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osteoporosis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938433/type-2-diabetes-and-osteoporosis-a-guide-to-optimal-management
#1
Stavroula Paschou, Anastasia D Dede, Panagiotis G Anagnostis, Andromachi Vryonidou, Daniel Morganstein, Dimitrios G Goulis
Context: Both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and osteoporosis are affected by aging and quite often co-exist. Furthermore, the fracture risk in patients with T2D is increased. The aim of this article is to review updated information on osteoporosis and fracture risk in patients with T2D, to discuss the effects of diabetes treatment on bone metabolism, as well as the effect of anti-osteoporotic medications on the incidence and control of T2D and to provide a personalized guide to the optimal management...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934787/complex-regional-pain-syndrome-type-i-a-debilitating-and-poorly-understood-syndrome-possible-role-for-pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-a-narrative-review
#2
Stefania Pagani, Francesca Veronesi, Nicolo Nicoli Aldini, Milena Fini
BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I), also called algodystrophy, is a complex syndrome characterized by limb pain, edema, allodynia, hyperalgesia and functional impairment of bone with a similar clinical picture of osteoporosis, including an increased release of various pro-inflammatory neuropeptides and cytokines. Several treatments have been proposed for CRPS-I, but due to the poor outcome of conventional drugs and the invasiveness of some techniques, expectations are now directed towards new resources that could be more effective and less invasive...
September 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934376/managing-menopausal-symptoms-and-associated-clinical-issues-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#3
Richard J Santen, Cynthia A Stuenkel, Susan R Davis, JoAnn V Pinkerton, Anne Gompel, Mary Ann Lumsden
Objective: Review evidence to guide the management of menopausal signs and symptoms in women after breast cancer and make recommendations accordingly. Evidence: Randomized controlled clinical trials, observational studies, evidence- based guidelines, and expert opinion from professional societies. Background: Several symptoms and clinical problems associated with estrogen depletion -sleep disorders, vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), vasomotor symptoms (VMS), mood changes, depressive symptoms, cardiovascular disease, osteopenia and osteoporosis- confront the estimated 9...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931495/a-review-of-sarcopenia-enhancing-awareness-of-an-increasingly-prevalent-disease
#4
REVIEW
Eric Marty, Yi Liu, Andre Samuel, Omer Or, Joseph Lane
Sarcopenia is defined as an age associated decline in skeletal muscle mass. The pathophysiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial, with decreased caloric intake, muscle fiber denervation, intracellular oxidative stress, hormonal decline, and enhanced myostatin signaling all thought to contribute. Prevalence rates are as high as 29% and 33% in community dwelling and long-term care populations, respectively, with advanced age, low body mass index, and low physical activity as significant risk factors. Sarcopenia shares many characteristics with other disease states typically associated with risk of fall and fracture, including osteoporosis, frailty, and obesity...
September 17, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931466/1-alpha-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-up-regulates-the-expression-of-2-types-of-human-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-alternative-splicing-variants-in-caco-2-cells-and-may-be-an-important-regulator-of-their-expression-in-gut-homeostasis
#5
Seiko Noda, Asako Yamada, Kanae Nakaoka, Masae Goseki-Sone
Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation, and development. The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase the absorption of calcium from the intestine, and the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a differentiation marker for intestinal epithelial cells, is regulated by vitamin D. Intestinal-type ALP is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, and is known to be affected by several kinds of nutrients...
