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interstitial nucleus of cajal

Ji-Hong Chen
Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) is characterized by low to very low amplitude propulsive contractions in the distal esophagus, hence primarily affecting the smooth muscle part of the esophagus. IEM is often found in patients with dysphagia or heartburn and is commonly associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. IEM is assumed to be associated with ineffective bolus transport; however, this can be verified using impedance measurements or evaluation of a barium coated marshmallow swallow. Furthermore, water swallows may not assess accurately the motor capabilities of the esophagus, since contraction amplitude is strongly determined by the size and consistency of the bolus...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Christopher Adamczyk, Michael Strupp, Klaus Jahn, Anja K E Horn
Eye movements are generated by different premotor pathways. Damage to them can cause specific deficits of eye movements, such as saccades. For correlative clinico-anatomical post-mortem studies of cases with eye movement disorders it is essential to identify the functional cell groups of the oculomotor system in the human brain by marker proteins. Based on monkey studies, the premotor neurons of the saccadic system can be identified by the histochemical markers parvalbumin (PAV) and perineuronal nets in humans...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Sun-Young Oh, Hyo-Jeong Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are short latency manifestations of vestibulo-ocular and vestibulocollic reflexes that originate from the utricle and saccule. Although cervical and ocular VEMPs have mostly been applied to peripheral vestibular disorders, the characteristics and the diagnostic values of VEMPs have been expanded to assess the function of the central otolithic pathways. In the central nervous system, the cervical VEMPs (cVEMPs) are mediated by the vestibular nuclei and uncrossed medial vestibulospinal tract descending in the lower brainstem and spinal cord...
February 2016: Journal of Neurology
Mingzheng Xie, Qinghui Qi
OBJECTIVE: To observe the apoptosis of interstitial cells of Cajal in deep muscular layer (ICC-DMP) of small intestine in rats with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) as a result of bacterial peritonitis, and the expression of c-kit (an ICC phenotype marker) and Bax/Bcl-2, in order to investigate the mechanism of gastrointestinal motility dysfunction in MODS. METHODS: According to the random number table, 40 Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=20) and MODS group (n=20)...
June 2015: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Ann M Sagstetter, Jon J Camp, Matthew S Lurken, Joseph H Szurszewski, Gianrico Farrugia, Simon J Gibbons, Richard A Robb
Normal function of the gastrointestinal tract involves the coordinated activity of several cell types Human disorders of motor function of the gastrointestinal tract are often associated with changes in the number of these cells. For example, in diabetic patients, abnormalities in gastrointestinal transit are associated with changes in nerves and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), two key cells that generate and regulate motility. ICC are cells of mesenchymal origin that function as pacemakers and amplify neuronal signals in the gastrointestinal tract...
March 29, 2007: Proceedings—Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
M Strupp, O Kremmyda, C Adamczyk, N Böttcher, C Muth, C W Yip, T Bremova
An impairment of eye movements, or nystagmus, is seen in many diseases of the central nervous system, in particular those affecting the brainstem and cerebellum, as well as in those of the vestibular system. The key to diagnosis is a systematic clinical examination of the different types of eye movements, including: eye position, range of eye movements, smooth pursuit, saccades, gaze-holding function and optokinetic nystagmus, as well as testing for the different types of nystagmus (e.g., central fixation nystagmus or peripheral vestibular nystagmus)...
September 2014: Journal of Neurology
Tae-Ho Yang, Sun-Young Oh, Kichang Kwak, Jong-Min Lee, Byoung-Soo Shin, Seul-Ki Jeong
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the topology of anatomical pathways for verticality perception in the brainstem. METHODS: We measured the subjective visual vertical (SVV) in 82 patients with acute unilateral infarction of the brainstem alone. The topology of the brainstem lesions responsible for pathologic SVV tilt were determined using MRI-based voxel-wise lesion-behavior mapping, from which probabilistic lesion maps were constructed. RESULTS: Fifty percent of patients (41/82) with acute unilateral brainstem infarcts had abnormal SVV tilt, of which 76% (31/41) had ipsiversive tilt and 24% (10/41) had contraversive tilt...
