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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785577/atezolizumab-a-review-in-previously-treated-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Hannah A Blair
Atezolizumab (TECENTRIQ™), an immune checkpoint inhibitor, is an immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that binds to programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and blocks its interactions with programmed death 1 and B7.1 receptors. Atezolizumab is approved as monotherapy in several countries worldwide for the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have previously received chemotherapy. Approval was based on its clinical benefit in this setting in the phase II POPLAR and phase III OAK trials...
May 21, 2018: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785440/an-immunoconjugated-up-conversion-nanocomplex-for-selective-imaging-and-photodynamic-therapy-against-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#2
Gonzalo Ramírez-García, Sandeep S Panikar, Tzarara López-Luke, Valeria Piazza, Miguel Angel Honorato-Colin, Tanya Camacho-Villegas, Rodolfo Hernández-Gutiérrez, Elder De la Rosa
Photodynamic therapy represents a very attractive therapeutic tool considered to be effective, minimally invasive and minimally toxic. However, conventional photodynamic therapy actually has two main constraints: the limited penetration depth of visible light needed for its activation, and the lack of selectivity. Considering this, this work reports the synthesis and evaluation of a novel nanoconjugate for imaging and selective photodynamic therapy against HER2-positive breast cancer, a particularly aggressive form of the disease...
May 22, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784748/emerging-treatment-options-for-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-focus-on-car-t-cell-therapy
#3
Patrick A Brown, Bijal Shah
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases with different morphologic, cytogenetic, and molecular subgroups, some of which have significant therapeutic implications. It typically presents with an aggressive clinical course, and among adults, responds poorly to standard chemotherapy, and carries a high risk for relapse. Despite the significant progress made in inducing remission, frequent relapses remain a challenge. Novel drugs, such as potent later-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibody-drug conjugates, bispecific monoclonal antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies, are being investigated in patients with ALL...
May 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784015/induction-of-multiple-myeloma-cancer-stem-cell-apoptosis-using-conjugated-anti-abcg2-antibody-with-epirubicin-loaded-microbubbles
#4
Fangfang Shi, Miao Li, Jing Wang, Di Wu, Meng Pan, Mei Guo, Jun Dou
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) currently remains largely incurable. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be responsible for drug resistance and eventual relapse. In this study, we exploited a novel agent to evaluate its inhibitory effect on MM CSCs. METHODS: Epirubicin (EPI)-loaded lipid microbubbles (MBs) conjugated with anti-ABCG2 monoclonal antibody (EPI-MBs + mAb) were developed and their effect on MM 138- CD34- CSCs isolated from human MM RPMI 8226 cell line plus ultrasound exposure in vitro and in vivo in a nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mouse model were assessed...
May 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783736/revisiting-cd28-superagonist-tgn1412-as-potential-therapeutic-for-pediatric-b-cell-leukemia-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Katelyn E Brown
Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represents the most common pediatric cancer diagnosis, with numbers rising gradually every year. This paper proposes a novel therapeutic agent for pediatric ALL on the basis of a failed clinical drug trial in 2006. TGN1412 was a promising therapeutic agent that yielded outstanding results in both in vitro studies and animal trials. It is a CD28 superagonist monoclonal antibody that activates T regulatory (TReg ) cells in the absence of costimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR) by an antigen-presenting cell...
May 19, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783691/old-and-young-actors-playing-novel-roles-in-the-drama-of-multiple-myeloma-bone-marrow-microenvironment-dependent-drug-resistance
#6
REVIEW
Sabrina Manni, Marilena Carrino, Gianpietro Semenzato, Francesco Piazza
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most frequent hematologic cancer. In addition to the deleterious effects of neoplastic plasma cell growth and spreading during the disease evolution, this tumor is characterized by the serious pathological consequences due to the massive secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulins and by the derangement of bone physiology with progressive weakening of the skeleton. Despite significant progresses having been made in the last two decades in the therapeutic management of this plasma cell tumor, MM remains invariably lethal, due to its extremely complex genetic architecture and to the constant protection it receives from the tumor niche, which is represented by the bone marrow microenvironment...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782502/a-monoclonal-antibody-targeting-amyloid-%C3%AE-a%C3%AE-restores-complement-factor-i-bioactivity-potential-implications-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Kameran Lashkari, Gianna Teague, Hong Chen, Yong-Qing Lin, Sanjay Kumar, Megan M McLaughlin, Francisco J López
Activation of the alternative complement cascade has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid β (Aβ), a component of drusen, may promote complement activation by inhibiting CFI bioactivity. We determined whether Aβ reduced CFI bioactivity and whether antibodies against Aβ including a monoclonal antibody, GSK933776 could restore CFI bioactivity. We also measured CFI bioactivity in plasma of subjects with AMD and AD. In support of the GSK933776 development program in AMD (geographic atrophy), we developed a quantitative assay to measure CFI bioactivity based on its ability to cleave C3b to iC3b, and repeated it in presence or absence of Aβ and anti-Aβ antibodies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782224/efficacy-and-safety-of-dupilumab-in-glucocorticoid-dependent-severe-asthma
#8
Klaus F Rabe, Parameswaran Nair, Guy Brusselle, Jorge F Maspero, Mario Castro, Lawrence Sher, Hongjie Zhu, Jennifer D Hamilton, Brian N Swanson, Asif Khan, Jingdong Chao, Heribert Staudinger, Gianluca Pirozzi, Christian Antoni, Nikhil Amin, Marcella Ruddy, Bolanle Akinlade, Neil M H Graham, Neil Stahl, George D Yancopoulos, Ariel Teper
Background Dupilumab is a fully human anti-interleukin-4 receptor α monoclonal antibody that blocks both interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 signaling. Its effectiveness in reducing oral glucocorticoid use in patients with severe asthma while maintaining asthma control is unknown. Methods We randomly assigned 210 patients with oral glucocorticoid-treated asthma to receive add-on dupilumab (at a dose of 300 mg) or placebo every 2 weeks for 24 weeks. After a glucocorticoid dose-adjustment period before randomization, glucocorticoid doses were adjusted in a downward trend from week 4 to week 20 and then maintained at a stable dose for 4 weeks...
