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vestibular stimulation

Julian Conrad, Rainer Boegle, Matthias Ertl, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Objective: Vestibular signals are involved in higher cortical functions like spatial orientation and its disorders. Vestibular dysfunction contributes, for example, to spatial neglect which can be transiently improved by caloric stimulation. The exact roles and mechanisms of the vestibular and visual systems for the recovery of neglect are not yet known. Methods: Resting-state functional connectivity (fc) magnetic resonance imaging was recorded in a patient with hemispatial neglect during the acute phase and after recovery 6 months later following a right middle cerebral artery infarction before and after caloric vestibular stimulation...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Aram Keywan, Max Wuehr, Cauchy Pradhan, Klaus Jahn
It has recently been demonstrated that noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (nGVS) delivered as imperceptible white noise can improve balance control via the induction of stochastic resonance. However, it is unclear whether these balance improvements are accompanied by simultaneous enhancement to vestibular motion perception. In this study, 15 healthy subjects performed 8 quiet-stance tasks on foam with eyes closed at 8 different nGVS amplitudes ranging from 0 mA (baseline) to 0.5 mA. The nGVS amplitude that improved balance performance most compared to baseline was assigned as the optimal nGVS amplitude...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jiayue Cai, Soojin Lee, Fang Ba, Saurabh Garg, Laura J Kim, Aiping Liu, Diana Kim, Z Jane Wang, Martin J McKeown
Falls and balance difficulties remain a major source of morbidity in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and are stubbornly resistant to therapeutic interventions. The mechanisms of gait impairment in PD are incompletely understood but may involve changes in the Pedunculopontine Nucleus (PPN) and its associated connections. We utilized fMRI to explore the modulation of PPN connectivity by Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) in healthy controls ( n = 12) and PD subjects even without overt evidence of Freezing of Gait (FOG) while on medication ( n = 23)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Peng Yuan, Vincent Koppelmans, Patricia Reuter-Lorenz, Yiri De Dios, Nichole Gadd, Scott Wood, Roy Riascos, Igor Kofman, Jacob Bloomberg, Ajitkumar Mulavara, Rachael Seidler
Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) is frequently utilized as a spaceflight analog research environment to study the effects of axial body unloading and fluid shifts that are associated with spaceflight in the absence of gravitational modifications. HDBR has been shown to result in balance changes, presumably due to sensory reweighting and adaptation processes. Here, we examined whether HDBR results in changes in the neural correlates of vestibular processing. Thirteen men participated in a 70-day HDBR intervention; we measured balance, functional mobility, and functional brain activity in response to vestibular stimulation at 7 time points before, during, and after HDBR...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Rafael Barona-de-Guzmán, Claudio Krstulovic-Roa, Elena Donderis-Malea, Luz Barona-Lleó
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The emotional evaluation of the causes of vertigo is made using the clinical records and several subjective questionnaires. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the emotional response objectively, in normal subjects, during an induced vertigo crisis. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A caloric vestibular test with cold water was performed on 30 healthy subjects. The following physiological parameters were monitored during the 60seconds prior to and the 60seconds after the stimulation: Skin Conductivity, Peripheral Pulse Volume, Body Temperature, Muscle Contraction, Heart Rate, and Respiratory Rate...
