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Cachexia-anorexia cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898649/bpc157-as-potential-agent-rescuing-from-cancer-cachexia
#1
Eun A Kang, Young Min Han, Jeong Min An, Yong Jin Park, Predrag Sikiric, Deok Hwan Kim, Kwang An Kwon, Yoon Jae Kim, Donghwa Yang, Hann Tchah, Ki Baik Hahm
Cancer cachexia, one of the metabolic syndromes caused by cancer, is a devastating and miserable condition encountered in more than 50% of terminal cancer patients presenting with significant weight loss associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and fat loss. Though cachexia may account for up to 20% of cancer deaths, no significant treatment is still lacking and is of urgent unmet medical need in cancer treatment. Therefore, understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms is essential for anticipating therapeutic approaches...
June 13, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891725/pembrolizumab-exposure-response-assessments-challenged-by-association-of-cancer-cachexia-and-catabolic-clearance
#2
David Turner, Anna G Kondic, Keaven M Anderson, Andrew Robinson, Edward B Garon, Jonathan W Riess, Lokesh Jain, Kapil Mayawala, Jiannan Kang, Scot W Ebbinghaus, Vikram Sinha, Dinesh P de Alwis, Julie A Stone
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship of pembrolizumab pharmacokinetics (PK) and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced melanoma and non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: PK dependencies in OS were evaluated across three pembrolizumab studies of either 200mg or 2-10 mg/kg Q3W. Kaplan-Meier (K-M) plots of OS, stratified by dose, exposure, and baseline clearance were assessed per indication and study. A Cox Proportional Hazards model was implemented to explore imbalances of typical prognostic factors in high/low NSCLC CL</SPAN>0 <SPAN style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;"> subgroups...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866502/uniting-gdf15-and-gfral-therapeutic-opportunities-in-obesity-and-beyond
#3
REVIEW
Shannon E Mullican, Shamina M Rangwala
Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) is a circulating protein that has been implicated in multiple biological processes, including energy homeostasis, body weight regulation, and cachexia driven by cancer and chronic disease. The potential to target GDF15 in the treatment of energy-intake disorders, including obesity and anorexia, is an area of intense investigation, but has been limited by the lack of an identified receptor, signaling mechanism, and target tissue. GDNF family receptor α-like (GFRAL) was recently identified as the neuronal brainstem receptor responsible for mediating the anorectic actions of GDF15...
June 1, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852290/-trif-is-a-key-inflammatory-mediator-of-acute-sickness-behavior-and-cancer-cachexia
#4
Kevin G Burfeind, Xinxia Zhu, Peter R Levasseur, Katherine A Michaelis, Mason A Norgard, Daniel L Marks
Hypothalamic inflammation is a key component of acute sickness behavior and cachexia, yet mechanisms of inflammatory signaling in the central nervous system remain unclear. Previous work from our lab and others showed that while MyD88 is an important inflammatory signaling pathway for sickness behavior, MyD88 knockout (MyD88KO) mice still experience sickness behavior after inflammatory stimuli challenge. We found that after systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, MyD88KO mice showed elevated expression of several cytokine and chemokine genes in the hypothalamus...
