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Epidemiology of cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474521/ethnic-differences-in-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-may-contribute-to-prostate-cancer-health-disparity
#1
Bethtrice Elliott, DeAdra L Zackery, Vanessa A Eaton, Re'Josef T Jones, Fisseha Abebe, Camille C Ragin, Shafiq A Khan
Epidemiological studies show that the incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer (PCa) are significantly higher in African-American (AA) men when compared to Caucasian (CA) men in the US. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway is linked to health disparities in African-Americans. Recent studies suggest a role of TGFβ3 in cancer metastases and its effect on the migratory and invasive behavior; however, its role in prostate cancer in African American men has not been studied. We determined the circulating levels of TGFβ3 in AA and CA men diagnosed with PCa using ELISA...
February 21, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474454/the-impact-of-poverty-reduction-and-development-interventions-on-non-communicable-diseases-and-their-behavioural-risk-factors-in-low-and-lower-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#2
Jessie Pullar, Luke Allen, Nick Townsend, Julianne Williams, Charlie Foster, Nia Roberts, Mike Rayner, Bente Mikkelsen, Francesco Branca, Kremlin Wickramasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) disproportionately affect low- and lower-middle income countries (LLMICs) where 80% of global NCD related deaths occur. LLMICs are the primary focus of interventions to address development and poverty indicators. We aimed to synthesise the evidence of these interventions' impact on the four primary NCDs (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease and cancer) and their common behavioural risk factors (unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol use)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473333/risk-factors-and-survival-outcomes-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-and-lung-metastasis-a-population-based-study
#3
Weikai Xiao, Shaoquan Zheng, Peng Liu, Yutian Zou, Xinhua Xie, Ping Yu, Hailin Tang, Xiaoming Xie
The risk factors for morbidity and mortality in breast cancer lung metastases (BCLM) patients still remain poorly identified. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and survival of BCLM and associated risk factors. Patients with BCLM were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for BCLM. Predictors of factors associated with death were analyzed in Cox regression and Fine and Gray's test...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472838/cancer-imprints-an-increased-parp-1-and-p53-dependent-resistance-to-oxidative-stress-on-lymphocytes-of-patients-that-later-develop-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Felipe Salech, Daniela P Ponce, Carol D SanMartín, Nicole K Rogers, Mauricio Henríquez, Maria I Behrens
We have proposed that a common biological mechanism deregulated in opposite directions might explain the inverse epidemiological association observed between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. Accordingly, we showed that lymphocytes from AD patients have an increased susceptibility, whereas those from survivors of a skin cancer, an increased resistance to oxidative death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), compared to healthy controls (HC). We investigated the susceptibility to H2 O2 -induced death of lymphocytes in survivors of any type of cancer and in cancer survivors who later developed AD (Ca&AD)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471575/-breast-cancer-diagnostics-and-therapy-the-most-important-facts-for-internists
#5
Ulrich Hamann, Christine Ankel
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  After reviewing this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the epidemiology of breast cancer, its incidence and impact. 2. Appreciate the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. 3. Understand the concept of comprehensive breast cancer management and its multidisciplinarity. 4. Be knowledgeable about the entire process required to manage breast cancer, since the early diagnosis until the management of non breast related conditions derived from the treatment...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471327/alachlor-use-and-cancer-incidence-in-the-agricultural-health-study-an-updated-analysis
#6
Catherine C Lerro, Gabriella Andreotti, Stella Koutros, Won Jin Lee, Jonathan N Hofmann, Dale P Sandler, Christine G Parks, Aaron Blair, Jay H Lubin, Laura E Beane Freeman
Background: The herbicide alachlor has been widely used in US agriculture since its introduction in 1969. Experimental animal studies show that alachlor causes tumors in vivo; however, few epidemiologic studies have examined associations with human cancer risk. We evaluated alachlor use and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, updating an earlier analysis that suggested associations with lymphohematopoietic cancers with an additional 540 142 person-years of follow-up and 5113 cancer cases...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470233/can-a-nomogram-help-to-predict-the-overall-and-cancer-specific-survival-of-patients-with-chondrosarcoma
#7
Kehan Song, Xiao Shi, Hongli Wang, Fei Zou, Feizhou Lu, Xiaosheng Ma, Xinlei Xia, Jianyuan Jiang
BACKGROUND: Many factors have been reported to be associated with the prognosis of patients with chondrosarcoma, but clinicians have few tools to estimate precisely an individual patient's likelihood of surviving the illness. We therefore sought to develop effective nomograms to better estimate the survival of patients with chondrosarcoma. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Which clinicopathologic features are independent prognostic factors for patients with chondrosarcoma? (2) Can we develop a nomogram to predict 3- and 5-year overall and cancer-specific survival of individual patients with chondrosarcoma based on personalized information? METHODS: We collected information on patients diagnosed with chondrosarcoma between 1988 and 2011 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469459/-a-sero-epidemiological-survey-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infections-in-high-risk-populations-in-hangzhou-city
#8
Xu Ru-Jin, Xia Jian-Ping, Huang Jian-Feng, Qian Chun-Yan
OBJECTIVE: To understand the status of Toxoplasma gondii infections and the awareness of toxoplasmosis prevention and control knowledge among high-risk populations in Hangzhou City. METHODS: The serum anti- T. gondii antibodies were detected in 100 HIV/AIDS patients, 100 cancer patients, 100 pregnant women and 100 healthy controls, and the awareness of toxoplasmosis prevention and control knowledge was investigated using a questionnaire. RESULTS: The sero-prevalence of T...
