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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231674/-a-preliminary-study-on-the-molecular-characteristics-of-d-cycloserine-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
C Li, G L Li, Q Luo, S J Li, R B Wang, Y L Lou, J X Lyu, K L Wan
Objective: To investigate the relationship between D-cycloserine resistance and the gene mutations of alrA, ddlA and cycA of Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis, as well as the association between D-cycloserine resistance and spoligotyping genotyping. Methods: A total of 145 M. tuberculosis strains were selected from the strain bank. D-cycloserine resistant phenotypes of the strains were determined by the proportion method and the minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by resazurin microtiter assay. PCR amplification and DNA direct sequencing methods were used for the analysis of gene mutations...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231673/-changes-of-resistant-phenotype-and-crispr-cas-system-of-four-shigella-strains-passaged-for-90-times-without-antibiotics
#2
B Zhang, L J Hong, G C Duan, W J Liang, H Y Yang, Y L Xi
Objective: To explore the stability of resistant phenotypes and changes of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) gene system on four Shigella strains in the absence of antibiotics. Methods: Four clinical isolated Shigella strains that resistant to different antibiotics were consecutive passaged for 90 times without antibiotics. Agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of Shigella strains. After sequence analysis with PCR, CRISPR Finder and Clustal X 2...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231520/medicinal-plants-used-as-anthelmintics-ethnomedical-pharmacological-and-phytochemical-studies
#3
REVIEW
Juan Carlos Romero-Benavides, Ana Lucía Ruano, Ronal Silva-Rivas, Paola Castillo-Veintimilla, Sara Vivanco-Jaramillo, Natalia Bailon-Moscoso
Intestinal parasites delay mental and physical development in children. Infection with these parasites can result in complications during pregnancy and alter the health of newborns, which has long-term effects on educational attainment and economic productivity. The appearance of resistance against classical drug treatments generates interest in the development of new deworming alternatives. We think that research of new plants species may reveal potential antiparasitic compounds. This review is focused on the use of plants and secondary metabolites against intestinal parasites...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231455/synthetic-investigation-physicochemical-characterization-and-antibacterial-evaluation-of-ternary-bi-iii-systems-with-hydroxycarboxylic-acid-and-aromatic-chelator-substrates
#4
C M Nday, E Halevas, A Tsiaprazi-Stamou, D Eleftheriadou, A Hatzidimitriou, G Jackson, D Reid, A Salifoglou
Due to its physical and chemical properties, bismuth (Bi(III)) is widely used in the treatment of several gastrointestinal and skin diseases, and infections caused by bacteria. Herein, its known antimicrobial potential was taken into consideration in the synthesis of two new hybrid ternary materials of Bi(III) with the physiological α-hydroxycarboxylic glycolic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), [Bi2(C2H2O3)2(C2H3O3)(NO3)]n(.) nH2O (1) and [Bi(C12H8N2)(NO3)4](C10H8N4) (2), aiming at improving its antibacterial properties...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231254/rapid-generation-of-drug-resistance-alleles-at-endogenous-loci-using-crispr-cas9-indel-mutagenesis
#5
Jonathan J Ipsaro, Chen Shen, Eri Arai, Yali Xu, Justin B Kinney, Leemor Joshua-Tor, Christopher R Vakoc, Junwei Shi
Genetic alterations conferring resistance to the effects of chemical inhibitors are valuable tools for validating on-target effects in cells. Unfortunately, for many therapeutic targets such alleles are not available. To address this issue, we evaluated whether CRISPR-Cas9-mediated insertion/deletion (indel) mutagenesis can produce drug-resistance alleles at endogenous loci. This method takes advantage of the heterogeneous in-frame alleles produced following Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage, which we show can generate rare alleles that confer resistance to the growth-arrest caused by chemical inhibitors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231055/the-role-of-extracellular-vesicle-micrornas-in-cancer-biology
#6
Ryou-U Takahashi, Marta Prieto-Vila, Ai Hironaka, Takahiro Ochiya
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20-22 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Multiple studies report that miRNAs are involved in homeostatic maintenance and that aberrant expression of miRNAs is often observed in various types of diseases, including cancer. In cancer biology, miRNAs exert functional roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance, and metastasis. MiRNAs are also secreted through small vesicles called exosomes, which are endosome-derived vesicles derived from various cell types including immune and tumor cells...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230749/design-of-drug-delivery-systems-containing-artemisinin-and-its-derivatives
#7
REVIEW
Blessing Atim Aderibigbe
Artemisinin and its derivatives have been reported to be experimentally effective for the treatment of highly aggressive cancers without developing drug resistance, they are useful for the treatment of malaria, other protozoal infections and they exhibit antiviral activity. However, they are limited pharmacologically by their poor bioavailability, short half-life in vivo, poor water solubility and long term usage results in toxicity. They are also expensive for the treatment of malaria when compared to other antimalarials...