May 28, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746226/medical-oncologists-beliefs-practices-and-knowledge-regarding-marijuana-used-therapeutically-a-nationally-representative-survey-study
#5
Ilana M Braun, Alexi Wright, John Peteet, Fremonta L Meyer, David P Yuppa, Dragana Bolcic-Jankovic, Jessica LeBlanc, Yuchiao Chang, Liyang Yu, Manan M Nayak, James A Tulsky, Joji Suzuki, Lida Nabati, Eric G Campbell
Background Although almost every state medical marijuana (MM) law identifies cancer as a qualifying condition, little research supports MM's use in oncology. We hypothesized that the discrepancy between these laws and the scientific evidence base poses clinical challenges for oncologists. Oncologists' beliefs, knowledge, and practices regarding MM were examined in this study. Methods In November 2016, we mailed a survey on MM to a nationally-representative, random sample of 400 medical oncologists. Main outcome measures included whether oncologists reported discussing MM with patients, recommended MM clinically in the past year, or felt sufficiently informed to make such recommendations...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737795/the-anti-wasting-effects-of-l-carnitine-supplementation-on-cancer-experimental-data-and-clinical-studies
#6
Mahsa Esfahani, Sahar Sahafi, Ali Derakhshandeh, Azadeh Moghaddas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that affects the large majority of patients with end-stage cancer. No known therapy exists to effectively overcome the severe symptoms of cachexia, which include anorexia, weight loss and fatigue. This study considered the results of both experimental and clinical studies to evaluate the suitability of L-carnitine and its derivatives as potential therapies for cachexia in patients with cancer. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: All available English-language papers on the use of L-carnitine in patients with cachexia related to cancer, including reviews, case reports, case series, and clinical trials, were obtained by searching multiple databases, including all Elsevier publications, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, clinical trials, and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731967/anti-cachectic-effect-of-antrodia-cinnamomea-extract-in-lung-tumor-bearing-mice-under-chemotherapy
#7
Meng-Chuan Chen, Wen-Lin Hsu, Tz-Chong Chou
Skeletal muscle atrophy, the most characteristic feature of cancer cachexia, often occurs in patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) a widely used edible medical fungus, exhibits hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatment with the ethonolic extract of AC ameliorates cachexia symptoms, especially muscle wasting, in lung tumor-bearing mice treated with chemotherapy. Our results revealed that gemcitabine and cisplatin-induced severe body weight loss and skeletal muscle atrophy in the mice with cancer were greatly attenuated after AC extract administration...
April 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719601/increased-gut-permeability-in-cancer-cachexia-mechanisms-and-clinical-relevance
#8
Laure B Bindels, Audrey M Neyrinck, Audrey Loumaye, Emilie Catry, Hannah Walgrave, Claire Cherbuy, Sophie Leclercq, Matthias Van Hul, Hubert Plovier, Barbara Pachikian, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán, Philippe Langella, Patrice D Cani, Jean-Paul Thissen, Nathalie M Delzenne
Intestinal disorders often occur in cancer patients, in association with body weight loss, and this alteration is commonly attributed to the chemotherapy. Here, using a mouse model of cancer cachexia induced by ectopic transplantation of C26 cancer cells, we discovered a profound alteration in the gut functions (gut permeability, epithelial turnover, gut immunity, microbial dysbiosis) independently of any chemotherapy. These alterations occurred independently of anorexia and were driven by interleukin 6. Gut dysfunction was found to be resistant to treatments with an anti-inflammatory bacterium ( Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ) or with gut peptides involved in intestinal cell renewal (teduglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue)...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697274/effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-on-body-composition-and-inflammation-markers-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-cancer-from-a-public-hospital-in-mexico
#9
Obed Solís-Martínez, Valentina Plasa-Carvalho, Geraldine Phillips-Sixtos, Yanelly Trujillo-Cabrera, Arturo Hernández-Cuellar, Gloria E Queipo-García, Eduardo Meaney-Mendiolea, Guillermo M Ceballos-Reyes, Vanessa Fuchs-Tarlovsky
INTRODUCTION: Head and neck cancer patients are at high risk of anorexia-cachexia syndrome and literature shows that Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) could regulate it. We aim to determine the EPA effect on body composition and pro-inflammatory markers in patients with head neck cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized single-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer who received a polymeric diet with 2 g of EPA or a standard polymeric diet for six weeks before antineoplastic treatment...
