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Cachexia-anorexia cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177923/protein-calorie-malnutrition-nutritional-intervention-and-personalized-cancer-care
#1
Anju Gangadharan, Sung Eun Choi, Ahmed Hassan, Nehad M Ayoub, Gina Durante, Sakshi Balwani, Young Hee Kim, Andrew Pecora, Andre Goy, K Stephen Suh
Cancer patients often experience weight loss caused by protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) during the course of the disease or treatment. PCM is expressed as severe if the patient has two or more of the following characteristics: obvious significant muscle wasting, loss of subcutaneous fat; nutritional intake of <50% of recommended intake for 2 weeks or more; bedridden or otherwise significantly reduced functional capacity; weight loss of >2% in 1 week, 5% in 1 month, or 7.5% in 3 months. Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a multifactorial condition of advanced PCM associated with underlying illness (in this case cancer) and is characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass...
February 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156604/efficacy-of-anamorelin-in-cachectic-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-and-low-bmi-20-kg-m-2-post-hoc-analysis-of-two-phase-iii-studies
#2
Jennifer S Temel, Amy Pickar Abernethy, Ruben Giorgino, John Friend, Kenneth Fearon
: 203 Background: Patients with advanced cancer frequently experience anorexia/cachexia, which can be characterized by weight loss or low BMI, and is associated with reduced function and quality of life. The randomized, phase III, double-blind ROMANA 1 [NCT01387269; N = 484] and ROMANA 2 [NCT01387282; N = 495]) trials in cachectic NSCLC patients demonstrated that the ghrelin receptor agonist anamorelin improved LBM, body weight, fat mass (FM), and symptom burden compared with placebo, and was well tolerated...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156473/experience-of-weight-loss-and-its-burden-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-results-of-an-online-survey
#3
Elizabeth M Duus, John Friend
: 71 Background: The main objectives of this study were to characterize and compare the burden of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who reported considerable weight loss ( ≥ 5% of their body weight in the past 6 months or ≥ 2% for a BMI less than 20 kg/m(2)) to those who did not. METHODS: 95 advanced NSCLC patients were surveyed from the online patient-powered community PatientsLikeMe. Self-reported demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090619/the-evolving-approach-to-management-of-cancer-cachexia
#4
REVIEW
Rony Dev, Angelique Wong, David Hui, Eduardo Bruera
Weight loss is distressing to cancer patients and caregivers. Anorexia/cachexia syndrome is characterized by lipolysis and the loss of lean body mass, and is not reversible by increasing caloric intake. The pathophysiology of cancer cachexia is complex and includes symptoms that impact caloric intake, as well as chronic inflammation, hypermetabolism, and hormonal alterations. Cancer patients require routine screening for cachexia and, ideally, interventions should be initiated in the early stages of weight loss...
January 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074289/anamorelin-for-cancer-anorexia-cachexia-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Yu Bai, Yunxia Hu, Yanhua Zhao, Xizhong Yu, Junwei Xu, Zhiyun Hua, Zhiqiang Zhao
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Anamorelin on patients with cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) based on a meta-analysis of published randomized trials. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Data from each selected study were evaluated individually. All continuous outcomes were calculated by the mean difference or standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval for each study...
January 10, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065483/defining-the-role-of-dietary-intake-in-determining-weight-change-in-patients-with-cancer-cachexia
#6
R Nasrah, M Kanbalian, C Van Der Borch, N Swinton, S Wing, R T Jagoe
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Weight loss is a cardinal feature of cachexia and is frequently associated with reduced food intake and anorexia. It is still unclear how much reduced food intake contributes to cancer-related weight loss and how effective increasing dietary energy and protein is in combating this weight loss. The relationship between weight change and both diet and change in dietary intake, was examined in patients with advanced stage cancer referred to a multidisciplinary clinic for management of cancer cachexia...
