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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356365/risk-network-approaches-to-locating-undiagnosed-hiv-cases-in-odessa-ukraine
#1
Pavlo Smyrnov, Leslie D Williams, Ania Korobchuk, Yana Sazonova, Georgios K Nikolopoulos, Britt Skaathun, Ethan Morgan, John Schneider, Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Samuel R Friedman
INTRODUCTION: Providing HIV healthcare and Treatment as Prevention both depend on diagnosing HIV cases, preferably soon after initial infection. We hypothesized that tracing risk networks recruits higher proportions of undiagnosed positives than outreach-based testing or respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Odessa, Ukraine. METHODS: The Transmission Reduction Intervention Project (TRIP) used risk network tracing to recruit sexual and injection networks of recently-infected and longer-term infected (LTs) seeds (2013 to 2016)...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356129/large-area-direct-laser-shock-imprinting-of-a-3d-biomimic-hierarchical-metal-surface-for-triboelectric-nanogenerators
#2
Shengyu Jin, Yixiu Wang, Maithilee Motlag, Shengjie Gao, Jin Xu, Qiong Nian, Wenzhuo Wu, Gary J Cheng
Ongoing efforts in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) focus on enhancing power generation, but obstacles concerning the economical and cost-effective production of TENGs continue to prevail. Micro-/nanostructure engineering of polymer surfaces has been dominantly utilized for boosting the contact triboelectrification, with deposited metal electrodes for collecting the scavenged energy. Nevertheless, this state-of-the-art approach is limited by the vague potential for producing 3D hierarchical surface structures with conformable coverage of high-quality metal...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356120/superexchange-effects-on-oxygen-reduction-activity-of-edge-sharing-cox-mn1-x-o6-octahedra-in-spinel-oxide
#3
Ye Zhou, Shengnan Sun, Shibo Xi, Yan Duan, Thirumany Sritharan, Yonghua Du, Zhichuan J Xu
Mn-Co containing spinel oxides are promising, low-cost electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Most studies are devoted to the design of porous Mn-Co spinels or to strongly coupled hybrids (e.g., MnCo2 O4 /N-doped-rmGO) to maximize the mass efficiency. The lack of analyses by metal oxide intrinsic activity (activity normalized to catalysts' surface area) hinders the development of fundamental understanding of the physicochemical principles behind the catalytic activities. A systematic study on the composition dependence of ORR in ZnCox Mn2-x O4 (x = 0...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355424/silver-diamine-fluoride-a-successful-anticarious-solution-with-limits
#4
J O Burgess, P M Vaghela
Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a solution containing ionic silver, fluoride, and ammonia that arrests the progress of carious lesions and prevents the development of future caries. The silver particle extends into the dentin tubules and could create some bonding problems for subsequent composite resin restorations placed over SDF-treated darkened tooth structures. The fluoride penetrates deeper into the tooth with SDF as compared with other fluoride solutions, creating a fluoride reservoir in the tooth structure...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354382/production-of-gellan-gum-an-exopolysaccharide-from-biodiesel-derived-waste-glycerol-by-sphingomonas-spp
#5
Kerisha Raghunandan, Ashwani Kumar, Santhosh Kumar, Kugenthiren Permaul, Suren Singh
In the present study, biodiesel-derived waste glycerol (WG) was used for the isolation and production of gellan, an exopolysaccharide, on media containing WG as the main carbon source. Two bacterial isolates showed gellan producing potential which were identified as Sphingomonas pseudosanguinis (Accession No. GI:724472387) and Sphingomonas yabuuchiae (GI:724472388) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To maximize gellan production by S. pseudosanguinis and S. yabuuchiae, media optimization was performed at different pHs and glycerol concentrations...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353776/changes-in-microcystis-aeruginosa-cell-integrity-and-variation-in-microcystin-lr-and-proteins-during-tanfloc-flocculation-and-floc-storage
#6
Jun Hou, Zijun Yang, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Yangyang Yang, Xun Wang
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of Tanfloc on Microcystis aeruginosa cell integrity, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), and proteins during flocculation and floc storage. The effects of Tanfloc addition, stirring, and floc storage time were considered to minimize cell damage and the release of MC-LR and proteins. Optimal flocculation conditions (Tanfloc dosage 10.42 mg L-1, rapid agitation for 0.36 min at 568.88 rpm and slow agitation for 14.14 min at 12.1 rpm) were obtained using the response surface methodology...
January 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352458/polyhydroxybutyrate-phb-synthesis-by-spirulina-sp-leb-18-using-biopolymer-extraction-waste
#7
Cleber Klasener da Silva, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa, Michele Greque de Morais
The reuse of waste as well as the production of biodegradable compounds has for years been the object of studies and of global interest as a way to reduce the environmental impact generated by unsustainable exploratory processes. The conversion of linear processes into cyclical processes has environmental and economic advantages, reducing waste deposition and reducing costs. The objective of this work was to use biopolymer extraction waste in the cultivation of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, for the cyclic process of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis...