February 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230534/knockdown-of-antiapoptotic-genes-in-breast-cancer-cells-by-sirna-loaded-into-hybrid-nanoparticles
#8
Leônidas Mello Júnior, Gabriela Rosa E Souza, Evelyn Winter, Adny Henrique Silva, Frederico Pittella, Tânia Beatriz Creczynski-Pasa
Tumorigenesis is related to an imbalance in controlling mechanisms of apoptosis. Expression of the genes BCL-2 and BCL-xL results in promotion of cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, a novel approach to suppress antiapoptotic genes is the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in cancer cells. However, there are some limitations for the application of siRNA such as low bioavailability, requiring vectors as a strategy to achieve the nucleic acid transfection. In this study formulations containing CaP-siRNA-PEG-polyanion hybrid nanoparticles were developed to enhance siRNA delivery to cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in order to evaluate if the silencing of antiapoptotic genes BCL-2 and BCL-xL by siRNA would succeed in increasing cancer cells death...
February 23, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230287/therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer-rational-and-progress
#9
Afsane Bahrami, Majid Khazaei, Malihe Hasanzadeh, Soodabeh ShahidSales, Mona Joudi Mashhad, Marjaneh Farazestanian, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Majid Rezayi, Mina Maftouh, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Amir Avan
PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is one of the key dysregulated pathways in different tumor types, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Activation of this pathway is shown to be related with cellular transformation, tumor progression, cell survival and drug resistance. There is growing body of data evaluating the value of PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors in CRC (e.g., BEZ235, NVP-BEZ235, OSI-027, everolimus, MK-2206, KRX-0401, BYL719 and BKM120). This report summarizes the current knowledge about PI3K/AKT pathway and its cross talk with ERK/MAPK and mTOR pathways with particular emphasis on the value of targeting this pathway as a potential therapeutic target in treatment of colorectal cancer...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230254/resistance-to-valproic-acid-as-predictor-of-treatment-resistance-in-genetic-generalized-epilepsies
#10
Joanna Gesche, Marina Khanevski, Carl Solberg, Christoph Patrick Beier
This study aimed at defining clinical predictors of drug resistance in adults with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) who were treated with a broad spectrum of antiepileptic drugs. Of a cohort of 137 unselected adult GGE patients with long-term follow up, clinical and demographic data, putative prognostic factors (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, electroencephalography [EEG]), treatment response, and data indicative of social status were collected. Fifty-eight patients had seizures within the past year. Thirty-three patients met the definition of "drug-resistant epilepsy" according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) definition...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230095/genetic-diversity-transmission-dynamics-and-drug-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-angola
#11
João Perdigão, Sofia Clemente, Jorge Ramos, Pedro Masakidi, Diana Machado, Carla Silva, Isabel Couto, Miguel Viveiros, Nuno Taveira, Isabel Portugal
Tuberculosis (TB) poses a serious public health problem in Angola. No surveillance data on drug resistance is available and nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and population structure of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Here, we have genotyped and evaluated drug susceptibility of 89 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Luanda. Thirty-three different spoligotype profiles corresponding to 24 different Shared International Types (SIT) and 9 orphan profiles were detected...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230005/current-mechanism-of-acquired-resistance-to-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-and-updated-therapy-strategies-in-human-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Kaixian Zhang, Qianqian Yuan
Lung cancer continues to be a major health problem and the most common cancer-related mortality worldwide with about 80%-85% patients suffering from nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). More than 80% of NSCLC cases are often diagnosed as advanced stage and harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutation. Although great success in initial response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are found in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients, acquired resistance usually occurs on the continuous treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229982/circulating-free-dna-mutation-associated-with-response-of-targeted-therapy-in-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer
#13
Qing Ye, Fan Qi, Li Bian, Shao-Hua Zhang, Tao Wang, Ze-Fei Jiang
BACKGROUND: The addition of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted drugs, such as trastuzumab, lapatinib, and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), to chemotherapy significantly improved prognosis of HER2-positive breast cancer patients. However, it was confused that metastatic patients vary in the response of targeted drug. Therefore, methods of accurately predicting drug response were really needed. To overcome the spatial and temporal limitations of biopsies, we aimed to develop a more sensitive and less invasive method of detecting mutations associated with anti-HER2 therapeutic response through circulating-free DNA (cfDNA)...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229945/patients-appropriateness-acceptability-usability-and-preferences-for-pharmaceutical-preparations-results-from-a-literature-review-on-clinical-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Nélio Drumond, Diana A van Riet-Nales, Fatma Karapinar-Çarkit, Sven Stegemann