December 21, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025863/anorexia-cachexia-syndrome-in-hepatoma-tumour-bearing-rats-requires-the-area-postrema-but-not-vagal-afferents-and-is-paralleled-by-increased-mic-1-gdf15
#7
Tito Borner, Myrtha Arnold, Johan Ruud, Samuel N Breit, Wolfgang Langhans, Thomas A Lutz, Anders Blomqvist, Thomas Riediger
BACKGROUND: The cancer-anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) negatively affects survival and therapy success in cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators and tumour-derived factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of CACS. However, the central and peripheral mechanisms contributing to CACS are insufficiently understood. The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitarii are two important brainstem centres for the control of eating during acute sickness conditions...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27972497/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-a-potential-treatment-introduction-for-anorexia-cachexia-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#8
L Borsoi, M Meregaglia, O Ciani, R Tarricone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929469/the-colon-26-carcinoma-tumor-bearing-mouse-as-a-model-for-the-study-of-cancer-cachexia
#9
Andrea Bonetto, Joseph E Rupert, Rafael Barreto, Teresa A Zimmers
Cancer cachexia is the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue, negative nitrogen balance, anorexia, fatigue, inflammation, and activation of lipolysis and proteolysis systems. Cancer patients with cachexia benefit less from anti-neoplastic therapies and show increased mortality(1). Several animal models have been established in order to investigate the molecular causes responsible for body and muscle wasting as a result of tumor growth. Here, we describe methodologies pertaining to a well-characterized model of cancer cachexia: mice bearing the C26 carcinoma(2-4)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914942/is-there-a-role-for-ghrelin-in-central-dopaminergic-systems-focus-on-nigrostriatal-and-mesocorticolimbic-pathways
#10
REVIEW
Alicia Stievenard, Mathieu Méquinion, Zane B Andrews, Alain Destée, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Odile Viltart, Christel C Vanbesien-Mailliot
The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders...
February 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900546/validation-of-the-chinese-version-of-functional-assessment-of-anorexia-cachexia-therapy-faact-scale-for-measuring-quality-of-life-in-cancer-patients-with-cachexia
#11
Ting Zhou, Kaixiang Yang, Sudip Thapa, Qiang Fu, Yongsheng Jiang, Shiying Yu
PURPOSE: The assessment of quality of life (QOL) is an important part of cachexia management for cancer patients. Functional assessment of anorexia-cachexia therapy (FAACT), a specific QOL instrument for cachexia patients, has not been validated in Chinese population. The aim of this study was to validate the FAACT scale in Chinese cancer patients for its future use. METHODS: Eligible cancer patients were included in our study. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics were collected from the electronic medical records...
November 29, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898746/-cachexia-in-cancer-patients
#12
Tamás Nagykálnai, László Landherr
About 50% of all patients with cancer eventually develop anorexia/cachexia syndrome, which represents a complex clinical syndrome occurring in several illnesses, including cancer. The syndrome is characterized by systemic inflammation and primarily loss of body fat and body mass. In this review we shortly summarize the pathomechanism of anorexia/cachexia syndrome and list the current pharmacological approaches.
November 29, 2016: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883118/cachexia
#13
A I Graul, M Stringer, L Sorbera
Cachexia is a multiorgan, multifactorial and often irreversible wasting syndrome associated with cancer and other serious, chronic illnesses including AIDS, chronic heart failure, chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Treatment of the patient with cachexia is currently targeted to correcting the two underlying features of the condition: anorexia and metabolic disturbances. Greater understanding of the mechanisms behind cachexia and muscle wasting have led to new therapeutic possibilities, however...
September 2016: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858539/leveraging-a-team-mental-model-to-develop-a-cancer-anorexia-cachexia-syndrome-team
#14
Diane G Portman, Sarah Thirlwell, Kristine A Donovan, Christine Alvero, Jhanelle E Gray, Rosa Holloway, Lee Ellington
This article discusses the care of a 62-year-old man with non-small-cell lung cancer and associated cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS), and demonstrates common challenges faced by such patients and their family caregivers. The case description illustrates the fragmented approach of various disciplines to the patient's CACS care, resulting in undertreatment, delayed and burdensome visits, and patient and caregiver frustration and emotional distress. The mounting problems that arise for the patient over time exemplify the absence of a shared mental model among the various providers, patient, and caregiver for the care of CACS...