August 4, 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930556/osteoimmunology-the-nexus-between-bone-and-immune-system
#6
Hamid Y Dar, Zaffar Azam, Rajaneesh Anupam, Rajesh K Mondal, Rupesh K Srivastava
Osteoimmunology is an interdisciplinary research field which combines the existing fields of osteology (bone biology) and immunology under one umbrella. The observation that contributed enormously to the emergence of osteoimmunology as an independent field of investigation was the enhanced bone loss in various inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and periodontitis. T helper cells (Th1, Th2, Treg and Th17) along with various other immune cells (B cells, DC, macrophages etc.) are actively involved in bone homeostasis...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926971/mini-review-the-contribution-of-intermediate-phenotypes-to-gxe-effects-on-disorders-of-body-composition-in-the-new-omics-era
#7
REVIEW
Edna J Nava-Gonzalez, Esther C Gallegos-Cabriales, Irene Leal-Berumen, Raul A Bastarrachea
Studies of gene-environment (GxE) interactions describe how genetic and environmental factors influence the risk of developing disease. Intermediate (molecular or clinical) phenotypes (IPs) are traits or metabolic biomarkers that mediate the effects of gene-environment influences on risk behaviors. Functional systems genomics discovery offers mechanistic insights into how DNA variations affect IPs in order to detect genetic causality for a given disease. Disorders of body composition include obesity (OB), Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and osteoporosis (OSTP)...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926388/opportunistic-use-of-ct-imaging-for-osteoporosis-screening-and-bone-density-assessment-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Elizabeth B Gausden, Benedict U Nwachukwu, Joseph J Schreiber, Dean G Lorich, Joseph M Lane
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical opportunities for the use of computed tomography (CT) imaging for inferring bone quality and to critically analyze the correlation between dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and diagnostic CT as reported in the literature. METHODS: A systematic review of the MEDLINE database was performed in February 2016 using the PubMed interface. The inclusion criteria were English language, studies performed using living human subjects, studies pertaining to orthopaedics, use of conventional diagnostic CT scans, studies that measured cancellous bone, and studies that reported Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements directly rather than a computed bone mineral density...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922979/a-review-of-drug-drug-interactions-in-older-hiv-infected-patients
#9
Aarthi Chary, Nancy N Nguyen, Kimberly Maiton, Mark Holodniy
The number of older HIV-infected people is growing due to increasing life expectancies resulting from the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Both HIV and aging increase the risk of other comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and some malignancies, leading to greater challenges in managing HIV with other conditions. This results in complex medication regimens with the potential for significant drug-drug interactions and increased morbidity and mortality. Area covered: We review the metabolic pathways of ART and other medications used to treat medical co-morbidities, highlight potential areas of concern for drug-drug interactions, and where feasible, suggest alternative approaches for treating these conditions as suggested from national guidelines or articles published in the English language...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921820/systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-on-the-relative-efficacy-of-osteoporotic-medications-men-with-prostate-cancer-on-continuous-androgen-deprivation-therapy%C3%A2-to-reduce-risk-of-fragility-fractures
#10
REVIEW
Yeesha Poon, Petros Pechlivanoglou, Shabbir M H Alibhai, David Naimark, Jeffrey S Hoch, Emmanuel Papadimitropoulos, Mary-Ellen Hogan, Murray Krahn
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an effective treatment for men with advanced prostate cancer, but loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is a major risk factor for fractures. This analysis evaluated the relative effectiveness of osteoporosis treatments using BMD as a surrogate endpoint for fragility fractures in men on continuous ADT. METHOD: We included randomized controlled trials studying bisphosphonates, denosumab, toremifene, and raloxifene in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer on ADT for review...
September 18, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916915/inflammatory-diseases-and-bone-fragility
#11
REVIEW
K Briot, P Geusens, I Em Bultink, W F Lems, C Roux
Systemic osteoporosis and increased fracture rates have been described in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most of these patients receive glucocorticoids, which have their own deleterious effects on bone. However, the other main determinant of bone fragility is the inflammation itself, as shown by the interactions between the inflammatory mediators, the actors of the immune system, and the bone remodelling...
September 15, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913640/case-report-of-kummell-s-disease-with-delayed-onset-myelopathy-and-the-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Salvatore D'Oria, Carlo Delvecchio, Mariagrazia Dibenedetto, Francesco Zizza, Carlo Somma
INTRODUCTION: Kummell's disease is an avascular necrosis of the vertebral body, secondary to a vertebral compression fracture. This entity is characterised by the gradual development in time of a vertebral body collapse following a trivial spinal trauma, involving a worsening back pain associated with a progressive kyphosis. PURPOSES: The aim of this article is to carry out an international literature review regarding Kummell's disease, addressing its physiopathology, histopathology, clinical presentation, radiological characteristics and treatment modalities; at the same time, the literature is updated through the description of a new and interesting case, symbol of the pathology long-term potential complications, if not diagnosed and therefore not suitably treated...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911663/recent-advances-in-oral-delivery-of-drugs-and-bioactive-natural-products-using-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-as-the-carriers
#13
REVIEW
Chih-Hung Lin, Chun-Han Chen, Zih-Chan Lin, Jia-You Fang
Chemical and enzymatic barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract hamper the oral delivery of many labile drugs. The GI epithelium also contributes to poor permeability for numerous drugs. Drugs with poor aqueous solubility have difficulty dissolving in the GI tract, resulting in low bioavailability. Nanomedicine provides an opportunity to improve the delivery efficiency of orally administered drugs. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are categorized as a new generation of lipid nanoparticles consisting of a complete solid lipid matrix...