Patients play an important role in achieving the desired therapeutic outcomes, as they are frequently responsible for their own medication management. To facilitate drug administration and overcome medication issues, the patients' needs and preferences should be considered in the pharmaceutical drug product design. With the aim to evaluate the current state of evidence for patient appropriateness, acceptability, usability and preference for aspects of this design, a literature search was performed. Comparative clinical studies that assessed such endpoints for different patient populations were included and summarized descriptively...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229435/design-and-pharmacodynamics-of-recombinant-nz2114-histidine-mutants-with-improved-activity-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Huixian Chen, Ruoyu Mao, Da Teng, Xiumin Wang, Ya Hao, Xingjun Feng, Jianhua Wang
NZ2114 is a promising candidate for therapeutic application owing to its potent activity to Staphylococcus aureus. Our objective was to identify NZ2114 derivatives with improved activity through substitution of His16 and His18 with residues Arginine and Lysine. Eight mutants were designed and expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 via pPICZαA. Five of them exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against S. aureus at low minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.057-0.454 μM. Among them, H1, H2, and H3 showed ideal pharmacodynamic effects on methicillin-resistant S...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229367/inhibition-of-mtor-pathway-by-rapamycin-decreases-p-glycoprotein-expression-and-spontaneous-seizures-in-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#16
Xiaosa Chi, Cheng Huang, Rui Li, Wei Wang, Mengqian Wu, Jinmei Li, Dong Zhou
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been demonstrated to mediate multidrug resistance in various tumors by inducing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression. Here, we investigated the correlation between the mTOR pathway and P-gp expression in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Temporal cortex specimens were obtained from patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and age-matched controls who underwent surgeries at West China Hospital of Sichuan University between June 2014 and May 2015. We established a rat model of epilepsy kindled by coriaria lactone (CL) and screened pharmacoresistant rats (non-responders) using phenytoin...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229364/molecular-subtyping-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-closer-to-an-approach-of-precision-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Reem Karmali, Leo I Gordon
It has become clear that there is immense biological heterogeneity in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Developing technology has allowed better characterization of patient subsets at a molecular level, allowing for a link of phenotype and clinical outcomes to oncogenic mechanisms and biologic signatures. Cell of origin and double hit status are able to identify aggressive subsets, with molecular profiling allowing for a clearer understanding of biologic pathways that contribute to cellular resistance to conventional treatment in these subsets...
February 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229252/pain-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-prevalence-mechanisms-management-and-future-developments
#18
REVIEW
Andreas I Koulouris, Paul Banim, Andrew R Hart
Pain affects approximately 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer, with half requiring strong opioid analgesia, namely: morphine-based drugs on step three of the WHO analgesic ladder (as opposed to the weak opioids: codeine and tramadol). The presence of pain is associated with reduced survival. This article reviews the literature regarding pain: prevalence, mechanisms, pharmacological, and endoscopic treatments and identifies areas for research to develop individualized patient pain management pathways. The online literature review was conducted through: PubMed, Clinical Key, Uptodate, and NICE Evidence...
February 22, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229139/pti2-dach-the-iodido-analogue-of-oxaliplatin-as-a-candidate-for-colorectal-cancer-treatment-chemical-and-biological-features
#19
D Cirri, S Pillozzi, C Gabbiani, J Tricomi, G Bartoli, M Stefanini, E Michelucci, A Arcangeli, L Messori, T Marzo
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a global health problem being the fourth most common cause of death due to cancer worldwide. Oxaliplatin plays a key role in current CRC treatment but shows serious drawbacks, such as a high systemic toxicity and the frequent insurgence of Pt resistance. In search of novel and more efficacious Pt-based drugs for CRC treatment, we synthesized and characterised PtI2(DACH), an oxaliplatin analogue. PtI2(DACH) was obtained through the replacement of bidentate oxalate with two iodides...
February 23, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228709/targeted-therapies-in-her2-overexpressing-metastatic-breast-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Soumaya Labidi, Nesrine Mejri, Aymen Lagha, Nouha Daoud, Houda El Benna, Mehdi Afrit, Hamouda Boussen
Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is amplified in 25-30% of breast cancers and is associated with aggressive disease and poorer survival. Multiple anti-HER2 targeted therapies have dramatically changed management and outcome of this subgroup, both in adjuvant and metastatic settings. Despite the improvement of survival thanks to trastuzumab, unclear mechanisms of resistance occur, which has led to the development of new anti-HER2 therapies such as lapatinib, pertuzumab, and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1)...
December 2016: Breast Care
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