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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812189/nutrient-intake-of-swiss-toddlers
#1
Thomas A Brunner, Luca Casetti, Petra Haueter, Pascal Müller, Andreas Nydegger, Johannes Spalinger
PURPOSE: During the first years of life, food preferences are shaped that might last throughout a person's entire life affecting his/her health in the long term. However, knowledge on early feeding habits is still limited for toddlers. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to: (1) assess toddlers' nutrient intake; (2) compare the findings to past studies as well as to national feeding recommendations and (3) identify major food sources for energy and macronutrients. METHODS: A food survey using a 4-day diary was conducted...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807638/food-waste-in-the-national-school-lunch-program-1978-2015-a-systematic-review
#2
Carmen Byker Shanks, Jinan Banna, Elena L Serrano
BACKGROUND: Food waste studies have been used for more than 40 years to assess nutrient intake, dietary quality, menu performance, food acceptability, cost, and effectiveness of nutrition education in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). OBJECTIVE: Describe methods used to measure food waste and respective results in the NSLP across time. METHODS: A systematic review using PubMed, Science Direct, Informaworld, and Institute of Scientific Information Web of Knowledge was conducted using the following search terms: waste, school lunch, plate waste, food waste, kitchen, half method, quarter method, weight, and photography...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807485/influence-of-dietary-salt-knowledge-perceptions-and-beliefs-on-consumption-choices-after-stroke-in-uganda
#3
Martin N Kaddumukasa, Elly Katabira, Martha Sajatovic, Svetlana Pundik, Mark Kaddumukasa, Larry B Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Previous research on Uganda's poststroke population revealed that their level of dietary salt knowledge did not lead to healthier consumption choices. PURPOSE: Identify barriers and motivators for healthy dietary behaviors and evaluate the understanding of widely accepted salt regulation mechanisms among poststroke patients in Uganda. METHODS: Convergent parallel mixed methods triangulation design comprised a cross-sectional survey (n = 81) and 8 focus group discussions with 7-10 poststroke participants in each group...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807190/socioeconomic-differences-in-mortality-in-the-antiretroviral-therapy-era-in-agincourt-rural-south-africa-2001-13-a-population-surveillance-analysis
#4
Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Brian Houle, Mark A Collinson, Kathleen Kahn, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stephen Tollman, Samuel J Clark
BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of socioeconomic disparities in health outcomes is important to implement specific preventive actions. We assessed socioeconomic disparities in mortality indicators in a rural South African population over the period 2001-13. METHODS: We used data from 21 villages of the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). We calculated the probabilities of death from birth to age 5 years and from age 15 to 60 years, life expectancy at birth, and cause-specific and age-specific mortality by sex (not in children <5 years), time period, and socioeconomic status (household wealth) quintile for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, other communicable diseases (excluding HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes, non-communicable diseases, and injury...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806487/gut-microbiome-response-to-short-term-dietary-interventions-in-reactive-hypoglycemia-subjects
#5
Sara Quercia, Silvia Turroni, Jessica Fiori, Matteo Soverini, Simone Rampelli, Elena Biagi, Andrea Castagnetti, Clarissa Consolandi, Marco Severgnini, Mario Pianesi, Francesco Fallucca, Paolo Pozzilli, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
BACKGROUND: Reactive hypoglycemia (RH) is a metabolic disorder that provokes severe hypoglycemic episodes after meal. Over recent years, the gut microbiota (GM) has been recognized as potential target for the control of metabolic diseases, and the possibility to correct GM dysbioses through diet, favoring the recovery of metabolic homeostasis, has been considered. METHODS: We investigate the impact of two short-term (3-day) nutritional interventions, based on the macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 diet and a control Mediterranean diet, on the structure and functionality of the GM in 12 patients affected by RH...
August 14, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805669/effect-of-mediterranean-diet-and-antioxidant-formulation-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-randomized-study
#6
Ludovico Abenavoli, Marta Greco, Natasa Milic, Francesca Accattato, Daniela Foti, Elio Gulletta, Francesco Luzza
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide, characterized by liver fatty acid accumulation and fibrosis, not due to excessive alcohol consumption. Notably, nutritional habits have been reported to be implicated in the onset and severity of the hepatic damage, while the Mediterranean diet has shown beneficial effects on NAFLD. Free radicals and oxidative stress were suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD, and several data highlighted the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in its treatment...