November 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843571/cachexia-in-cancer-what-is-in-the-definition
#15
Greetje Vanhoutte, Mick van de Wiel, Kristin Wouters, Michaël Sels, Linda Bartolomeeussen, Sven De Keersmaecker, Caroline Verschueren, Veronique De Vroey, Annemieke De Wilde, Elke Smits, Kin Jip Cheung, Liesbeth De Clerck, Petra Aerts, Didier Baert, Caroline Vandoninck, Sofie Kindt, Sofie Schelfhaut, Marc Vankerkhoven, Annelies Troch, Lore Ceulemans, Hanne Vandenbergh, Sven Leys, Tim Rondou, Elke Dewitte, Kristel Maes, Patrick Pauwels, Benedicte De Winter, Luc Van Gaal, Dirk Ysebaert, Marc Peeters
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide evidence-based results on differences in overall survival (OS) rate to guide the diagnosis of cancer cachexia. DESIGN: Data collection and clinical assessment was performed every 3 months (5 visits): baseline data, muscle strength, nutritional and psychosocial status. 2 definitions on cachexia using different diagnostic criteria were applied for the same patient population. Fearon et al's definition is based on weight loss, body mass index (BMI) and sarcopenia...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826583/weight-gain-as-a-surrogate-marker-of-longer-survival-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#16
COMMENT
Erkan Topkan
Weight loss (WL), as a key step of the irreversible and fatal cancer-related anorexia cachexia syndrome is present to some degree in 80% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients upon diagnosis which has been clearly proved to negatively alter patients' performance status, quality of life (QOL), response to treatment, and prognosis. However, WL is not a problem encountered only upon diagnosis but is also commonly reported during the course of aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy (RT) and particularly the concurrent chemoradiotherapy (C-CRT) which may further diminish QOL measures and clinical outcomes...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782227/-cancer-cachexia-assessment-new-tools-for-oncologists
#17
Roberto Serpe, Laura Demurtas, Marco Puzzoni, Clelia Madeddu, Mario Scartozzi
The cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is considered a multifactorial syndrome that leads a general decline of the cancer patient conditions, prognosis and survival, and characterized by progressive loss of body mass and functional impairment, due to marked energy metabolism imbalance and immunological disorders. It is the cause of death in almost one out of five advanced cancer patients. CACS is also accompanied with loss of quality of life, reduced response and tolerance to anticancer therapies and affected outcome...
October 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758689/mechanisms-of-anorexia-cancer-cachexia-syndrome-and-potential-benefits-of-traditional-medicine-and-natural-herbs
#18
REVIEW
Cong Ming-Hua, Zou Bao-Hua, Yu Lei
Anorexia cancer cachexia syndrome is prevalent in advanced cancer patients, which is featured by anorexia, decreased dietary intake, body weight loss (skeletal muscle mass loss), and is unable to be reversed by routine nutritional support therapy. Up to now, the main mechanisms involved in cancer cachexia include excessive systemic inflammation, which is represented by increased plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, tumor-induced factors, such as PIF and LMF. These factors eventually act on orexigenic and anorexigenicneurons located in the hypothalamus or protein and lipid metabolism of peripheral tissues, which lead to anorexia, decreased dietary intake, enhanced basic metabolism rate and hypercatabolism...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575705/loss-of-strength-capacity-is-associated-with-mortality-but-resistance-exercise-training-promotes-only-modest-effects-during-cachexia-progression
#19
Willian das Neves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues Alves, Ney Robson de Almeida, Fátima Lúcia Rodrigues Guimarães, Paulo Rizzo Ramires, Patricia Chakur Brum, Antonio Herbert Lancha
AIMS: Resistance exercise training (RET) has been adopted as non-pharmacological anti-catabolic strategy. However, the role of RET to counteract cancer cachexia is still speculative. This study aimed to verify whether short-term RET would counteract skeletal muscle wasting in a severe cancer cachexia rat model. MAIN METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four experimental groups; 1) untrained control rats (control), 2) rats submitted to RET (control+RET), 3) untrained rats injected with Walker 256 tumor cells in the bone marrow (tumor) and 4) rats injected with Walker 256 tumor cells in the bone marrow and submitted to RET (tumor+RET)...
October 15, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508207/increased-ghrelin-but-low-ghrelin-reactive-immunoglobulins-in-a-rat-model-of-methotrexate-chemotherapy-induced-anorexia
#20
Marie François, Kuniko Takagi, Romain Legrand, Nicolas Lucas, Stephanie Beutheu, Christine Bôle-Feysot, Aurore Cravezic, Naouel Tennoune, Jean-Claude do Rego, Moïse Coëffier, Akio Inui, Pierre Déchelotte, Sergueï O Fetissov
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cancer chemotherapy is commonly accompanied by mucositis, anorexia, weight loss, and anxiety independently from cancer-induced anorexia-cachexia, further aggravating clinical outcome. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in gastric mucosa that reaches the brain to stimulate appetite. In plasma, ghrelin is protected from degradation by ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins (Ig). To analyze possible involvement of ghrelin in the chemotherapy-induced anorexia and anxiety, gastric ghrelin expression, plasma levels of ghrelin, and ghrelin-reactive IgG were studied in rats treated with methotrexate (MTX)...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
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