May 21, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782009/construction-of-synthetic-phage-displayed-fab-library-with-tailored-diversity
#9
Ganggang Huang, Zhenwei Zhong, Shane Miersch, Sachdev S Sidhu, Shin-Chen Hou, Donghui Wu
Demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in basic research and medicine is increasing yearly. Hybridoma technology has been the dominant method for mAb development since its first report in 1975. As an alternative technology, phage display methods for mAb development are increasingly attractive since Humira, the first phage-derived antibody and one of the best-selling mAbs, was approved for clinical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in 2002. As a non-animal based mAb development technology, phage display bypasses antigen immunogenicity, humanization, and animal maintenance that are required from traditional hybridoma technology based antibody development...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781761/prevention-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-by-reconstitution-of-the-microbiota
#10
Noa Eliakim-Raz, Jihad Bishara
This review summarizes the latest advances in treating and preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most common infectious disease cause of nosocomial diarrhea in adults in developed countries. As customary antibiotic therapies against C. difficile, metronidazole and vancomycin, are broad spectrum, they affect greatly the gut microbiota, which result in very high recurrence rates. Therefore, new strategies are researched intensively. New therapies focus on limiting further destruction of the gut microbiota or restoring the microbiota to its pre-destructed state...
May 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781343/issues-and-promises-of-bevacizumab-in-prostate-cancer-treatment
#11
Vittore Cereda, Vincenzo Formica, Mario Roselli
There is general agreement that increased angiogenesis is an important factor in determining prostate cancer development and prognosis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is thought to play a primary role in the molecular events that lead to prostate cancer progression, from androgen-dependency to castration-resistance until dissemination to the skeleton. Bevacizumab is a recombinant anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody that has exhibited clinical activity in different cancer types. Areas covered: In this review we summarize the data of clinical trials, investigating the effects of bevacizumab in prostate cancer patients...
May 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780651/fatal-outcome-of-imatinib-in-a-patient-with-idiopathic-hypereosinophilic-syndrome
#12
Ashraf Abugroun, Ahmed Chaudhary, Gabriel Rodriguez
Cytokine storm is a poorly explained clinical entity caused by an undesired and aggrandized immune system response leading to unregulated activation of the proinflammatory cascade, often contributing to multisystem organ failure and even death. Its potentially diverse etiologies and sepsis-like presentation have made it even more challenging to diagnose, and so far, no well-established treatment protocol has been proposed. Its association with certain medications, especially with monoclonal antibodies, has well been reported in literature...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780238/update-on-new-biologics-for-intractable-eosinophilic-asthma-impact-of-reslizumab
#13
REVIEW
Jagdeep Sahota, Douglas S Robinson
A small percentage of patients with asthma have uncontrolled symptoms and frequent exacerbations, despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and other agents. It has become clear that different subtypes of this severe, treatment-resistant group exist due to different mechanisms of the disease. All such patients require detailed assessment in specialist centers to characterize the disease and assess treatment adherence. Recently, monoclonal antibodies have become available, which target specific pathways that may contribute to persistent inflammation and asthma exacerbations...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777163/evolution-of-cll-treatment-from-chemoimmunotherapy-to-targeted-and-individualized-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Jan A Burger, Susan O'Brien
During the past 5 years, a number of highly active novel agents, including kinase inhibitors targeting BTK or PI3Kδ, an antagonist of the antiapoptotic protein BCL-2, and new anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, have been added to the therapeutic armamentarium for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). In these exciting times, care is needed to optimally integrate these novel agents into the traditional treatment algorithm without overlooking or compromising the benefits of established treatments, especially chemoimmunotherapy...