January 20, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351023/does-talking-on-a-cell-phone-with-a-passenger-or-dialing-affect-driving-performance-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-experimental-studies
#8
Jeff K Caird, Sarah M Simmons, Katelyn Wiley, Kate A Johnston, William J Horrey
Objective An up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental research on talking and driving is needed to provide a comprehensive, empirical, and credible basis for policy, legislation, countermeasures, and future research. Background The effects of cell, mobile, and smart phone use on driving safety continues to be a contentious societal issue. Method All available studies that measured the effects of cell phone use on driving were identified through a variety of search methods and databases. A total of 93 studies containing 106 experiments met the inclusion criteria...
February 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350027/evaluation-of-drug-exposure-and-metabolism-in-locust-and-zebrafish-brains-using-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#9
Marvin Villacrez, Karin Hellman, Tatsuya Ono, Yutaka Sugihara, Melinda Rezeli, Fredrik Ek, Gyorgy Marko-Varga, Roger Olsson
Studying how and where drugs are metabolized in the brain is challenging. In an entire organism, peripheral metabolism produces many of the same metabolites as those in the brain, and many of these metabolites can cross the blood-brain barrier from the periphery, thus making the relative contributions of hepatic and brain metabolism difficult to study in vivo. In addition, drugs and metabolites contained in ventricles and in the residual blood of capillaries in the brain may overestimate drugs' and metabolites' concentrations in the brain...
January 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349742/treatment-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-wastewater-using-hydrodynamic-cavitation-in-synergy-with-advanced-oxidation-process
#10
Kassim Olasunkanmi Badmus, Jimoh Oladejo Tijani, Emile Massima, Leslie Petrik
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are very tenacious wastewater contaminants. The consequences of their existence have been acknowledged for negatively affecting the ecosystem with specific impact upon endocrine disruption and hormonal diseases in humans. Their recalcitrance and circumvention of nearly all the known wastewater treatment procedures are also well documented. The reported successes of POPs treatment using various advanced technologies are not without setbacks such as low degradation efficiency, generation of toxic intermediates, massive sludge production, and high energy expenditure and operational cost...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349663/ibandronate-metal-complexes-solution-behavior-and-antiparasitic-activity
#11
Bruno Demoro, Santiago Rostán, Mauricio Moncada, Zhu-Hong Li, Roberto Docampo, Claudio Olea Azar, Juan Diego Maya, Julia Torres, Dinorah Gambino, Lucía Otero
To face the high costs of developing new drugs, researchers in both industry and academy are looking for ways to repurpose old drugs for new uses. In this sense, bisphosphonates that are clinically used for bone diseases have been studied as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi, causative parasite of Chagas disease. In this work, the development of first row transition metal complexes (M = Co2+, Mn2+, Ni2+) with the bisphosphonate ibandronate (iba, H4iba representing the neutral form) is presented. The in-solution behavior of the systems containing iba and the selected 3d metal ions was studied by potentiometry...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349626/a-two-stage-system-coupling-hydrolytic-acidification-with-algal-microcosms-for-treatment-of-wastewater-from-the-manufacture-of-acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene-abs-resin
#12
Shuhao Huo, Feifei Zhu, Bin Zou, Ling Xu, Fengjie Cui, Wenhua You
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel two-stage system coupling hydrolytic acidification with algal microcosms for the treatment of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resin-manufacturing wastewater. RESULTS: After hydrolytic acidification, the BOD5/COD ratio increased from 0.22 to 0.56, showing improved biodegradability of the wastewater. Coupled with hydrolytic acidification, the algal microcosms showed excellent capability of in-depth removal of COD, NH3-N and phosphorus with removal rates 83, 100, and 89%, respectively, and aromatic pollutants, including benzene, were almost completely removed...
January 18, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349491/formulation-and-stabilization-of-an-arthrobacter-strain-with-good-storage-stability-and-4-chlorophenol-degradation-activity-for-bioremediation
#13
Joakim Bjerketorp, Wilfred F M Röling, Xin-Mei Feng, Armando Hernández Garcia, Hermann J Heipieper, Sebastian Håkansson
Chlorophenols are widespread and of environmental concern due to their toxic and carcinogenic properties. Development of less costly and less technically challenging remediation methods are needed; therefore, we developed a formulation based on micronized vermiculite that, when air-dried, resulted in a granular product containing the 4-chlorophenol (4-CP)-degrading Gram-positive bacterium Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6. This formulation and stabilization method yielded survival rates of about 60% that remained stable in storage for at least 3 months at 4 °C...