August 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805088/the-current-therapeutic-options-for-crohn-s-disease-from-medical-therapy-to-intestinal-transplantation
#7
Augusto Lauro, Francesco D'Amico, Gabriel Gondolesi
Crohn's disease (CD) has an annual incidence per 100.000 person-year of 20.2 in North America and 12.7 in Europe, and the purpose of this review is to evaluate its medical management, from diagnosis to transplant. Pharmacologic manipulation with nutritional care aims to achieve and maintain remission, but more than half of patients will undergo an intestinal resection, very often repeated over time. They could experience short bowel syndrome (SBS) requiring total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Intestinal transplantation (ITx) represents an alternative in case of irreversible intestinal failure (IF) with life-threatening TPN complications...
August 14, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800751/prevalence-awareness-treatment-and-control-of-dyslipidemia-in-older-persons-in-urban-and-rural-population-in-the-astana-region-kazakhstan
#8
Adil Supiyev, Talgat Nurgozhin, Zhaxybay Zhumadilov, Anne Peasey, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Martin Bobak
BACKGROUND: Despite high cardiovascular mortality in Central Asian republics of the former Soviet Union, there is limited information about major risk factors, including blood lipids. We investigated the prevalence of impaired concentrations of blood lipids, the awareness, treatment and control of hypercholesterolemia, and factors associated with these indicators in urban and rural populations in Kazakhstan. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of random urban and rural population samples (the state capital Astana and Akmol village)...
August 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800282/towards-a-generation-free-of-tuberculosis-tb-disease-and-infection-in-individuals-of-college-age-in-the-united-states
#9
N S Shah, A Flood-Bryzman, C Jeffries, J Scott
OBJECTIVES: To assess the magnitude of active TB disease and LTBI in young adults of college age. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals 18 - 24 years old in 2011 were used as a proxy for college students. METHODS: Active TB cases reported to the 2011 U.S. National TB Surveillance System (NTSS) were included. LTBI prevalence was calculated from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The 2011 American Community Survey was used to calculate population denominators...
August 11, 2017: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800042/blood-pressure-indices-and-cardiovascular-disease-mortality-in-persons-with-or-without-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Pallavi Gomadam, Amit Shah, Waqas Qureshi, Phyllis N Yeboah, Barry I Freedman, Donald Bowden, Elsayed Z Soliman, Joseph Yeboah
BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between blood pressure indices (SBP, DBP, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among persons with or without diabetes mellitus (NON-DM) in a multiethnic cohort. METHODS: We included 17 650 participants from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and 1439 participants from Diabetes Heart Study (total n = 19 089, 16.3% had diabetes mellitus, mean age 48...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797537/mortality-associated-with-less-intense-risk-factor-control-among-adults-with-diabetes-in-the-united-states
#11
Sharon H Saydah, Edward W Gregg, Henry S Kahn, Mohammed K Ali
AIMS: Determine the mortality experience among adults with diabetes in meeting and not meeting less intense control for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and cholesterol. METHODS: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 participants with self-report of diagnosed diabetes (N=3335), measured HbA1c, BP and non-HDL cholesterol were linked to the National Death Index through December 31, 2011. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of meeting HbA1c<9% and BP<160/110, and non-HDL cholesterol<190mg/dL...
August 7, 2017: Primary Care Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790041/impact-of-nutritional-index-on-the-association-between-phosphorus-concentrations-and-mortality-in-haemodialysis-patients-a-cohort-study-from-dialysis-outcomes-and-practice-pattern-study-in-japan
#12
Shingo Fukuma, Tatsuyoshi Ikenoue, Tadao Akizawa, Shunichi Fukuhara
OBJECTIVES: While maintenance of both phosphorus concentration and nutritional status is a major concern in managing haemodialysis patients, the interaction between these parameters is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess whether or not nutritional index influences the association between phosphorus concentration and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: A cohort study. SETTING: The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Pattern Study, which included 99 representative dialysis facilities in Japan between 1997 and 2010...
