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Mirror visual feedback

Kimberly Giraud, Megan Pontin, Linda D Sharples, Paul Fletcher, Tim Dalgleish, Allaina Eden, David P Jenkins, Alain Vuylsteke
Introduction: Post-operative delirium remains a significant problem, particularly in the older surgical patient. Previous evidence suggests that the provision of supplementary visual feedback about ones environment via the use of a mirror may positively impact on mental status and attention (core delirium diagnostic domains). We aimed to explore whether use of an evidence-based mirrors intervention could be effective in reducing delirium and improving post-operative outcomes such as factual memory encoding of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) environment in older cardiac surgical patients...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Fabian Steinberg, Nils Henrik Pixa, Michael Doppelmayr
Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual transfer of fine motor skills in healthy people as well as in patients. This study evaluated whether these augmented performance improvements by mirror visual feedback (MVF) could be used for learning a sport-specific skill and if the effects are modulated by skill level. A sample of 39 young, healthy, and experienced basketball and handball players and 41 novices performed a stationary basketball dribble task at a mirror box in a standing position and received either MVF or direct feedback...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Jigna Patel, Qinyin Qiu, Mathew Yarossi, Alma Merians, Supriya Massood, Eugene Tunik, Sergei Adamovich, Gerard Fluet
PURPOSE: Explore the potential benefits of using priming methods prior to an active hand task in the acute phase post-stroke in persons with severe upper extremity hemiparesis. METHODS: Five individuals were trained using priming techniques including virtual reality (VR) based visual mirror feedback and contralaterally controlled passive movement strategies prior to training with an active pinch force modulation task. Clinical, kinetic, and neurophysiological measurements were taken pre and post the training period...
September 16, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Christer Ahlstrom, Katja Kircher
While in-vehicle eco-driving support systems have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save fuel, they may also distract drivers, especially if the system makes use of a visual interface. The objective of this study is to investigate the visual behaviour of drivers interacting with such a system, implemented on a five-inch screen mounted above the middle console. Ten drivers participated in a real-world, on-road driving study where they drove a route nine times (2 pre-baseline drives, 5 treatment drives, 2 post-baseline drives)...
January 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Maryam Alimardani, Shuichi Nishio, Hiroshi Ishiguro
Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) have been developed and implemented in many areas as a new communication channel between the human brain and external devices. Despite their rapid growth and broad popularity, the inaccurate performance and cost of user-training are yet the main issues that prevent their application out of the research and clinical environment. We previously introduced a BCI system for the control of a very humanlike android that could raise a sense of embodiment and agency in the operators only by imagining a movement (motor imagery) and watching the robot perform it...
2016: PloS One
Gaia Bonassi, Elisa Pelosin, Carla Ogliastro, Cecilia Cerulli, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Laura Avanzino
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) therapy has been applied to improve upper limb function in stroke. When combined with motor training, MVF improves the performance of the trained and untrained hand by enhancing the excitability of both primary motor cortices (M1s). Bradykinesia is a typical feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by slowness in the execution of movement. This condition is often asymmetrical and possibly supported by a volitional hypoactivation of M1. MVF therapy could tentatively treat bradykinesia since the untrained hand, which benefits from the exercise, is generally more severely impaired in undertaking sequential movements...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Christian R Burgess, Rohan N Ramesh, Arthur U Sugden, Kirsten M Levandowski, Margaret A Minnig, Henning Fenselau, Bradford B Lowell, Mark L Andermann
The needs of the body can direct behavioral and neural processing toward motivationally relevant sensory cues. For example, human imaging studies have consistently found specific cortical areas with biased responses to food-associated visual cues in hungry subjects, but not in sated subjects. To obtain a cellular-level understanding of these hunger-dependent cortical response biases, we performed chronic two-photon calcium imaging in postrhinal association cortex (POR) and primary visual cortex (V1) of behaving mice...
September 7, 2016: Neuron
Noritaka Kawashima, Tomoki Mita
A phantom limb is the sensation that an amputated limb is still attached to the body and is moving together with other body parts. Phantom limb phenomenon is often described on the basis of the patient's subjective sense, for example as represented using a visual analog scale (VAS). The aim of this study was to propose a novel quantification method for behavioral aspect of phantom limb by psychophysics. Twelve unilateral forearm amputees were asked to perform phantom wrist motion with various motion frequencies (60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240% of preferred speed)...
2016: PloS One
Kathy L Ruddy, Anne K Rudolf, Barbara Kalkman, Maedbh King, Andreas Daffertshofer, Timothy J Carroll, Richard G Carson
Cross education is the process whereby training of one limb gives rise to increases in the subsequent performance of its opposite counterpart. The execution of many unilateral tasks is associated with increased excitability of corticospinal projections from primary motor cortex (M1) to the opposite limb. It has been proposed that these effects are causally related. Our aim was to establish whether changes in corticospinal excitability (CSE) arising from prior training of the opposite limb determine levels of interlimb transfer...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Florian Gerard-Mercier, Pedro V Carelli, Marc Pananceau, Xoana G Troncoso, Yves Frégnac
UNLABELLED: The computational role of primary visual cortex (V1) in low-level perception remains largely debated. A dominant view assumes the prevalence of higher cortical areas and top-down processes in binding information across the visual field. Here, we investigated the role of long-distance intracortical connections in form and motion processing by measuring, with intracellular recordings, their synaptic impact on neurons in area 17 (V1) of the anesthetized cat. By systematically mapping synaptic responses to stimuli presented in the nonspiking surround of V1 receptive fields, we provide the first quantitative characterization of the lateral functional connectivity kernel of V1 neurons...