January 18, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349202/healthcare-access-a-sequence-sensitive-approach
#14
Marco J Haenssgen, Proochista Ariana
It is widely accepted that healthcare-seeking behaviour is neither limited to nor terminated by access to one single healthcare provider. Yet the sequential conceptualisation of healthcare-seeking processes has not diffused into quantitative research, which continues to analyse healthcare access as a "one-off" event. The ensuing lack of understanding healthcare behaviour is problematic in light of the immense burden of premature death especially in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents an alternative approach...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348539/characterization-of-a-novel-tectivirus-phage-toil-and-its-potential-as-an-agent-for-biolipid-extraction
#15
Jason J Gill, Baixin Wang, Emily Sestak, Ryland Young, Kung-Hui Chu
The oleaginous bacterium Rhodococcus opacus PD630 is metabolically diverse and can be cultivated on various renewable resources to serve as a sustainable triacylglycerol (TAG) feedstock for biodiesel production. Current methods for TAG extraction are costly, but infection of cultures by lytic bacteriophages (phages) may be a viable approach for achieving release of intracellular lipid from oleaginous bacteria such as R. opacus. This study reports the novel tectiviral phage Toil capable of releasing intracellular contents including a fluorescent protein marker and TAGs into the supernatant after phage infection of R...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344352/the-use-of-feed-grade-amino-acids-in-lactating-sow-diets
#16
Laura Greiner, Pairat Srichana, James L Usry, Casey Neill, Gary L Allee, Joseph Connor, Kevin J Touchette, Christopher D Knight
Background: The use of feed grade amino acids can reduce the cost of lactation feed. With changing genetics, increasing feed costs, and higher number of pigs weaned with heavier wean weights further evaluation of higher inclusion levels of feed-grade amino acid in lactation diets than previously published is warranted. Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the optimal inclusion level of L-lysine HCl to be included in swine lactation diets while digestible lysine levels remain constant across dietary treatments and allowing feed grade amino acids to be added to the diet to maintain dietary ratios relative to lysine to maximize litter growth rate and sow reproductive performance...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343265/rnase-if-treated-quantitative-pcr-for-dsrna-quantitation-of-rnai-trait-in-genetically-modified-crops
#17
Po-Hao Wang, Greg Schulenberg, Shannon Whitlock, Andrew Worden, Ning Zhou, Stephen Novak, Wei Chen
BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used to knockdown target genes via post-transcriptional silencing. In plants, RNAi is used as an effective tool with diverse applications being developed such as resistance against insects, fungi, viruses, and metabolism manipulation. To develop genetically modified (GM) RNAi traits for insect control, a transgene is created and composed of an inversely-repeated sequence of the target gene with a spacer region inserted between the repeats...
January 17, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343250/evaluation-of-health-status-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-treated-with-and-without-interferon
#18
R Ragusa, G Bertino, A Bruno, E Frazzetto, F Cicciu, G Giorgianni, L Lupo
BACKGROUND: The evolution of technology in healthcare has increased the health care's costs and, the universal healthcare systems, in developed countries, need to ensure proper allocation of resources. Thus, the major issue is assessing the effectiveness of new medical technologies. The evaluation of quality of life in response to new treatments has become a key indicator in chronic conditions for which medical interventions are evaluated not only in terms of increasing the number of expected life years but also in terms of increasing quality of life...
January 17, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343236/barriers-to-timely-diagnosis-of-interstitial-lung-disease-in-the-real-world-the-intensity-survey
#19
Gregory P Cosgrove, Pauline Bianchi, Sherry Danese, David J Lederer
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and other interstitial lung diseases (ILD) presents significant clinical challenges. To gain insights regarding the diagnostic experience of patients with ILD and to identify potential barriers to a timely and accurate diagnosis, we developed an online questionnaire and conducted a national survey of adults with a self-reported diagnosis of ILD. METHODS: A pre-specified total of 600 subjects were recruited to participate in a 40-question online survey...
January 17, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342960/a-low-cost-inkjet-printed-aptamer-based-electrochemical-biosensor-for-the-selective-detection-of-lysozyme
#20
Niazul Islam Khan, Alec G Maddaus, Edward Song
Recently, inkjet-printing has gained increased popularity in applications such as flexible electronics and disposable sensors, as well as in wearable sensors because of its multifarious advantages. This work presents a novel, low-cost immobilization technique using inkjet-printing for the development of an aptamer-based biosensor for the detection of lysozyme, an important biomarker in various disease diagnosis. The strong affinity between the carbon nanotube (CNT) and the single-stranded DNA is exploited to immobilize the aptamers onto the working electrode by printing the ink containing the dispersion of CNT-aptamer complex...
January 15, 2018: Biosensors
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