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Epidemiology of cancer

Miao Liu, Ling Zhou, Baiyu Zhang, Minhong He, Xiaoying Dong, Xiaojun Lin, Chunhong Jia, Xiaochun Bai, Yifan Dai, Yongchun Su, Zhipeng Zou, Hang Zheng
Although epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown the preventative effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colorectal cancer (CRC), the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we revealed that elevation of n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio suppress the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and prevent colorectal tumorigenesis. The transgenic expression of fat-1, a desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs and produces n-3 PUFAs endogenously, repressed colorectal tumor cell growth and remarkably reduced tumor burden, and alleviated anemia as well as hyperlipidemia in APCMin/+ (adenomatous polyposis coli) mice, a classic CRC model that best simulates most clinical cases...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Chao Wu, Ping Chen, Jian-Jun Qian, Sheng-Jie Jin, Jie Yao, Xiao-Dong Wang, Dou-Sheng Bai, Guo-Qing Jiang
Marital status has been reported as an independent prognostic factor for survival in various cancers, but it has been rarely studied in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by surgical resection. We retrospectively investigated Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data and identified 13,408 cases of HCC with surgical treatment between 1998 and 2013. The patients were categorized according to marital status, as "married," "never married," "widowed," or "divorced/separated." The 5-year HCC cause-specific survival (HCSS) data were obtained, and Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariate Cox regression models were used to ascertain whether marital status is also an independent prognostic factor for survival in HCC...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Marian L Neuhouser, Ashley Wilder Smith, Stephanie M George, James T Gibson, Kathy B Baumgartner, Richard Baumgartner, Catherine Duggan, Leslie Bernstein, Anne McTiernan, Rachel Ballard
PURPOSE: Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common among breast cancer patients, but less is known about whether CAM influences breast cancer survival. METHODS: Health Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study participants (n = 707) were diagnosed with stage I-IIIA breast cancer. Participants completed a 30-month post-diagnosis interview including questions on CAM use (natural products such as dietary and botanical supplements, alternative health practices, and alternative medical systems), weight, physical activity, and comorbidities...
October 21, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
David Jarrard, Badrinath Konety, Wei Huang, Tracy Downs, Jill Kolesar, Kyung Mann Kim, Tom Havighurst, Joel Slaton, Margaret G House, Howard L Parnes, Howard H Bailey
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer (PCa) represents an important target for chemoprevention given its prolonged natural history and high prevalence. Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that vitamin D and genistein (soy isoflavone) may decrease PCa progression. The effect of vitamin D on prostate epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation is well documented and genistein may augment this affect through inhibition of the CYP24 enzyme, which is responsible for intracellular vitamin D metabolism...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Andrew R Marley, Hongmei Nan
Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics
Jiaan-Der Wang
As life expectancy greatly increases in persons with hemophilia (PWH), more age-related diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) emerge among this patient group. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence on the epidemiology of CVD events, and incidence and survival of cancer in PWH. The prevalence of CVD events among PWH seems to be similar to that of the general population. Some known risk factors for the event, including aging, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, are also associated with its occurrence in PWH...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
H N Lynch, C T Loftus, J M Cohen, L E Kerper, E M Kennedy, J E Goodman
Research suggests that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) may be associated with lung cancer; however, no mode of action (MoA) for this has been established. We applied a weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to evaluate recent evidence from four realms of research (controlled human exposure, epidemiology, animal, and in vitro) to determine whether the overall evidence supports one or more MoAs by which PM could cause lung cancer. We evaluated three general MoAs: DNA damage and repair; other genotoxic effects, including mutagenicity and clastogenicity; and gene expression, protein expression, and DNA methylation...
October 17, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Nicola Stefano Fracchiolla, Claudio Annaloro, Francesca Guidotti, Bruno Fattizzo, Agostino Cortelezzi
Dioxin exposure and its effect on hematopoiesis and cancer have been largely investigated in both human and non-human settings. Here we systematically reviewed literature to address the question of what we know about TCDD biology and exposure. Most effects are due to TCDD interaction with a receptor of xenobiotics called AHR, which is ubiquitously represented and also works on hematopoietic myeloid and lymphoid stem cells, inducing proliferation and stem cell release from bone marrow to peripheral circulation...
