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interstitial nucleus of cajal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135813/pendular-seesaw-nystagmus-in-a-patient-with-a-giant-pituitary-macroadenoma-pathophysiology-and-the-role-of-the-accessory-optic-system
#1
Peter Yat-Ming Woo, Saori Takemura, Allen Ming-Yan Cheong, Alberto Chi-Ho Chu, Yung Chan, Hoi-Tung Wong, Kwong-Yau Chan
Seesaw nystagmus is characterized by cyclic eye movements with a conjugate torsional component and a dissociated vertical component. In the first half of the cycle, one eye elevates and intorts, whereas the other eye depresses and extorts. The pattern is reversed in the remaining half of the cycle. We describe a patient with a giant pituitary adenoma who developed pendular seesaw nystagmus. Disturbance in the visuovestibular system is postulated to contribute to this form of seesaw nystagmus. Lesions compressing the optic chiasm and the accessory optic system could interrupt the transmission of retinal error signals to the inferior olivary nucleus and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, thus interfering with the adaptive mechanism of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and leading to pendular seesaw nystagmus...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966973/comparisons-of-neuronal-and-excitatory-network-properties-between-the-rat-brainstem-nuclei-that-participate-in-vertical-and-horizontal-gaze-holding
#2
Yasuhiko Saito, Taketoshi Sugimura, Yuchio Yanagawa
Gaze holding is primarily controlled by neural structures including the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN) for horizontal gaze and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) for vertical and torsional gaze. In contrast to the accumulating findings of the PHN, there is no report regarding the membrane properties of INC neurons or the local networks in the INC. In this study, to verify whether the neural structure of the INC is similar to that of the PHN, we investigated the neuronal and network properties of the INC using whole-cell recordings in rat brainstem slices...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808217/electromyography-and-fos-immunostaining-study-establish-a-possible-functional-link-between-trigeminal-proprioception-and-the-oculomotor-system-in-rats
#3
Houcheng Liang, Jingdong Zhang, Pifu Luo, Hongna Zhu, Ying Qiao, Anle Su, Ting Zhang
The objective of this study was to explore whether there was a functional link between trigeminal proprioception and the oculomotor system mediated through jaw muscle afferents. Electromyography (EMG) was undertaken of the levator palpebrae (LP) and superior rectus (SR), and Fos expression was detected in the brainstem following consecutive down-stretching of the lower jaw at 2-4 Hz in rats. Retrograde tracing was undertaken of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal and Darkschewitsch nucleus (INC/DN) pre-oculomotor neurons...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218416/physiology-of-midbrain-head-movement-neurons-in-cervical-dystonia
#4
Alexey Sedov, Valentin Popov, Vladimir Shabalov, Svetlana Raeva, H A Jinnah, Aasef G Shaikh
BACKGROUND: Early theories for cervical dystonia, as promoted by Hassler, emphasized the role of the midbrain interstitial nucleus of Cajal. Focus then shifted to the basal ganglia, and it was further supported with the success of deep brain stimulation. Contemporary theories suggested the role of the cerebellum, but even more recent hypotheses renewed interest in the midbrain. Although the pretectum was visited on several occasions, we still do not know about the physiology of midbrain neurons in cervical dystonia...
June 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000192/-experimental-study-of-bisacodyl-in-the-treatment-of-slow-transit-constipation-model-rats
#5
Jie Ling, Wenzhong Zhang, Bin Xu, Wei Qiu, Yongbing Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy and the mechanism of Bisacodyl in treating slow transit constipation model rats. METHODS: A total of 30 healthy rats were enrolled. Twenty rats received intragastric diphenoxylate to develop slow transit constipation (STC) model, and 10 untreated rats were set as blank control. STC rats were subdivided into two groups: STC Bisacodyl group (fed with Bisacodyl) and STC control group (common feed). Body weight, number and dry weight of faeces, and intestinal transit time were compared among 3 groups...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874249/role-of-neural-integrators-in-oculomotor-systems-a%C3%A2-systematic-narrative-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Katherine Sanchez, Fiona J Rowe
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of neural integrators (NI) in the oculomotor system. METHODS: A literature search was carried out using several electronic databases during the months of June 2014 to March 2015. The following keywords were used to generate focused results: 'neural integrators', 'gaze-holding', 'oculomotor integration', 'impaired gaze-holding', 'gaze evoked nystagmus' and 'gaze dysfunction'. Further materials were found through searching relevant articles within reference lists...