May 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775600/variation-in-interleukin-6-receptor-gene-associates-with-risk-of-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis
#15
C A Parisinos, S Serghiou, M Katsoulis, M J George, R S Patel, H Hemingway, A D Hingorani
Interleukin 6 (IL6) is an inflammatory cytokine; signaling via its receptor (IL6R) is believed to contribute to development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The single nucleotide polymorphism rs2228145 in IL6R associates with increased levels of soluble IL6R (s-IL6R), as well as reduced IL6R signaling and risk of inflammatory disorders; its effects are similar to those of a therapeutic monoclonal antibody that blocks IL6R signaling. We used the effect of rs2228145 on s-IL6R level as an indirect marker to investigate whether reduced IL6R signaling associates with risk of ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD)...
May 15, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775564/the-antibody-rhigm22-facilitates-hippocampal-remyelination-and-ameliorates-memory-deficits-in-the-cuprizone-mouse-model-of-demyelination
#16
Charlene Cui, Jing Wang, Ariana P Mullin, Anthony O Caggiano, Tom J Parry, Raymond W Colburn, Elias Pavlopoulos
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. In addition to motor, sensory and visual deficits, MS is also characterized by hippocampal demyelination and memory impairment. We recently demonstrated that a recombinant human-derived monoclonal IgM antibody, which is designated rHIgM22 and currently in clinical development for people with MS, accelerates remyelination of the corpus callosum in the brains of cuprizone-treated mice. Here, we investigated the effects of rHIgM22 in the hippocampus and on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory in the same mouse model of cuprizone-induced demyelination and spontaneous remyelination...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774158/efficacy-of-vedolizumab-for-induction-of-clinical-response-and-remission-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-inflammatory-bowel-disease-who-failed-at-least-two-tnf-antagonists
#17
Martine De Vos, Barbara Dhooghe, Severine Vermeire, Edouard Louis, Fazia Mana, Ann Elewaut, Peter Bossuyt, Filip Baert, Catherine Reenaers, Marc Van Gossum, Elisabeth Macken, Marc Ferrante, Pieter Hindryckx, Olivier Dewit, Tom Holvoet, Denis Franchimont
Background: Vedolizumab is a recently available monoclonal antibody targeting α4β7 integrin for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Objective: The objective of this article is to evaluate the efficacy of vedolizumab induction therapy in anti-TNF-refractory/intolerant UC and CD patients in real life. Methods: A cohort of 149 moderately to severely active UC and CD patients who failed or showed intolerance to at least two TNF antagonists participated in a medical need program and received vedolizumab in 37 Belgian centers (April-September 2015)...
April 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774057/ocrelizumab-a-new-milestone-in-multiple-sclerosis-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Patricia Mulero, Luciana Midaglia, Xavier Montalban
B cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS): they are involved in the activation of pro-inflammatory T cells, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of autoantibodies directed against myelin. Hence, the use of B cell-depleting monoclonal antibodies as therapy for autoimmune diseases, including MS, has increased in recent years. Previous results with rituximab, the first therapeutic B cell-depleting chimeric monoclonal antibody that showed efficacy in MS clinical trials, encouraged researchers to evaluate the efficacy of a humanized anti-CD20 antibody, ocrelizumab, in MS...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773890/intraperitoneal-administration-of-the-anti-il-23-antibody-prevents-the-establishment-of-intestinal-nematodes-in-mice
#19
M Gomez-Samblas, D Bernal, A Bolado-Ortiz, S Vilchez, F Bolás-Fernández, A M Espino, M Trelis, A Osuna
Previous studies have established that an increased Th-9 response creates a hostile environment for nematode parasites. Given that IL-23, a cytokine required for maintenance of the IL-17-secreting phenotype, has inhibitory effects on IL-9 production, we hypothesized that reducing circulating IL-23 by treatment with anti-IL-23 antibodies would reduce the establishment and development of parasitic intestinal nematodes. In this study, we show that animals treated with anti-IL-23 monoclonal antibodies showed a drastic reduction in the number of mouse pinworms (Aspiculuris tetraptera) recovered from the intestine (p < 0...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773326/tremelimumab-combined-with-durvalumab-in-patients-with-mesothelioma-nibit-meso-1-an-open-label-non-randomised-phase-2-study
#20
Luana Calabrò, Aldo Morra, Diana Giannarelli, Giovanni Amato, Armida D'Incecco, Alessia Covre, Arthur Lewis, Marlon C Rebelatto, Riccardo Danielli, Maresa Altomonte, Anna Maria Di Giacomo, Michele Maio
BACKGROUND: Tremelimumab, an anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody, initially showed good activity when used alone in patients with mesothelioma, but did not improve the overall survival of patients who failed on first-line or second-line chemotherapy compared with placebo in the DETERMINE study. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of first-line or second-line tremelimumab combined with durvalumab, an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, in patients with malignant mesothelioma. METHODS: In this open-label, non-randomised, phase 2 trial, patients with unresectable pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma received intravenous tremelimumab (1 mg/kg bodyweight) and durvalumab (20 mg/kg bodyweight) every 4 weeks for four doses, followed by maintenance intravenous durvalumab at the same dose and schedule for nine doses...
May 14, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
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