June 3, 2014: Neurology
Radu-Alexandru Prişcă, Andrada Loghin, Horea-Gheorghe Gozar, Cosmin Moldovan, Tekla Moso, Zoltan Derzsi, Angela Borda
OBJECTIVE: The mechanism by which the ureter propels urine towards the bladder has a myogenic origin, through peristaltic contractions. This pyeloureteral autorhythmicity is generated by specialized, electrically active cells, the interstitial cells of Cajal, located in the proximal regions of the upper urinary tract. The aim of this study was to describe the exact location and the distribution of interstitial Cajal cells in the human upper urinary tract and to analyze their normal number and morphology...
2014: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
Roberto Bassani, Stefania Bianchi Marzoli
A 43-year-old woman experienced a worsening of her usual headache. As a right hemifacial hypoesthesia had appeared, the patient underwent a brain MRI that revealed a giant cavernoma localized at the left meso-diencephalic region (figure, A and B). After the operation, an involuntary ocular oscillation known as see-saw nystagmus developed (video on the Neurology® Web site at See-saw nystagmus consists of alternating phases of intorsion of the elevating eye and extorsion of the descending eye...
November 19, 2013: Neurology
Aasef G Shaikh
Torsional nystagmus was noted in a patient with hypothalamic hamartoma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an exophytic hypothalamic mass extending into the pre-pontine cistern and abutting ventral mesencephalon. The quickphase of the torsional nystagmus was directed towards the left side, ipsilateral to the side of compression by the hamartoma. Ipsi-lesionally directed pure torsional nystagmus in this case is attributed to the compressive lesion of ocular motor structures responsible for the neural integration of torsional and vertical eye movements, the interstitial nucleus of Cajal...
December 2013: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Yujiro Hayashi, David T Asuzu, Simon J Gibbons, Kirsten H Aarsvold, Michael R Bardsley, Gwen A Lomberk, Angela J Mathison, Michael L Kendrick, K Robert Shen, Takahiro Taguchi, Anu Gupta, Brian P Rubin, Jonathan A Fletcher, Gianrico Farrugia, Raul A Urrutia, Tamas Ordog
Stem cell factor (mouse: Kitl, human: KITLG) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), acting via KIT and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), respectively, are critical for the development and integrity of several tissues. Autocrine/paracrine KITLG-KIT and IGF1-IGF1R signaling are also activated in several cancers including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), the most common sarcoma. In murine gastric muscles, IGF1 promotes Kitl-dependent development of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), the non-neoplastic counterpart of GIST, suggesting cooperation between these pathways...
2013: PloS One
Tomás Castiella, Guillermo Muñoz, María José Luesma, Sonia Santander, Mario Soriano, Concepción Junquera
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal (non-epithelial) neoplasms of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. They are thought to derive from interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) or an ICC progenitor based on immunophenotypical and ultrastructural similarities. Because ICCs show primary cilium, our hypothesis is based on the possibility that some of these neoplastic cells could also present it. To determine this, an exhaustive ultrastructural study has been developed on four gastric GISTs...
July 2013: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Y Sugiuchi, M Takahashi, Y Shinoda
Neurons in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) that are known to be involved in eye and head movements are excitatory. We investigated the input-output organization of inhibitory INC neurons involved in controlling vertical saccades. Intracellular recordings were made in INC neurons activated antidromically by stimulation of the contralateral trochlear or oculomotor nucleus, and their synaptic input properties from the superior colliculi (SCs) and the contralateral INC were analyzed in anesthetized cats...