April 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904736/beer-polyphenols-and-menopause-effects-and-mechanisms-a-review-of-current-knowledge
#14
REVIEW
Berner Andrée Sandoval-Ramírez, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventós, Ramon Estruch, Gemma Sasot, Monica Doménech, Anna Tresserra-Rimbau
Beer is one of the most frequently consumed fermented beverages in the world, and it has been part of the human diet for thousands of years. Scientific evidence obtained from the development of new techniques of food analysis over the last two decades suggests that polyphenol intake derived from moderate beer consumption may play a positive role in different health outcomes including osteoporosis and cardiovascular risk and the relief of vasomotor symptoms, which are commonly experienced during menopause and are an important reason why women seek medical care during this period; here, we review the current knowledge regarding moderate beer consumption and its possible effects on menopausal symptoms...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900675/bone-disease-in-connective-tissue%C3%A2-disease-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#15
REVIEW
Irene E M Bultink
This article reviews recent advances in the research of the mechanisms of bone loss, as well as clinical features, economic impact and therapeutic implications of osteoporosis and fractures in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as an illustration of bone disease in a complex systemic autoimmune connective tissue disease. Recent studies demonstrated an increased incidence of osteoporosis and peripheral and vertebral fractures in patients with SLE. The aetiology of bone loss in SLE is multifactorial, including clinical osteoporosis risk factors, systemic inflammation, serological factors, metabolic factors, hormonal factors, possibly genetic factors and medication-induced adverse effects...
September 12, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899800/bone-mineral-density-and-vitamin-d-status-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Tarek Carlos Salman-Monte, Vicenç Torrente-Segarra, Ana Leticia Vega Vidal, Patricia Corzo, F Castro-Dominguez, F Ojeda, Jordi Carbonell Abelló
Despite the improvement in the quality of life of patients with SLE due to scientific and technological advances, SLE remains a disease that over the years may produce irreversible damage to patients. Osteoporosis and secondary bone fractures are two of the major causes of irreparable injury in patients with SLE. Vitamin D insufficiency may play a vital role both in reduced Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and in the appearance of fractures, although its mechanisms of action are still unclear. We performed a systematic review of the literature in order to determine the prevalence and predictors of reduced vitamin D plasma levels, bone loss and the presence of fractures in SLE patients...
September 9, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891009/aging-osteocytes-and-mechanotransduction
#17
REVIEW
Haniyeh Hemmatian, Astrid D Bakker, Jenneke Klein-Nulend, G Harry van Lenthe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The bone is able to adapt its structure to mechanical signals via the bone remodeling process governed by mechanosensitive osteocytes. With aging, an imbalance in bone remodeling results in osteoporosis. In this review, we hypothesized that changes in lacunar morphology underlie the decreased bone mechanoresponsiveness to mechanical loading with aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies have reported considerable variations in the shape of osteocytes and their lacunae with aging...
September 11, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886822/osteopenia-and-osteoporosis-in-female-athletes
#18
REVIEW
John M MacKnight
Disorders of bone density are especially prevalent among athletic women. The severity of bone loss ranges from osteopenia to frank osteoporosis. In female athletes, a higher incidence of osteoporosis is due to a decreased rate of bone accretion in youth, often as a result of hormonal deficiency and/or excessive exercise. Low bone mass poses a particular challenge for athletes because it predisposes to stress-related bone injuries and increases the risk of osteoporosis and insufficiency fractures with aging...
October 2017: Clinics in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885621/primary-hyperparathyroidism
#19
REVIEW
Marcella D Walker, Shonni J Silverberg
In this Review, we describe the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), with a focus on recent advances in the field. PHPT is a common endocrine disorder that is characterized by hypercalcaemia and elevated or inappropriately normal serum levels of parathyroid hormone. Most often, the presentation of PHPT is asymptomatic in regions of the world where serum levels of calcium are routinely measured. In addition to mild hypercalcaemia, PHPT can manifest with osteoporosis and hypercalciuria as well as with vertebral fractures and nephrolithiasis, both of which can be asymptomatic...
September 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882718/non-traumatic-multiple-vertebral-compression-fractures-induced-by-primary-hyperparathyroidism-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Man Kyu Choi, Sung Min Kim
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is one of the causes of osteoporosis and is known to increase the fracture risk of bone. However, multiple vertebral compression fracture due to PHPT is extremely rare. CASE DESCRIPTION: A case of acute multiple vertebral compression fracture in a patient with PHPT is described. The fracture occurred suddenly without trauma. The patient had a low T-score (-4.4), and serum hyper-calcemia and phosphatemia were evident...
September 4, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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