November 22, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703389/ineffective-esophageal-motility-and-the-vagus-current-challenges-and-future-prospects
#7
REVIEW
Ji-Hong Chen
Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) is characterized by low to very low amplitude propulsive contractions in the distal esophagus, hence primarily affecting the smooth muscle part of the esophagus. IEM is often found in patients with dysphagia or heartburn and is commonly associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease. IEM is assumed to be associated with ineffective bolus transport; however, this can be verified using impedance measurements or evaluation of a barium coated marshmallow swallow. Furthermore, water swallows may not assess accurately the motor capabilities of the esophagus, since contraction amplitude is strongly determined by the size and consistency of the bolus...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26696837/calretinin-as-a-marker-for-premotor-neurons-involved-in-upgaze-in-human-brainstem
#8
Christopher Adamczyk, Michael Strupp, Klaus Jahn, Anja K E Horn
Eye movements are generated by different premotor pathways. Damage to them can cause specific deficits of eye movements, such as saccades. For correlative clinico-anatomical post-mortem studies of cases with eye movement disorders it is essential to identify the functional cell groups of the oculomotor system in the human brain by marker proteins. Based on monkey studies, the premotor neurons of the saccadic system can be identified by the histochemical markers parvalbumin (PAV) and perineuronal nets in humans...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26239221/vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-in-central-vestibular-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Sun-Young Oh, Hyo-Jeong Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are short latency manifestations of vestibulo-ocular and vestibulocollic reflexes that originate from the utricle and saccule. Although cervical and ocular VEMPs have mostly been applied to peripheral vestibular disorders, the characteristics and the diagnostic values of VEMPs have been expanded to assess the function of the central otolithic pathways. In the central nervous system, the cervical VEMPs (cVEMPs) are mediated by the vestibular nuclei and uncrossed medial vestibulospinal tract descending in the lower brainstem and spinal cord...
February 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26049192/-apoptosis-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-deep-muscular-layer-of-small-intestine-in-rats-with-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome
#10
Mingzheng Xie, Qinghui Qi
OBJECTIVE: To observe the apoptosis of interstitial cells of Cajal in deep muscular layer (ICC-DMP) of small intestine in rats with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) as a result of bacterial peritonitis, and the expression of c-kit (an ICC phenotype marker) and Bax/Bcl-2, in order to investigate the mechanism of gastrointestinal motility dysfunction in MODS. METHODS: According to the random number table, 40 Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=20) and MODS group (n=20)...
June 2015: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25301986/computer-aided-classification-of-cell-nuclei-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-by-volume-and-principal-axis
#11
Ann M Sagstetter, Jon J Camp, Matthew S Lurken, Joseph H Szurszewski, Gianrico Farrugia, Simon J Gibbons, Richard A Robb
Normal function of the gastrointestinal tract involves the coordinated activity of several cell types Human disorders of motor function of the gastrointestinal tract are often associated with changes in the number of these cells. For example, in diabetic patients, abnormalities in gastrointestinal transit are associated with changes in nerves and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), two key cells that generate and regulate motility. ICC are cells of mesenchymal origin that function as pacemakers and amplify neuronal signals in the gastrointestinal tract...
March 29, 2007: Proceedings—Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25145891/central-ocular-motor-disorders-including-gaze-palsy-and-nystagmus
#12
REVIEW
M Strupp, O Kremmyda, C Adamczyk, N Böttcher, C Muth, C W Yip, T Bremova
An impairment of eye movements, or nystagmus, is seen in many diseases of the central nervous system, in particular those affecting the brainstem and cerebellum, as well as in those of the vestibular system. The key to diagnosis is a systematic clinical examination of the different types of eye movements, including: eye position, range of eye movements, smooth pursuit, saccades, gaze-holding function and optokinetic nystagmus, as well as testing for the different types of nystagmus (e.g., central fixation nystagmus or peripheral vestibular nystagmus)...
September 2014: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24793187/topology-of-brainstem-lesions-associated-with-subjective-visual-vertical-tilt
#13
Tae-Ho Yang, Sun-Young Oh, Kichang Kwak, Jong-Min Lee, Byoung-Soo Shin, Seul-Ki Jeong
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the topology of anatomical pathways for verticality perception in the brainstem. METHODS: We measured the subjective visual vertical (SVV) in 82 patients with acute unilateral infarction of the brainstem alone. The topology of the brainstem lesions responsible for pathologic SVV tilt were determined using MRI-based voxel-wise lesion-behavior mapping, from which probabilistic lesion maps were constructed. RESULTS: Fifty percent of patients (41/82) with acute unilateral brainstem infarcts had abnormal SVV tilt, of which 76% (31/41) had ipsiversive tilt and 24% (10/41) had contraversive tilt...