April 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Tae-Sung In, Yu-Ri Cha, Jin-Hwa Jung, Kyoung-Sim Jung
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of a visual feedback obtained from a mirror on balance ability during quiet standing in patients with stroke. [Subjects] Fifteen patients with stroke (9 males, 6 females) enrolled in the study. [Methods] Experimental trials (duration, 20s) included three visual conditions (eyes closed, eyes open, and mirror feedback) and two support surface conditions (stable, and unstable). Center of pressure (COP) displacements in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions were recorded using a force platform...
January 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Hatice Kumru, Sergiu Albu, Raul Pelayo, John Rothwell, Eloy Opisso, Daniel Leon, Dolor Soler, Josep Maria Tormos
Plasticity is one of the most important physiological mechanisms underlying motor recovery from brain lesions. Rehabilitation methods, such as mirror visual feedback therapy, which are based on multisensory integration of motor, cognitive, and perceptual processes, are considered effective methods to induce cortical reorganization. The present study investigated 3 different types of visual feedback (direct, mirrored, and blocked visual feedback: DVF, MVF, and BVF, resp.) on M1 cortex excitability and intracortical inhibition/facilitation at rest and during phasic unimanual motor task in 11 healthy individuals...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Viola Rjosk, Elisabeth Kaminski, Maike Hoff, Bernhard Sehm, Christopher J Steele, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) is a promising technique in clinical settings that can be used to augment performance of an untrained limb. Several studies with healthy volunteers and patients using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) indicate that functional alterations within primary motor cortex (M1) might be one candidate mechanism that could explain MVF-induced changes in behavior. Until now, most studies have used MVF to improve performance of the non-dominant hand (NDH)...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Doo Chul Shin, Chang Ho Song
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the preliminary efficacy and feasibility of smartphone-based visual feedback trunk control training (SPVFTCT) for improving balance and trunk performance in stroke patients. DESIGN: Twenty-four patients who had experienced a stroke more than 6 months previously and could sit and walk independently participated in the study. The participants were allocated to a SPVFTCT (n = 12) or to a control group (n = 12). Both groups completed five 80-minute sessions per week of conventional rehabilitation for 4 weeks...
May 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Florian A Kagerer
Interactions between the hands are a collateral of simultaneous bimanual movements and can inform us about the functional asymmetries of the dominant and nondominant hemisphere-effector systems. Few studies on bimanual coordination have focused on discrete movement control, and even fewer have looked at this in the context of handedness. Using a novel bimanual paradigm in which both hands perform simultaneous target-directed movements, this study addressed interference between the hands in two groups of left-handed individuals...
June 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
F A Kagerer
In simultaneous bimanual movements, interference between the hands is always a possibility, particularly when movements are spatially incongruent. In a previous study using bimanual target-directed movements and abrupt visual feedback perturbation of one hand, I showed asymmetric interference from the dominant to the nondominant hand. The signature of that interference reflected the directional control strength of the dominant hand, supporting a recent theory of functional lateralization of arm movements, and extending it to a bimanual context...
March 24, 2016: Neuroscience
Janet H Bultitude, Georgiana Juravle, Charles Spence
It has been suggested that incongruence between signals for motor intention and sensory input can cause pain and other sensory abnormalities. This claim is supported by reports that moving in an environment of induced sensorimotor conflict leads to elevated pain and sensory symptoms in those with certain painful conditions. Similar procedures can lead to reports of anomalous sensations in healthy volunteers too. In the present study, we used mirror visual feedback to investigate the effects of sensorimotor incongruence on responses to stimuli that arise from sources external to the body, in particular, touch...
2016: PloS One
Hyun-Gyu Cha, Duck-Won Oh
This study aimed to explore the effects of mirror therapy integrated with task-oriented exercise on balance function in poststroke hemiparesis. Twenty patients with poststroke hemiparesis were assigned randomly to an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG), with 10 individuals each. Participants of the EG and CG received a task-oriented exercise program with a focus on the strengthening of the lower limb and the practice of balance-related functional tasks. An additional option for the EG was front and side wall mirrors to provide visual feedback for their own movements while performing the exercise...
March 2016: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Paola Reissig, Tino Stöckel, Michael I Garry, Jeffery J Summers, Mark R Hinder
Cross-limb transfer (CLT) describes the observation of bilateral performance gains due to unilateral motor practice. Previous research has suggested that CLT may be reduced, or absent, in older adults, possibly due to age-related structural and functional brain changes. Based on research showing increases in CLT due to the provision of mirror visual feedback (MVF) during task execution in young adults, our study aimed to investigate whether MVF can facilitate CLT in older adults, who are known to be more reliant on visual feedback for accurate motor performance...
2015: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Kendra S Burbank
The autoencoder algorithm is a simple but powerful unsupervised method for training neural networks. Autoencoder networks can learn sparse distributed codes similar to those seen in cortical sensory areas such as visual area V1, but they can also be stacked to learn increasingly abstract representations. Several computational neuroscience models of sensory areas, including Olshausen & Field's Sparse Coding algorithm, can be seen as autoencoder variants, and autoencoders have seen extensive use in the machine learning community...
December 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
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