August 2013: Journal of Neurophysiology
Maria-Simonetta Faussone-Pellegrini, Camillo Cortesini, Paolo Romagnoli
The muscle coat of the human lower oesophageal sphincter and stomach was studied 5 cm above and 4 cm below the gastro-oesophageal junction. Four subjects were operated on for motility disorders of the esophagus, two for a hypertensive lower oesophageal sphincter and two for an epiphrenic diverticulum; six subjects were operated on for oesophageal or gastric carcinomas. Specimens were fixed in phosphate-buffered OsO4, embedded in Epon, contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and observed under a Siemens Elmiskop Ia electron microscope...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroscience
S T Eisenman, S J Gibbons, R D Singh, C E Bernard, J Wu, M G Sarr, M L Kendrick, D W Larson, E J Dozois, K R Shen, G Farrugia
Identification of markers of enteric neurons has contributed substantially to our understanding of the development, normal physiology, and pathology of the gut. Previously identified markers of the enteric nervous system can be used to label all or most neuronal structures or for examining individual cells by labeling just the nucleus or cell body. Most of these markers are excellent but have some limitations. Transmembrane protein 100 (TMEM100) is a gene at locus 17q32 encoding a 134-amino acid protein with two hypothetical transmembrane domains...
June 14, 2013: Neuroscience
Bernhard Baier, Frank Thömke, Janine Wilting, Caroline Heinze, Christian Geber, Marianne Dieterich
The perceived subjective visual vertical (SVV) is an important sign of a vestibular otolith tone imbalance in the roll plane. Previous studies suggested that unilateral pontomedullary brainstem lesions cause ipsiversive roll-tilt of SVV, whereas pontomesencephalic lesions cause contraversive roll-tilts of SVV. However, previous data were of limited quality and lacked a statistical approach. We therefore tested roll-tilt of the SVV in 79 human patients with acute unilateral brainstem lesions due to stroke by applying modern statistical lesion-behavior mapping analysis...
October 24, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
P K Pandey, Anupam Singh, Barun Kumar, Shagun Sood, Sanjeev Kumar, Ekta Kumari, Meenakshi Chandel
Ocular tilt reaction, a type of skew deviation, and unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia with torsional nystagmus resulting from an ischemic event may result from unilateral disruption of otolithic pathways in the medial longitudinal fasciculus. A subset of skew deviations is known to simulate superior oblique palsy; however, none have been reported with a coexisting internuclear ophthalmoplegia. The present report documents the rare occurrence of an ocular tilt reaction simulating a left superior oblique palsy from involvement of left medial longitudinal fasciculus at the level of interstitial nucleus of Cajal...
October 2012: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
H Asahina, A Masuba, S Hirano, K Yuri
Protocadherin 9 (Pcdh9) is a member of the protocadherin family, which includes many members involved in various phenomena, such as cell-cell adhesion, neural projection, and synapse formation. Here, we identified Pcdh9 protein in the mouse brain and examined its distribution during neural development. Pcdh9, with a molecular weight of approximately 180 kDa, was localized at cell-cell contact sites in COS-1 cells transfected with Pcdh9 cDNA. In cultured neurons, it was detected at the growth cone and at adhesion sites along neurites...
December 6, 2012: Neuroscience
Farshad Farshadmanesh, Patrick Byrne, Hongying Wang, Brian D Corneil, J Douglas Crawford
The relationship between neck muscle electromyography (EMG) and torsional head rotation (about the nasooccipital axis) is difficult to assess during normal gaze behaviors with the head upright. Here, we induced acute head tilts similar to cervical dystonia (torticollis) in two monkeys by electrically stimulating 20 interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) sites or inactivating 19 INC sites by injection of muscimol. Animals engaged in a simple gaze fixation task while we recorded three-dimensional head kinematics and intramuscular EMG from six bilateral neck muscle pairs...
December 2012: Journal of Neurophysiology
Hyung Lee, Hyon-Ah Yi, Hyun-Ah Kim
Impairment of gaze holding mechanism and gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN) in the vertical plane due to a focal brain lesion is usually caused by a failure of the vertical neural integrator, which is known to be localized in the interstitial nucleus of the Cajal in the upper midbrain. We report a patient with hemorrhagic stroke involving the paramedian pontine tegmentum who presented with vertical GEN due to a failure of vertical gaze holding mechanism and unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia. The possible structure taking a role as a vertical neural integrator in this patient might be the paramedian tract (PMT) neuron...
October 15, 2012: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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