December 21, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469047/racial-ethnic-and-age-disparities-in-incidence-and-survival-of-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-in-the-united-states-1995-2014
#9
Samuel O Antwi, Omar Y Mousa, Tushar Patel
INTRODUCTION: Despite reports of increased incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) in the United States, the impact of age or influences of race and ethnicity are not clear. Disparities in iCCA outcomes across various population subgroups also are not readily recognized due to the rarity of this cancer. We examined ethnic, race, age, and gender variations in iCCA incidence and survival using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (1995-2014). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed age-adjusted incidence rates, average annual percentage change in incidence, and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause and iCCA-specific mortality...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468821/urinary-metabolomics-profiles-associated-to-bovine-meat-ingestion-in-humans
#10
Nadezda V Khodorova, Douglas N Rutledge, Marion Oberli, David Mathiron, Paulo Marcelo, Robert Benamouzig, Daniel Tomé, Claire Gaudichon, Serge Pilard
SCOPE: The impact of meat consumption on human health is widely examined in nutritional epidemiological studies, especially due to the connexion between the consumption of red and processed meat and the risk of colon cancer. Food questionnaires do not assess the exposure to different methods of meat cooking. This study aimed to identify biomarkers of the acute ingestion of bovine meat cooked with 2 different processes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Non-targeted UPLC-MS metabolite profiling was done on urine samples obtained from 24 healthy volunteers before and 8h after the ingestion of a single meal composed of intrinsically15 N labelled bovine meat, either cooked at 55 °C for 5 min or at 90 °C for 30 min...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468556/what-is-the-minimum-number-of-examined-lymph-nodes-after-neoadjuvant-therapy-in-rectal-cancer
#11
Peng Gao, Yongxi Song, Yuchong Yang, Shan Zhao, Yu Sun, Jingxu Sun, Xiaowan Chen, Zhenning Wang
BACKGROUND: To date, no guidelines have standardized the number of examined lymph nodes (eLNs) after neoadjuvant treatment. This study investigated the minimum number of eLNs required for patients with rectal cancer (RC) who received neoadjuvant treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was based on data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare-linked database. We included 2173 patients with RC who received neoadjuvant therapy. Restricted cubic spline was used to analyze the association between eLNs and lymph node metastasis (LNM)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468279/-epidemiology-of-penile-cancer
#12
REVIEW
C Colberg, C van der Horst, K-P Jünemann, C M Naumann
BACKGROUND: Penile cancer represents a rarity in daily clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to identify global differences concerning the incidence, social and risk factors. METHODS: The past and current epidemiologic literature is analyzed concerning incidence rates and risk factors. The latter are discussed concerning their potential with regard to disease prevention. RESULTS: Globally, incidence rates of penile cancer range from low to nonexistent...