May 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680449/modeling-tumor-growth-inhibition-and-toxicity-outcome-after-administration-of-anticancer-agents-in-xenograft-mice-a-dynamic-energy-budget-deb-approach
#10
N Terranova, E M Tosca, E Borella, E Pesenti, M Rocchetti, P Magni
Host features, such as cell proliferation rates, caloric intake, metabolism and energetic conditions, significantly influence tumor growth; at the same time, tumor growth may have a dramatic impact on the host conditions. For example, in clinics, at certain stages of the tumor growth, cachexia (body weight reduction) may become so relevant to be considered as responsible for around 20% of cancer deaths. Unfortunately, anticancer therapies may also contribute to the development of cachexia due to reduced food intake (anorexia), commonly observed during the treatment periods...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609556/the-warburg-effect-in-human-pancreatic-cancer-cells-triggers-cachexia-in-athymic-mice-carrying-the-cancer-cells
#11
Feng Wang, Hongyi Liu, Lijuan Hu, Yunfei Liu, Yijie Duan, Rui Cui, Wencong Tian
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a cancer-induced metabolic disorder and a major cause of cancer-induced death. The constituents of cancer cachexia include an increase in energy expenditure, hepatic gluconeogenesis, fat lipolysis, and skeletal-muscle proteolysis and a decrease in body weight. The aetiology of cancer cachexia is unclear and may involve cancer-cell metabolism and secretion. In this study, we investigated whether the high glycolysis in cancer cells (the Warburg effect) triggers cachexia in athymic mice carrying pancreatic cancer cells...
April 2, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550881/the-effect-of-nabilone-on-appetite-nutritional-status-and-quality-of-life-in-lung-cancer-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#12
Jenny G Turcott, María Del Rocío Guillen Núñez, Diana Flores-Estrada, Luis F Oñate-Ocaña, Zyanya Lucia Zatarain-Barrón, Feliciano Barrón, Oscar Arrieta
BACKGROUND: Over one half of the patients diagnosed with advanced lung cancer experience anorexia. In addition to its high incidence, cancer-induced anorexia promotes the development of the anorexia-cachexia syndrome, which is related to poor clinical outcomes. Recently, drugs derived from cannabinoids, such as Nabilone, have been recognized for their appetite improvement properties; however, clinical trials to support their use in cancer patients are necessary. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of Nabilone vs...
March 17, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548068/managing-nausea-and-vomiting-in-patients-with-cancer-what-works
#13
Rudolph M Navari
The approach to the treatment of nausea and vomiting in a cancer patient should begin with a complete assessment, including the frequency, duration, and intensity of the nausea/vomiting; associated activities; and whether anorexia or cachexia is present. It is important to determine whether the nausea and vomiting is related to treatment (chemotherapy, radiation) or is independent of cancer treatment. Nausea/vomiting unrelated to chemotherapy and/or radiation may have an etiology for which there is a specific and potentially successful intervention...
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509270/medical-use-of-cannabis-italian-and-european-legislation
#14
S Zaami, A Di Luca, N M Di Luca, G Montanari Vergallo
This review illustrates some brief considerations of the medical use of cannabis recently issued in Italy. History and uses of cannabis throughout centuries and different countries are illustrated together with a description of botany and active phytocannabinoids. Then, medical use of cannabis anti-pain treatment for patients resistant to conventional therapies is described in case of chronic neuropathic pain, spasticity, for anticinetosic and antiemetic effect in nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, for appetite stimulating effect in cachexia, anorexia, loss of appetite in cancer patients or patients with AIDS and in anorexia nervosa, hypotensive effect in glaucoma resistant to conventional therapies and for reduction of involuntary body and facial movements in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508138/perception-of-need-for-nutritional-support-in-advanced-cancer-patients-with-cachexia-a-survey-in-palliative-care-settings
#15
Koji Amano, Tatsuya Morita, Jiro Miyamoto, Teruaki Uno, Hirofumi Katayama, Ryohei Tatara
PURPOSE: Few studies have investigated the need for nutritional support in advanced cancer patients in palliative care settings. Therefore, we conducted a questionnaire to examine the relationship between the perception of need for nutritional support and cancer cachexia and the prevalence of specific needs, perceptions, and beliefs in nutritional support. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire in palliative care settings. Patients were classified into two groups: (1) non-cachexia/pre-cachexia and (2) cachexia/refractory cachexia...