March 8, 2018: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
Jonathan W Wallace, Brandon G Rasman, Brian H Dalton
Maintaining standing balance involves multisensory processing and integration to produce dynamic motor responses. Electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS) delivered over the mastoid processes can be used to explore the vestibular control of balance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intrinsic foot muscles exhibit vestibular-evoked balance responses and to characterize the traits associated with these responses. Electromyography (EMG) of the abductor hallucis, abductor digiti minimi and medial gastrocnemius and anterior-posterior (AP) forces were sampled while quietly standing participants were subjected to a random continuous EVS signal (peak-to-peak amplitude = ±3 mA)...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Ria Maxine Rühl, Thomas Bauermann, Marianne Dieterich, Peter Zu Eulenburg
The visual motion aftereffect (MAE) is the most prominent aftereffect in the visual system. Regarding its function, Psychophysical studies suggest its function to be a form of sensory error correction, possibly also triggered by incongruent visual-vestibular stimulation. Several observational imaging experiments have deducted an essential role for region MT+ in the perception of a visual MAE but not provided conclusive evidence. Potential confounders with the MAE such as ocular motor performance, attention, and vection sensations have also never been controlled for...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Sebastian Cozma, Cristina Mihaela Ghiciuc, Lisandra Damian, Vittorio Pasquali, Angelo Saponaro, Elena Catalina Lupusoru, Francesca Romana Patacchioli, Lucia Corina Dima-Cozma
INTRODUCTION: The vestibular acute stress induces reversible alert-like reactions that involve the sympathetic adrenal-medullar system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses. The present study aimed to evaluate salivary α-amylase and salivary cortisol production in relation with cardiovascular reactivity induced by acute stress in healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight young healthy male volunteers were examined under basal conditions and at various times after reaching the maximal nystagmic reaction following air caloric vestibular test...
2018: PloS One
R Schniepp, J C Boerner, J Decker, K Jahn, T Brandt, Max Wuehr
OBJECTIVES: To examine the mechanism underlying previously reported ameliorating effects of noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on balance performance in patients with bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) and determine those patients (incomplete versus complete vestibular loss) that might benefit from this intervention. METHODS: Vestibulospinal reflex thresholds were determined in 12 patients with BVP [2 with complete loss (cBVP) and 10 with residual function (rBVP)]...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neurology
David Carpenter, David Kaylie, Erin Piker, Dennis Frank-Ito
Purpose: This study assesses interaural differences in temporal bone anatomy in subjects with normal caloric findings. Method: Eligible patients included those referred to the Duke University Medical Center otology clinic complaining of dizziness, with a head computed tomography scan and caloric stimulation results within normal ranges (inter-ear difference ≤ 10% or < 25% unilateral weakness). Three-dimensional reconstructions of computed tomography scans in 11 patients were used to calculate the surface area and volume of lateral semicircular canals (LSCCs), mastoid airspaces, mastoid bones, and internal auditory canal diameter and circumference...
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
Xiang Huang, Junwei Ren, Jian Xu, Ming Xu, Danqi Chen, Mingyu Chen, Kaiyuan Ji, Hai Wang, Huiyu Chen, Lijie Cao, Yilin Shao, Ping Zhong, Richard Ballena, Liangfu Zhou, Ying Mao
To investigate the predictive utility of stimulation threshold (ST) of intraoperative electromyography monitoring for facial nerve (FN) outcomes among vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients postoperatively. The authors enrolled 103 unilateral VS patients who underwent surgical resection into a prospective cohort observational study from January 2013 to April 2015 in our hospital. ST values were used to categorize 81 patients into the "low current" (ST ≤ 0.05 mA) group and 22 patients into the control (ST > 0...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Ka-Loh Li, Daniel Lewis, Alan Jackson, Sha Zhao, Xiaoping Zhu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) with DSC-MRI using an "early time points" (ET) method based on microsphere theory. PURPOSE: To develop and assess a new ET method for absolute CBF estimation using low-dose high-temporal (LDHT) T1W-DCE-MRI. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Seven patients with sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) who underwent test-retest imaging; one patient with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) imaged pretreatment; and 12 neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients undergoing bevacizumab treatment, imaged pre- and 90 days posttreatment...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
G Attanasio, F Camerota, M Ralli, G Galeoto, G La Torre, M Galli, M De Vincentiis, A Greco, Claudia Celletti
BACKGROUNDS: Imbalance in elderly is a common problem strictly related to fall. AIMS: This study investigates the possibility that a new protocol based on the focal mechanical muscle vibration may improve balance and stability in elderly. METHODS: Pre-post non-randomized clinical trial has been used. Patients referring postural disequilibrium with negative vestibular bed-side examinations have been treated with focal muscle vibration applied to quadriceps muscles and evaluated before and immediately after therapy and after 1 week and after 1 month with postural stabilometric examination and with an inertial measurement units during the time up and go test...
