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Somatovisceral reflex

Octavio Sánchez-García, Rhode López-Juárez, Julia Rodríguez-Castelán, Dora L Corona-Quintanilla, Margarita Martínez-Gómez, Estela Cuevas-Romero, Francisco Castelán
AIMS: To determine the impact of hypothyroidism on the bladder and urethral functions as well as in the activation of the pubococcygeous (Pcm) and bulbospongiosus (Bsm) during micturition. METHODS: Age-matched control and methimazole-induced hypothyroid female rabbits were used to simultaneously record cystometrograms, urethral pressure, and the reflex activation of Pcm and Bsm during the induced micturition. Urodynamic and urethral variables were measured. Activation or no activation of the Pcm and Bsm during the storage and voiding phases of micturition were categorized as 1 or 0...
April 17, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Jingjun Zhao, Yutian Yu, Man Luo, Liang Li, Peijing Rong
Clinically, acupuncture affects the motility of the extrahepatic biliary tract, but the underlining mechanisms are still unknown. We applied manual acupuncture (MA) and electrical acupuncture (EA) separately at acupoints Tianshu (ST25), Qimen (LR14), Yanglingquan (GB34), and Yidan (CO11) in forty guinea pigs (4 groups) with or without atropinization under anesthesia while Sphincter of Oddi (SO) myoelectric activities and gallbladder pressure were monitored. In both MA and EA groups, stimulation at ST25 or LR14 significantly increased the frequency and amplitude of SO myoelectrical activities and simultaneously decreased the gallbladder pressure as compared to the pre-MA and pre-EA (P < 0...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Murray R Berkowitz
Psychosis is a rare initial presentation of new-onset hypothyroidism. The author describes the case of a 29-year-old woman who presented with psychosis caused by hypothyroidism, or myxedema madness. Although the patient's psychosis resolved after standard monotherapy using levothyroxine sodium, her hypothyroidism persisted. Imaging of the patient's cervical spine showed that previous C5-C6 and C6-C7 fusions had failed. The failed fusions were corrected, and the patient's hypothyroidism resolved, suggesting that the somatovisceral reflex was the cause of the patient's hypothyroidism...
January 2015: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Chun-Yen Chen, Rey-Shyong Chern, Ming-Huei Liao, Yung-Hsien Chang, Jung-Yu C Hsu, Chi-Hsien Chien
Somatovisceral reflex suggested that the somatic stimulation could affect visceral function like acupuncture which treats diseases by stimulating acupoints. The neuronal connection between somatic point and visceral organ was not clear. Uterine pain referred to the groin region has long been recognized clinically. Wesselmann, using neurogenic plasma extravasation method, showed that uterine pain was referred to the groin region through a neuronal mechanism (Wesselmann and Lai 1997). This connection could be considered through the somatovisceral reflex pathway...
2013: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ian P Johnson
BACKGROUND: Hypotheses on somatovisceral dysfunction often assume interference by stretch or compression of the nerve supply to visceral structures. The purpose of this study is to examine the potential of pelvic visceral movement to create tension of the loose connective tissue that contains the fine branches of the inferior hypogastric nerve plexus. METHODS: Twenty eight embalmed human cadavers were examined. Pelvic visceral structures were displaced by very gentle 5 N unidirectional tension and the associated movement of the endopelvic fascia containing the inferior hypogastric plexus that this caused was measured...
2012: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
R Foster, J Jung, A Farooq, C McClung, M S Ripsch, M P Fitzgerald, F A White
Visceral sensory afferents during disease or following injury often produce vague, diffuse body sensations, and pain referred to somatic targets. Alternatively, injury due to trauma or disease of somatic nerve targets can also lead to referred pain in visceral targets via a somatovisceral reflex. Both phenomenons are thought to be due to convergence of visceral and somatic afferents within the spinal cord. To investigate a potential peripheral influence for referred pain in visceral targets following somatic nerve injury, we examined whether a sciatic nerve injury known to produce hindpaw tactile hyperalgesia alters the frequency of micturition and the sensitivity of bladder-associated sensory neurons to pro-nociceptive chemokines...