March 5, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442239/randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial-of-combined-treatment-with-megestrol-acetate-plus-celecoxib-versus-megestrol-acetate-alone-in-cachexia-anorexia-syndrome-induced-by-gi-cancers
#16
Bizhan Kouchaki, Ghasem Janbabai, Abbas Alipour, Shahram Ala, Samaneh Borhani, Ebrahim Salehifar
PURPOSE: Previous studies reported promising efficacy for celecoxib in the treatment of cancer cachexia. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that combination therapy with megestrol acetate (MA) plus celecoxib is superior to MA alone. METHODS: Ninety eligible gastrointestinal cancer patients randomly received either MA 320 mg/day plus placebo (arm1) or MA 320 mg/day plus celecoxib 200 mg/day (arm2). Patients were evaluated at baseline, then 1 and 2 months after starting interventions...
February 13, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439674/establishing-a-clinical-phenotype-for-cachexia-in-end-stage-kidney-disease-study-protocol
#17
Joanne Reid, Helen R Noble, Gary Adamson, Andrew Davenport, Ken Farrington, Denis Fouque, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, John Mallett, C McKeaveney, S Porter, David S Seres, Joanne Shields, Adrian Slee, Miles D Witham, Alexander P Maxwell
BACKGROUND: Surveys using traditional measures of nutritional status indicate that muscle wasting is common among persons with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Up to 75% of adults undergoing maintenance dialysis show some evidence of muscle wasting. ESKD is associated with an increase in inflammatory cytokines and can result in cachexia, with the loss of muscle and fat stores. At present, only limited data are available on the classification of wasting experienced by persons with ESKD...
February 13, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400010/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cannabinoids-in-palliative-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Martin Mücke, Megan Weier, Christopher Carter, Jan Copeland, Louisa Degenhardt, Henning Cuhls, Lukas Radbruch, Winfried Häuser, Rupert Conrad
We provide a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabinoids in palliative medicine. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and http://clinicaltrials.gov, and a selection of cancer journals were searched up until 15th of March 2017. Of the 108 screened studies, nine studies with a total of 1561 participants were included. Overall, the nine studies were at moderate risk of bias. The quality of evidence comparing cannabinoids with placebo was rated according to Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation as low or very low because of indirectness, imprecision, and potential reporting bias...
April 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387396/impact-of-body-mass-index-on-clinicopathological-outcomes-in-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma-without-anorexia-cachexia-syndrome
#19
Daisuke Watanabe, Akio Horiguchi, Shinsuke Tasaki, Kenji Kuroda, Akinori Sato, Junichi Asakuma, Keiichi Ito, Tomohiko Asano
Although obesity defined by a high body mass index (BMI) is generally associated with increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), low BMI has paradoxically been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis. As anorexia-cachexia syndrome (ACS) is associated with decreased BMI and is frequently observed in patients with advanced RCC, the present study investigated the association of BMI with tumor aggressiveness and prognosis in RCC in relation to ACS. The association of BMI with clinicopathological parameters was analyzed in 503 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for RCC...
January 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350696/cancer-anorexia-and-cachexia-screening-in-an-ambulatory-infusion-service-and-nutrition-consultation
#20
Donna L Berry, Traci Blonquist, Manan M Nayak, Kristin Roper, Nancy Hilton, Heidi Lombard, Allison Hester, Anne Chiavacci, Stephanie Meyers, Katherine McManus
BACKGROUND: Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome compromises physical function and nutritional and emotional well-being. Systematic screening followed by nutrition referral for appropriate interventions is rare.
. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to pilot a screening process followed by nutritional assessment and intervention when warranted for patients with lung malignancies.
. METHODS: Adult patients with lung malignancies were invited to complete the 12-item Anorexia/Cachexia Scale (A/CS-12) on the day of chemotherapy initiation in ambulatory infusion...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
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