February 21, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467955/milk-dairy-products-consumption-and-gastric-cancer-an-update-meta-analysis-of-epidemiological-studies
#13
Shuai Wang, Mi Zhou, Alin Ji, Dahong Zhang, Jinjing He
The relationship between dairy consumption and gastric cancer risk has not been well studied. We therefore performed a update meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship. Published cohort and case-control studies were identified via computer searches and reviewing the reference lists of the key articles. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool effects from 5 cohort and 29 case-control studies. The odds ratio for the overall association between dairy consumption and gastric cancer was 1.20 (95%confidence interval: 1...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467583/bone-metastasis-pattern-in-initial-metastatic-breast-cancer-a-population-based-study
#14
Zhenchong Xiong, Guangzheng Deng, Xinjian Huang, Xing Li, Xinhua Xie, Jin Wang, Zeyu Shuang, Xi Wang
Purpose: Bone is one of the most common sites of breast cancer metastasis, and population-based studies of patients with bone metastasis in initial metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are lacking. Materials and methods: From 2010 to 2013, 245,707 breast cancer patients and 8901 patients diagnosed with initial bone metastasis were identified by Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of the National Cancer Institute. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression were used to identify predictive factors for the presence of bone metastasis and prognosis factors...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467567/acculturation-mental-health-and-quality-of-life-among-hispanic-childhood-cancer-survivors-a-latent-class-analysis
#15
Jessica Tobin, Kimberly A Miller, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Jennifer B Unger, Ann S Hamilton, Joel E Milam
Objective: Acculturation appears to be an important aspect of the association between ethnicity and disease, but it has not been explored in depth among childhood cancer survivors (CCS). The purpose of our study was to identify distinct acculturative profiles among Hispanic CCS and to assess differences in quality of life and depressive symptoms. Design: Latent class analysis was used to identify distinct acculturative profiles using 9 indicator items reflecting Hispanic and Anglo cultural orientation...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467476/a-simple-3-parameter-model-for-cancer-incidences
#16
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Holger Fröhlich, Dima Grigoriev, Sergey Vakulenko, Jörg Zimmermann, Andreas Günter Weber
We propose a simple 3-parameter model that provides very good fits for incidence curves of 18 common solid cancers even when variations due to different locations, races, or periods are taken into account. From a data perspective, we use model selection (Akaike information criterion) to show that this model, which is based on the Weibull distribution, outperforms other simple models like the Gamma distribution. From a modeling perspective, the Weibull distribution can be justified as modeling the accumulation of driver events, which establishes a link to stem cell division based cancer development models and a connection to a recursion formula for intrinsic cancer risk published by Wu et al...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466973/occurrence-of-colorectal-aberrant-crypt-foci-depending-on-age-and-dietary-patterns-of-patients
#17
Marek Kowalczyk, Marcin Orłowski, Piotr Siermontowski, Dariusz Mucha, Krzysztof Zinkiewicz, Waldemar Kurpiewski, Ewa Zieliński, Iwona Kowalczyk, Agnieszka Pedrycz
BACKGROUND: Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are commonly considered the early pre-cancerous lesions that can progress to colorectal cancer (CRC). The available literature data reveal that age, dietary factors and lifestyle can affect the development of several dozen percentages of malignant tumours, including CRC. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess the incidence and growth dynamics of ACF and to determine whether the type of diet affected the development and number of AFC. METHODS: Colonoscopy combined with rectal mucosa staining with 0...
February 21, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465766/segmentectomy-versus-lobectomy-in-early-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-of-2-cm-or-less-in-size-a-population-based-study
#18
Mi Hyoung Moon, Young Kyu Moon, Seok Whan Moon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Standard surgical management for early stage lung cancer is lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection. The feasibility of limited resection remains controversial; we retrospectively assessed lung cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to evaluate whether segmentectomy is comparable to standard lobectomy. METHODS: Patients with primary NSCLC of 20 mm or less who were diagnosed from 2000 to 2014 were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database...
February 21, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465545/metformin-reduces-the-risk-of-cancer-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-an-analysis-based-on-the-korean-national-diabetes-program-cohort
#19
Hae Jin Kim, SooJin Lee, Ki Hong Chun, Ja Young Jeon, Seung Jin Han, Dae Jung Kim, Young Seol Kim, Jeong-Taek Woo, Moon-Suk Nam, Sei Hyun Baik, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Kwan Woo Lee
The epidemiological literature suggests that insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and increased levels of insulin-like growth factors place patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at greater risk of cancer. The association between cancer incidence and the use of antidiabetic medications in patients with T2DM has been recently examined. There have been conflicting reports regarding an association between metformin and cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between metformin use and the incidence of cancer in Koreans with T2DM...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465427/dihydrotestosterone-and-cancer-risk
#20
Yi X Chan, Bu B Yeap
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Androgens have been implicated in prostate growth; however, the role of androgens in prostate cancer development is not clear. Furthermore, studies suggest a role for androgens in female-hormone-dependent cancers and common nonhormone dependent cancers. This study aims to review key studies and more recent studies of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological studies are reassuring as they have not associated endogenous androgens with prostate cancer risk...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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