August 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789567/effect-of-marijuana-use-on-cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-mortality-a-study-using-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-linked-mortality-file
#13
Barbara A Yankey, Richard Rothenberg, Sheryl Strasser, Kim Ramsey-White, Ike S Okosun
Background Reports associate marijuana use with cardiovascular emergencies. Studies relating marijuana use to cardiovascular mortality are scarce. Recent advance towards marijuana use legalization emphasizes the importance of understanding relationships between marijuana use and cardiovascular deaths; the primary ranked mortality. Recreational marijuana is primarily smoked; we hypothesize that like cigarette smoking, marijuana use will be associated with increased cardiovascular mortalities. Design The design of this study was based on a mortality follow-up...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782702/preferences-for-life-sustaining-treatments-examined-by-hidden-markov-modeling-are-mostly-stable-in-terminally-ill-cancer-patients-last-6-months-of-life
#14
Siew Tzuh Tang, Fur-Hsing Wen, Wen-Cheng Chang, Chia-Hsun Hsieh, Wen-Chi Chou, Jen-Shi Chen, Ming-Mo Hou
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Stability of life-sustaining treatment (LST) preferences at end of life (EOL) has not been well established for terminally ill cancer patients nor have transition probabilities been explored between different types of preferences. We assessed the stability of cancer patients' LST preferences at EOL by identifying distinct LST-preference states and examining the probability of each state transitioning to other states between consecutive time points. METHODS: Stability of LST preferences (cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, intensive care unit [ICU] care, cardiac massage, intubation with mechanical ventilation, intravenous nutrition support, and nasogastric tube feeding) was examined among 303 cancer patients in their last 6 months by hidden Markov modeling...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782162/markers-of-nutritional-status-and-mortality-in-older-adults-the-role-of-anemia-and-hypoalbuminemia
#15
Ligiana Pires Corona, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira Duarte, Maria Lúcia Lebrão
AIM: The aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of anemia and hypoalbuminemia on mortality in a 5-year period. METHODS: This was longitudinal population-based observational survey part of the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento study (Health, Well-being and Aging), carried out with 1256 older adults from the third wave of the cohort, followed for 5 years, when they were contacted for the fourth wave, in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Anemia was defined when hemoglobin was <12 g/dL for women and <13 g/dL for men, and hypoalbuminemia when serum albumin was <3...
August 6, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781027/tobacco-exposure-as-determined-by-serum-cotinine-and-subclinical-myocardial-injury-in-individuals-free-from-cardiovascular-disease
#16
Muhammad Ali, Yabing Li, Wesley T O'Neal, Elsayed Z Soliman
Tobacco exposure including second-hand smoke is the leading preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Serum cotinine, a highly sensitive and specific biomarker for tobacco exposure, is a more accurate measure of tobacco exposure than self-reported smoking status. Although the harmful effect of tobacco exposure on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (e.g., atherosclerosis) or hard CVD outcomes (e.g., myocardial infarction) is well established, its effect on intermediate outcomes such as subclinical myocardial injury (SMI), especially in nonsmokers, is not clear...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780250/depression-is-associated-with-a-higher-risk-of-death-among-stroke-survivors
#17
Ali Razmara, Natalie Valle, Daniela Markovic, Nerses Sanossian, Bruce Ovbiagele, Tara Dutta, Amytis Towfighi
BACKGROUND: Poststroke depression is common, affecting approximately 1 in 3 stroke survivors. We aimed to evaluate the association between depression and mortality in adults with and without prior stroke. METHODS: Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (1982-1992), we investigated the association between depression and all-cause mortality among adults aged 25-74 years with and without prior stroke, and stroke mortality among stroke survivors, adjusting for covariates...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779932/blurred-lines-emerging-practice-for-registered-dietitian-nutritionists-in-integrative-and-functional-nutrition
#18
Patricia Grace-Farfaglia, Denise L Pickett-Bernard, Andrea White Gorman, Jaleh Dehpahlavan
BACKGROUND: This study explored the health philosophy and practice orientation of RDNs in the United States. METHODS: A randomly selected group of RDNs were recruited to take an online survey using a reduced version of Integrative Medicine practice (IM-30). Confirmatory factor analysis, analyses of variance, and non-parametric tests were used to investigate the relationships between dietetic professionals' personal health philosophy, lifestyle, and orientation to Integrative Medicine...
August 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770634/an-international-comparison-of-nutrition-education-standards-occupational-standards-and-scopes-of-practice-for-personal-trainers
#19
Katelyn Barnes, Lauren Ball, Ben Desbrow
Personal trainers are well placed to provide nutrition care in line with their recommended scope of practice. However, providing nutrition care beyond their recommended scope of practice has been identified as an industry risk. The International Confederation of Registers for Exercise Professionals (ICREPs) have international standards for nutrition knowledge and skills that are recommended for all fitness professionals, including personal trainers. This study investigates whether the ICREPs standards align with i) national nutrition education standards and ii) national nutrition occupational standards and scopes of practice for personal trainers within ICREPs affiliated countries...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768294/measurement-of-metabolic-fluxes-using-stable-isotope-tracers-in-whole-animals-and-human-patients
#20
Julie A Reisz, Angelo D'Alessandro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic flux analysis using stable isotope labeled substrates allows for the tracing of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen atoms through metabolic pathways and is an invaluable tool for investigating dynamic metabolic changes occurring in health and disease. Studies of flux analysis in vivo are more technically challenging than in vitro or ex vivo but provide a highly detailed view of organ and/or systemic metabolism. We review here recent efforts in studies of diet and nutrition, non-small cell lung cancer, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and hemorrhagic shock where in vivo flux analysis was utilized to analyze metabolic modulation...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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