June 2, 2011: Neuroscience
Tim Morthland, Nicholas S Cote, Jon Humphrey, Doug Fulk
Physical findings demarking pathologic somatovisceral reflex activity and fascial strain patterns may lead the osteopathic physician to diagnoses that are masked within the initial presentation of a patient. The authors present a case report that demonstrates the use of osteopathic principles in the diagnosis of a chronic acetabular fracture and acetabular labral tear in a 19-year-old man. The injuries resulted from a posterior hip dislocation sustained during a basketball game more than 1 year before presentation...
May 2010: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Vjekoslav Grgić
Dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), which can be primary or secondary, is a common gynecological problem. Primary dysmenorrhea (normal gynecological finding) is caused by increased production of uterine prostaglandins. Namely, under the influence of hormonal changes and vegetative factors at the end of a menstrual cycle, in numerous girls and women with a normal gynecological finding, vasoconstriction in small uterine arteries and endometrial ischemia occur, resulting in excessive prostaglandins synthesis in endometrial cells...
September 2009: Lijec̆nic̆ki Vjesnik
Marcel Mazur, Artur Stepień, Jolanta Pawlus, Piotr J Thor, Otokar Kraft, Iwon Gryz, Artur Lipczyński
There have been several reports describing impact of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on bile emptying. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of somatovisceral reflex excitation by TENS on gallbladder emptying in patients with cholelithiasis using hepatocholescintigraphy TENS induced somatovisceral reflexes that decrease the gallbladder ejection rate. Relaxation of the gallbladder and bile ducts emptying seem to be related to the reciprocal reflexes dampened by inflammation associated cholelithiasis...
2005: Folia Medica Cracoviensia
Vasco Senna-Fernandes, Daisy França, Silvana F R Moreno, Sebastião Santos-Filho, Philip A M Rogers, Mario Bernardo-Filho, Marco Antônio Mello Guimarães
The effect of acupuncture stimulation at Zusanli point (ST.36) on the bioavailability of radio-pharmaceutical 99mTc-sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in Wistar rats was investigated. Ten healthy rats were allocated into two groups of five. Group 1 (n=5) was treated by acupuncture by inserting stainless steel needles bilaterally at ST.36; Group 2 was the untreated control. Ocular plexus administration of 0.3ml of Na99mTcO4 (3.7MBq) was carried out 10 minutes after every needle insertion. The rats were killed 25 minutes later...
2006: Acupuncture & Electro-therapeutics Research
Katie Hardy, Henry Pollard
The stress response is a natural reaction by the body, against potentially harmful stimuli to enhance the chance for survival. Persistent activation of the stress response can cause changes to homeostatic mechanisms. The study of stress neurophysiology, in the evaluation of the manifestation of disease in the body, suggests that these chronic changes have detrimental effects on sub cortical structures. Furthermore, there is much scientific support for the notion that chronic activation of supraspinal systems will lead to maladaptation of homeostatic mechanisms, causing the impairment of processes within the body, and ultimately leading to visceral disorders...
October 18, 2006: Chiropractic & Osteopathy
Dale W Saxon, David A Hopkins
The paratrigeminal nucleus (PTN) receives primary afferent projections from the aerodigestive tract and orofacial regions and plays a role in the integration of visceral and somatic information. This study describes the fine structure of the rat PTN and the synaptology of primary afferent projections from the pharynx and larynx. Injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) or cholera toxin-HRP (CT-HRP) were made into the wall of the pharynx or larynx to label primary afferent axon terminals...
March 15, 2006: Synapse
G Stemmler, M Heldmann, C A Pauls, T Scherer
We investigated psychophysiological responses to fear and anger inductions during real-life and imagination. Female participants (N = 158) were assigned to a fear-treatment, fear-control, anger-treatment, or anger-control group. Context (real-life, imagination) was varied in two sessions of fixed order. Eleven self-report and 29 somatovisceral variables were registered. Results showed that (a) except during anger imagination, control groups were emotionless; (b) in control groups, contexts prompted diverging somatovisceral responses, but similar emotion self-reports; except during fear imagination, the emotion inductions (c) were successful and (d) produced specific emotion reports; (e) during real-life, somatovisceral fear and anger responses exhibited a marked cardiovascular defense reflex; (f) in addition, real-life fear showed an adrenaline-like specific response pattern, whereas real-life anger showed specific forehead temperature and EMG extensor increases, accompanied by an elevated DBP during imagination...