October 17, 2016: Toxicology
Rosamaria Lappano, Roberta Malaguarnera, Antonino Belfiore, Marcello Maggiolini
Certain environmental chemicals may accumulate in human serum and tissues eliciting estrogenic and/or carcinogenic effects. Therefore, there is heightened interest in determining whether environmental chemicals may increase the risk for endocrine-related tumors like breast cancer. For instance, metals as cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, nickel and aluminum have been shown to mimic estrogen action. Moreover, the exposure to these chemicals has been reported to stimulate diverse malignancies including breast cancer, which is the most common tumor in women worldwide...
October 17, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
B Franko, P Fournier, T Jouve, P Malvezzi, I Pelloux, J P Brion, P Pavese
OBJECTIVE: Lactobacillus bacteremia is a rare event and its epidemiology is poorly known. Whether Lactobacillus bacteremia is a contaminant, a risk factor, or a risk marker of death remains an open question. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients presenting with Lactobacillus bacteremia (LB), between January 2005 and December 2014, at the Grenoble University Hospital. RESULTS: LB was observed in 38 patients (0...
October 17, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
David G Cox, Elsa Curtit, Gilles Romieu, Pierre Fumoleau, Maria Rios, Hervé Bonnefoi, Thomas Bachelot, Patrick Soulié, Christelle Jouannaud, Hugues Bourgeois, Thierry Petit, Isabelle Tennevet, David Assouline, Marie-Christine Mathieu, Jean-Philippe Jacquin, Sandrine Lavau-Denes, Ariane Darut-Jouve, Jean-Marc Ferrero, Carole Tarpin, Christelle Lévy, Valérie Delecroix, Véronique Trillet-Lenoir, Oana Cojocarasu, Jérôme Meunier, Jean-Yves Pierga, Céline Faure-Mercier, Hélène Blanché, Mourad Sahbatou, Anne Boland, Delphine Bacq, Céline Besse, Jean-François Deleuze, Iris Pauporté, Gilles Thomas, Xavier Pivot
Genetic polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk. Clinical and epidemiological observations suggest that clinical characteristics of breast cancer, such as estrogen receptor or HER2 status, are also influenced by hereditary factors. To identify genetic variants associated with pathological characteristics of breast cancer patients, a Genome Wide Association Study was performed in a cohort of 9365 women from the French nationwide SIGNAL/PHARE studies (NCT00381901/RECF1098). Strong association between the FGFR2 locus and ER status of breast cancer patients was observed (ER-positive n=6211, ER-negative n=2516; rs3135718 OR=1...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Sonia Menon, Aibibula Wusiman, Marie Claude Boily, Mbabazi Kariisa, Hillary Mabeya, Stanley Luchters, Frode Forland, Rodolfo Rossi, Steven Callens, Davy Vanden Broeck
BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data on the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the HIV positive population and in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Kenya. This may be different from genotypes found in abnormal cytology. Yet, with the advent of preventive HPV vaccines that target HPV 16 and 18, and the nonavalent vaccine targeting 90% of all ICC cases, such HPV genotype distribution data are indispensable for predicting the impact of vaccination and HPV screening on prevention...
2016: PloS One
David A Siegel, Reda Wilson, Edward J Wilkinson, Julia W Gargano, Meg Watson, Brenda Y Hernandez, Marc T Goodman, Charles F Lynch, Elizabeth R Unger, Mona Saraiya
CONTEXT: -Knowing the subtype of vulvar cancer histology is important for estimating human papillomavirus-related cancer etiology. Surveillance of human papillomavirus-related vulvar cancers informs public health decisions related to vaccination against human papillomavirus. OBJECTIVE: -To assess the accuracy of registry classifications of vulvar cancer and determine the histologic classification of cases reported as not otherwise specified. DESIGN: -Pathology specimens were collected from Florida, Iowa, and Hawaii cancer registries...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Nilton Lavatori Correa, Lidia Vasconcellos de Sá, Rossana Corbo
: An increase in the incidence of second primary cancers (SPC) is the late effect of greatest concern that could occur in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI). The decision to treat a patient with RAI should therefore incorporate a careful risk-benefit analysis. The objective of this work is to adapt the risk estimation models developed by the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Committee (BEIR VII) to local epidemiological characteristics, to assess the carcinogenesis risk from radiation in a population of Brazilian DTC patients treated with RAI...