February 21, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Amanda I Rodriguez, Megan L A Thomas, Denis Fitzpatrick, Kristen L Janky
OBJECTIVES: Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing is increasingly utilized in pediatric vestibular evaluations due to its diagnostic capability to identify otolith dysfunction and feasibility of testing. However, there is evidence demonstrating that the high-intensity stimulation level required to elicit a reliable VEMP response causes acoustic trauma in adults. Despite utility of VEMP testing in children, similar findings are unknown. It is hypothesized that increased sound exposure may exist in children because differences in ear-canal volume (ECV) compared with adults, and the effect of stimulus parameters (e...
March 2018: Ear and Hearing
Christian Pfeiffer, Jean-Paul Noel, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
Human-environment interactions are mediated through the body and occur within the peripersonal space (PPS), the space immediately adjacent to and surrounding the body. The PPS is taken to be a critical interface between the body and the environment, and indeed body-part specific PPS remapping has been shown to depend on body-part utilization, such as upper limb movements in otherwise static observers. How vestibular signals induced by whole-body movement contribute to PPS representation is less well understood...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
A S Kudryavtseva, A V Amelin
AIM: To study the parameters of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in different types of vertigo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-seven patients, 35 men and 42 women, aged 43.7±12.5 years, with vestibular vertigo and unsteadiness were examined. The activity of the stemocleidomastoid muscle in response to auditory stimulation of the ipsilateral ear was recorded using surface electromyography. RESULTS: There were a trend towards the increase in the N2 latency, the significant reduction of the P1-N2 amplitude (p<0,005) on both sides and significant changes in the coefficient of asymmetry...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Arthur Mallinson, Anouk Kuijpers, Neil Longridge
OBJECTIVE: Ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) in our hands provide us with reproducible and consistent results; however, it has been shown that the OVEMP amplitude decreases with increased stimulus duration. The exact number of stimuli for OVEMP recording is not consistent among the published papers describing this test. We aimed to determine the number of stimuli needed to produce a satisfactory OVEMP response and the consequences of a more prolonged stimulation to the OVEMP response...
February 20, 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Che-Wei Wu, Ralph P Tufano, Antonio Giacomo Rizzo, Angkoon Anuwong, Hui Sun, Paolo Carcoforo, Cancellieri Antonino, Mattia Portinari, Hoon Yub Kim
This video aimed to describe the role of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) during transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) with emphasis given to IONM technical and technological notes, the identification of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Standardized technique of IONM consist in identifying and monitoring both the vagus nerve and the RLNs before and after resection (V1, V2, R1, R2). According to this report, IONM during TOETVA is feasible and safe in providing identification and function of laryngeal nerves...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Christopher J Pastras, Ian S Curthoys, Ljiljana Sokolic, Daniel J Brown
In an attempt to view the effects of the efferent vestibular system (EVS) on peripheral dynamic vestibular function, we have monitored the Vestibular short-latency Evoked Potential (VsEP) evoked by pulses of bone conducted vibration during electrical stimulation of the EVS neurons near the floor of the fourth ventricle in the brainstem of anesthetized guinea pigs. Given the reported effects of EVS on primary afferent activity, we hypothesized that EVS stimulation would cause a slight reduction in the VsEP amplitude...
February 2, 2018: Hearing Research
Andreas Schindler, Andreas Bartels
Our phenomenological experience of the stable world is maintained by continuous integration of visual self-motion with extra-retinal signals. However, due to conventional constraints of fMRI acquisition in humans, neural responses to visuo-vestibular integration have only been studied using artificial stimuli, in the absence of voluntary head-motion. We here circumvented these limitations and let participants to move their heads during scanning. The slow dynamics of the BOLD signal allowed us to acquire neural signal related to head motion after the observer's head was stabilized by inflatable aircushions...
February 7, 2018: NeuroImage
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