June 3, 2014: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24782298/morphological-aspects-and-distribution-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-human-upper-urinary-tract
#14
Radu-Alexandru Prişcă, Andrada Loghin, Horea-Gheorghe Gozar, Cosmin Moldovan, Tekla Moso, Zoltan Derzsi, Angela Borda
OBJECTIVE: The mechanism by which the ureter propels urine towards the bladder has a myogenic origin, through peristaltic contractions. This pyeloureteral autorhythmicity is generated by specialized, electrically active cells, the interstitial cells of Cajal, located in the proximal regions of the upper urinary tract. The aim of this study was to describe the exact location and the distribution of interstitial Cajal cells in the human upper urinary tract and to analyze their normal number and morphology...
2014: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24249795/teaching-video-neuroimages-see-saw-nystagmus
#15
Roberto Bassani, Stefania Bianchi Marzoli
A 43-year-old woman experienced a worsening of her usual headache. As a right hemifacial hypoesthesia had appeared, the patient underwent a brain MRI that revealed a giant cavernoma localized at the left meso-diencephalic region (figure, A and B). After the operation, an involuntary ocular oscillation known as see-saw nystagmus developed (video on the Neurology® Web site at www.neurology.org). See-saw nystagmus consists of alternating phases of intorsion of the elevating eye and extorsion of the descending eye...
November 19, 2013: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24169305/torsional-nystagmus-in-hypothalamic-hamartoma
#16
Aasef G Shaikh
Torsional nystagmus was noted in a patient with hypothalamic hamartoma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an exophytic hypothalamic mass extending into the pre-pontine cistern and abutting ventral mesencephalon. The quickphase of the torsional nystagmus was directed towards the left side, ipsilateral to the side of compression by the hamartoma. Ipsi-lesionally directed pure torsional nystagmus in this case is attributed to the compressive lesion of ocular motor structures responsible for the neural integration of torsional and vertical eye movements, the interstitial nucleus of Cajal...
December 2013: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24116170/membrane-to-nucleus-signaling-links-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-stem-cell-factor-activated-pathways
#17
Yujiro Hayashi, David T Asuzu, Simon J Gibbons, Kirsten H Aarsvold, Michael R Bardsley, Gwen A Lomberk, Angela J Mathison, Michael L Kendrick, K Robert Shen, Takahiro Taguchi, Anu Gupta, Brian P Rubin, Jonathan A Fletcher, Gianrico Farrugia, Raul A Urrutia, Tamas Ordog
Stem cell factor (mouse: Kitl, human: KITLG) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), acting via KIT and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), respectively, are critical for the development and integrity of several tissues. Autocrine/paracrine KITLG-KIT and IGF1-IGF1R signaling are also activated in several cancers including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), the most common sarcoma. In murine gastric muscles, IGF1 promotes Kitl-dependent development of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), the non-neoplastic counterpart of GIST, suggesting cooperation between these pathways...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23672577/primary-cilia-in-gastric-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumours-gists-an-ultrastructural-study
#18
Tomás Castiella, Guillermo Muñoz, María José Luesma, Sonia Santander, Mario Soriano, Concepción Junquera
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal (non-epithelial) neoplasms of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. They are thought to derive from interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) or an ICC progenitor based on immunophenotypical and ultrastructural similarities. Because ICCs show primary cilium, our hypothesis is based on the possibility that some of these neoplastic cells could also present it. To determine this, an exhaustive ultrastructural study has been developed on four gastric GISTs...
July 2013: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23657283/input-output-organization-of-inhibitory-neurons-in-the-interstitial-nucleus-of-cajal-projecting-to-the-contralateral-trochlear-and-oculomotor-nucleus
#19
Y Sugiuchi, M Takahashi, Y Shinoda
Neurons in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) that are known to be involved in eye and head movements are excitatory. We investigated the input-output organization of inhibitory INC neurons involved in controlling vertical saccades. Intracellular recordings were made in INC neurons activated antidromically by stimulation of the contralateral trochlear or oculomotor nucleus, and their synaptic input properties from the superior colliculi (SCs) and the contralateral INC were analyzed in anesthetized cats...
August 2013: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23576949/the-ultrastructure-of-the-muscle-coat-of-human-gastro-oesophageal-junction-with-special-reference-to-interstitial-cells-of-cajal
#20
Maria-Simonetta Faussone-Pellegrini, Camillo Cortesini, Paolo Romagnoli
The muscle coat of the human lower oesophageal sphincter and stomach was studied 5 cm above and 4 cm below the gastro-oesophageal junction. Four subjects were operated on for motility disorders of the esophagus, two for a hypertensive lower oesophageal sphincter and two for an epiphrenic diverticulum; six subjects were operated on for oesophageal or gastric carcinomas. Specimens were fixed in phosphate-buffered OsO4, embedded in Epon, contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and observed under a Siemens Elmiskop Ia electron microscope...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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