March 2001: Psychophysiology
J H Chiu, Y L Kuo, W Y Lui, C W Wu, C Y Hong
Cholecystokinin (CCK) plays an important role in regulating the biliary motility in herbivorous and carnivorous animals. Little is known about how the motility of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) is regulated through a somatic stimulation. It was our aim to test the hypothesis that somatic electrical nerve stimulation (SENS) affects SO motility in animals with different types of SO through CCK-related mechanisms. The activity of SO in anesthetized rabbits and cats was measured by using a continuously perfused open-tip manometric method...
September 1999: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
V Ruggieri, S Egiddi
In the framework of a psychophysiological integrated model of emotion, inhibition, and their linked role in developing pathology, we have examined some physiological and psychological aspects of 17 volunteer women with uterine fibromatosis and 14 women without pathology. The hypothesis was that women with uterine fibromatosis habitually inhibit the subjective feeling of pleasure during the sexual sequence, measured on a self-rating scale. Following the psychophysiological model of Ruggieri, the inhibitory mechanism would be actively produced by modulating the muscular tonic activity in particular of the rectus of the abdomen whose bioelectrical activity is measured at rest...
December 1998: Perceptual and Motor Skills
C H Hubscher, R D Johnson
1. The medullary reticular formation (MRF) is known to be involved in the modulation of certain reproductive behaviors. Ejaculation in the male, disrupted after spinal transection, may depend on a spinal-bulbo-spinal connection. To determine whether single neurons in the MRF receive sensory input from the male genitalia, the present study was undertaken using electrophysiological techniques. 2. The MRF of 14 urethan-anesthetized mature male rats was searched for single neurons responsive to bilateral electrical stimulation of the dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP)...
October 1996: Journal of Neurophysiology
F Y Chang, W Y Chey, A Ouyang
Transcutaneous stimulation (TNS) at esophageal acupuncture points decreases lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressures in patients with achalasia. We examined the effect of TNS on esophageal motility and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels in normal subjects. TNS was applied to either hand or foot (placebo) in 10 volunteers. Esophageal and LES pressures were recorded and blood was drawn for VIP analysis. Hand TNS improved LES relaxation and percent of peristaltic contractions to swallows, and decreased the number of spontaneous contractions...
1996: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
A Sato
In experimental animals, both noxious and innocuous stimulation of somatic afferents have been shown to evoke reflex changes in sympathetic efferent activity and, thereby, effector organ function. These phenomena have been demonstrated in such sites as the gastrointestinal tract, urinary bladder, adrenal medulla, lymphatic tissues, heart and vessels of the brain and peripheral nerves. Most often, reflexes have been elicited experimentally by stimulation of cutaneous afferents, although some work has also been conducted on muscle and articular afferents, including those of spinal tissues...
November 1995: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
A Sato, R S Swenson
The effects of mechanical stimulation of the spine on blood pressure, heart rate and the activity of selected sympathetic nerves (renal and adrenal) were examined in alpha-chloralose/urethane anesthetized rats. Spinal segments from T10 to T13 or from L4 to L7 were isolated from surrounding muscle and the upper and lower segments of the four segment units were fixed by means of spinal clamps. Forces from 0.5 to 3.0 kg were applied to the lateral aspect of the two mobile segments. Stimulations of the thoracic or the lumbar region produced large decreases in blood pressure (-29...
September 1984: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
M Camilleri, J R Malagelada, P C Kao, A R Zinsmeister
Our objective was to elicit and characterize somatogastric reflexes in healthy humans. Sustained somatic stimulation by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was applied to the skin of human volunteers while simultaneously monitoring their upper gastrointestinal phasic pressure activity, extraintestinal vasomotor indices, and plasma levels of putative humoral mediators of autonomic reflexes. Stimuli were applied either to the hand (C8-T1) or to the upper abdomen (T5-T10) to determine whether impulses at these two dermatomes produce different effects on fed antral phasic pressure activity...
December 1984: American Journal of Physiology
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