumor efficacy of an in vivo electroporation-delivered DNA vaccine by inclusion of a genetically encoded chimeric MyD88/CD40 (MC) adjuvant, which integrates both innate and adaptive immune signaling pathways...
2016: PloS One
Harsha Lad, Deepak Bhatnagar
The present study was aimed to determine the therapeutic effects of Swertia chirayita leaves against oxidative and inflammatory injuries in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritic rats. The extract was evaluated for its phytoconstituents and various invitro antioxidant properties followed by its in vivo effects. The hydroethanolic extract of S. chirayita leaves (SCE) was orally administered (200 mg/kg body weight, per day, p.o.) and the effect on the liver lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant status, protein carbonyl formation along with the histopathology of liver were evaluated after induction of adjuvant arthritis...
October 14, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
M B Huante, S Gupta, V C Calderon, S J Koo, M Sinha, B A Luxon, N J Garg, J J Endsley
Pathogens frequently exploit or evade inflammasome activation in order to survive and proliferate. Alternatively, inadequate inflammasome activation by attenuated microorganisms or adjuvanted subunit vaccines may contribute to poor longevity of protection. To further understand these pathways, we determined the differential inflammasome transcriptome of human THP monocyte-derived macrophages in response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG, as compared to LPS or Trypanosoma cruzi. The results identify the highly specific innate recognition programs associated with inflammasome activation by human macrophages exposed to these microbial stimuli...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Yu Lin Tsai, Wang-Sheng Ko, Jung-Lung Hsiao, Hsin-Hung Pan, Ya-Ling Chiou
INTRODUCTION: In the pathogenesis of asthma, an imbalance between helper T (Th) 1/Th2 and Th17/Treg cells is believed to play a key role in asthmatic inflammatory responses. Some studies indicated that zinc deficiency increases inflammatory factor production and worsens asthma. However, the effects of zinc on T cell profiles to reduce inflammatory response remain unclear Objectives: We investigated the beneficial effects of zinc on isolated cell populations and cytokine levels from patients with asthma...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Weili Yu, Tao Hu
Protein-based vaccines are of potential to deal with the severe situations posed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Due to inherently poor immunogenicity of Mtb protein antigens, a potent immunostimulatory adjuvant is needed to enhance the cellular and humoral immune response to Mtb protein antigens. Inulin and chitosan (Cs) are polysaccharide adjuvants that can be used as achieve such an objective. The inulin-Cs conjugate (inulin-Cs) acted as a potent adjuvant through a synergistic interaction of inulin and Cs...
October 10, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Ravendra Garg, Michael Theaker, Elisa C Martinez, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious respiratory illness in infants and elderly. RSV infection induces short-lived immunity, which leaves people prone to re-infection. In contrast, the RSV fusion (F) protein formulated with a novel adjuvant (∆F/TriAdj) elicits long term protective immunity. A comparison of RSV-immunized mice to mice vaccinated with a single dose of ∆F/TriAdj showed no difference in IgG1 and IgG2a production; however, local IgA secreting memory B cell development and B cell IgA production were significantly lower in RSV vaccinated mice than in ∆F/TriAdj-immunized mice...
October 6, 2016: Virology
Masashi Satoh, Ken-Ichi Namba, Nobuyoshi Kitaichi, Noriko Endo, Hirokuni Kitamei, Daiju Iwata, Shigeaki Ohno, Susumu Ishida, Kazunori Onoé, Hiroshi Watarai, Masaru Taniguchi, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Joan Stein-Streilein, Koh-Hei Sonoda, Luc Van Kaer, Kazuya Iwabuchi
Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) represents an experimental model for human endogenous uveitis, which is caused by Th1/Th17 cell-mediated inflammation. Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize lipid antigens and produce large amounts of cytokines upon activation. To examine the role of NKT cells in the development of uveitis, EAU was elicited by immunization with a peptide from the human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (hIRBP1-20) in complete Freund's adjuvant and histopathology scores were evaluated in C57BL/6 (WT) and NKT cell-deficient mice...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Negar Taghavi Pourianazar, Ufuk Gunduz
CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) can function as an immune adjuvant. Previously, we showed that stimulation of breast cancer cells with CpG-ODN conjugated with PAMAM dendrimer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (DcMNPs) has induced apoptosis. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the expression levels of some apoptosis-regulating genes in several human breast cancer cells treated with CpG/DcMNPs. Treated MDA-MB231 cells showed an increase in Noxa and Bax gene expression levels, whereas the expression level of Survivin decreased...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Lamia Ysmail-Dahlouk, Wafa Nouari, Mourad Aribi
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with an imbalance between inflammation and repair. Recently, the biologically active form of vitamin D3, i.e. 1,25(OH)2D3, has been reported to have potent immunomodulatory effects on both innate and adaptive immune cells, as well as on the production of their specific cytokines. METHODS: We examined the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the production of proinflammatory Th1/Th17 and anti-inflammatory Th2/Treg related cytokines, as well as on the phosphorylation of monocyte-expressed STAT4 and STAT6 at the recent-onset human T1D...
October 4, 2016: Immunology Letters
Ariane Roemer, Ulrike Köhl, Omid Majdani, Stephan Klöß, Christine Falk, Sabine Haumann, Thomas Lenarz, Andrej Kral, Athanasia Warnecke
BACKGROUND: The success of cochlear implantation may be further improved by minimizing implantation trauma. The physical trauma of implantation and subsequent immunological sequelae can affect residual hearing and the viability of the spiral ganglion. An ideal electrode should therefore decrease post-implantation trauma and provide support to the residual spiral ganglion population. Combining a flexible electrode with cells producing and releasing protective factors could present a potential means to achieve this...
October 7, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Kayoko Waki, Akira Yamada
High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) is a member of the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which cause inflammation and trigger innate immunity through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2/4 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). We examined the effect of glycyrrhizin, a selective inhibitor of HMGB1, on the induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) in mice. B6 mice, either OT-1 spleen cell-transferred or untransferred, were immunized with an s.c. injection of OVA257-264 peptide with topical imiquimod, and glycyrrhizin was mixed with the antigen peptide...
September 22, 2016: Cancer Science
Juliana Elena Silveira Pratti, Tadeu Diniz Ramos, Joyce Carvalho Pereira, Alessandra Marcia da Fonseca-Martins, Diogo Maciel-Oliveira, Gabriel Oliveira-Silva, Mirian França de Mello, Suzana Passos Chaves, Daniel Claudio Oliveira Gomes, Bruno Lourenço Diaz, Bartira Rossi-Bergmann, Herbert Leonel de Matos Guedes
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that intranasal vaccination of highly susceptible BALB/c mice with whole Leishmania amazonensis antigens (LaAg) leads to protection against murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, we evaluate the response of partially resistant C57BL/6 mice to vaccination as a more representative experimental model of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice from different animal facilities were infected with L. amazonensis (Josefa strain) to establish the profile of infection...
October 6, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
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