October 20, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Y Wang, H Y He
Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology, clinicopathological features and prognosis in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients. Methods: All archival 368 UTUC cases that underwent radical nephroureterectomy between September 1999 and October 2014 were reviewed, and their clinicopathological features were analyzed. Follow-up time was 1-216 months, with a mean follow-up of 41 month. Results: One hundred and twenty-eight male and 240 female patients were included, with a mean age of 68 years ranging from 31 to 88 years...
October 8, 2016: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Sarah A Weiss, Joseph Han, Farbod Darvishian, Jeremy Tchack, Sung Won Han, Karolina Malecek, Michelle Krogsgaard, Iman Osman, Judy Zhong
BACKGROUND: Age has been reported as an independent prognostic factor for melanoma-specific survival (MSS). We tested the hypothesis that age impacts the host anti-tumor immune response, accounting for age-specific survival outcomes in three unique melanoma patient cohorts. METHODS: We queried the U.S. population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER), the prospective tertiary care hospital-based Interdisciplinary Melanoma Cooperative Group (IMCG) biorepository, and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) biospecimen database to test the association of patient age at time of melanoma diagnosis with clinicopathologic features and survival outcomes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Jianfei Fu, Lunpo Wu, Mengjie Jiang, Dan Li, Ting Jiang, Zhongwu Hong, Fan Wang, Shuguang Li
BACKGROUND: The features related to the prognosis of patients with mucinous breast cancer (MBC) remain controversial. We aimed to explore the prognostic factors of MBC and develop a nomogram for predicting survival outcomes. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was searched to identify 139611 women with resectable breast cancer from 1990 to 2007. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier methods. The 5-year and 10-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates were calculated using the Life-Table method...
2016: PloS One
Tianyi Wang, Hui Cai, Shizuka Sasazuki, Shoichiro Tsugane, Wei Zheng, Eo Rin Cho, Sun Ha Jee, Angelika Michel, Michael Pawlita, Yong-Bing Xiang, Yu-Tang Gao, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei-Cheng You, Meira Epplein
Epidemiological findings on the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and gastric cancer risk remain inconsistent. The present analysis included 810 prospectively ascertained non-cardia gastric cancer cases and 1,160 matched controls from the Helicobacter pylori Biomarker Cohort Consortium, which collected blood samples, demographic, lifestyle, and dietary data at baseline. Conditional logistic regression adjusting for total energy intake, smoking, and H. pylori status, was applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for gastric cancer risk across cohort- and sex-specific quartiles of fruit and vegetable intake...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Samara Ribeiro da Silva, Yara Juliano, Neil Ferreira Novo, Ilan Weinfeld
Objective: To evaluate and compare the knowledge of dental undergraduate students about oral cancer. Methods: The students were divided into two groups according to semester attended in the undergraduate course: Group A, the first semester; and Group B, seventh semester. They were asked to answer a questionnaire about epidemiology, risk factors, clinical aspects, therapeutic solutions and oral self-examination. For statistical analysis, the Fisher's exact test, the Cochran's G test and Kendall's concordance test were used, with significance level set at 0...
July 2016: Einstein
Pedro Nazareth Aguiar, Gustavo Trautman Stock, Gilberto de Lima Lopes, Michelle Samora de Almeida, Hakaru Tadokoro, Bárbara de Souza Gutierres, Douglas Antônio Rodrigues
Objective: To assess aspects related to cancer in indigenous population. Methods: This is a retrospective study developed in a public university hospital. We included patients with 18 or more years of age, diagnosed with solid tumors, and followed between 2005 and 2015. Clinical features were assessed by descriptive statistics, and survival was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression. Results: Fifty patients were included...
July 2016: Einstein
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