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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931814/optical-trapping-of-otoliths-drives-vestibular-behaviours-in-larval-zebrafish
#1
Itia A Favre-Bulle, Alexander B Stilgoe, Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Ethan K Scott
The vestibular system, which detects gravity and motion, is crucial to survival, but the neural circuits processing vestibular information remain incompletely characterised. In part, this is because the movement needed to stimulate the vestibular system hampers traditional neuroscientific methods. Optical trapping uses focussed light to apply forces to targeted objects, typically ranging from nanometres to a few microns across. In principle, optical trapping of the otoliths (ear stones) could produce fictive vestibular stimuli in a stationary animal...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919878/postural-control-in-bilateral-vestibular-failure-its-relation-to-visual-proprioceptive-vestibular-and-cognitive-input
#2
Andreas Sprenger, Jann F Wojak, Nico M Jandl, Christoph Helmchen
Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC), visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912091/is-hippocampal-neurogenesis-modulated-by-the-sensation-of-self-motion-encoded-by-the-vestibular-system
#3
REVIEW
Paul F Smith
It is now well accepted that physical exercise stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and may promote cognitive ability. Less clear are the mechanisms by which this process occurs. One potential contributing influence, that is usually neglected, is the vestibular system, which by its very nature must be activated during physical exercise and which essentially cannot be turned off without complete bilateral vestibular lesions. This paper reviews a small literature that demonstrates that bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) in rats modulates cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) and that artificial electrical activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation, does also...
September 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904100/influence-of-biases-in-numerical-magnitude-allocation-on-human-pro-social-decision-making
#4
Qadeer Arshad, Yuliya Nigmatullina, Shuaib Siddiqui, Mustafa Franka, Saniya Mediratta, Sanjeev Ramachandaran, Rhannon Lobo, Paresh Malhotra, R Edward Roberts, Adolfo M Bronstein
Over the past decade neuroscientific research has attempted to probe the neurobiological underpinnings of human pro-social decision-making. Such research has almost ubiquitously employed tasks such as the dictator game or similar variations (i.e. ultimatum game). Considering the explicit numerical nature of such tasks, it is surprising that the influence of numerical cognition upon decision-making during task performance remains unknown. Whilst performing these tasks, participants typically tend to anchor upon a 50:50 split that necessitates an explicit numerical judgement (i...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877495/wave-mechanics-of-the-vestibular-semicircular-canals
#5
Marta M Iversen, Richard D Rabbitt
The semicircular canals are biomechanical sensors responsible for detecting and encoding angular motion of the head in 3D space. Canal afferent neurons provide essential inputs to neural circuits responsible for representation of self-position/orientation in space, and to compensatory circuits including the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-collic reflex arcs. In this work we derive, to our knowledge, a new 1D mathematical model quantifying canal biomechanics based on the morphology, dynamics of the inner ear fluids, and membranous labyrinth deformability...
September 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861037/the-clinical-utility-of-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-in-the-diagnosis-of-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Maxime Maheu, Jenny Marylin Alvarado-Umanzor, Audrey Delcenserie, François Champoux
Ménière's disease (MD) is a condition that has been proposed over 150 years ago, which involves audiological and vestibular manifestations, such as aural fullness, tinnitus, vertigo, and fluctuating hearing thresholds. Over the past few years, many researchers have assessed different techniques to help diagnose this pathology. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) is an electrophysiological method assessing the saccule (cVEMP) and the utricule (oVEMP). Its clinical utility in the diagnosis of multiple pathologies, such as superior canal dehiscence, has made this tool a common method used in otologic clinics...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861034/playing-music-may-improve-the-gait-pattern-in-patients-with-bilateral-caloric-areflexia-wearing-a-cochlear-implant-results-from-a-pilot-study
#7
Ann Hallemans, Griet Mertens, Paul Van de Heyning, Vincent Van Rompaey
HYPOTHESIS: Auditory information through an active cochlear implant (CI) influences gait parameters in adults with bilateral caloric areflexia and profound sensorineural hearing loss. BACKGROUND: Patients with bilateral caloric areflexia suffer from imbalance, resulting in an increased risk of falling. In case of simultaneous deafness, the lack of auditory feedback results in less awareness of the auditory scene. This combination might produce significant challenges while walking and navigating...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861030/coding-of-velocity-storage-in-the-vestibular-nuclei
#8
Sergei B Yakushin, Theodore Raphan, Bernard Cohen
Semicircular canal afferents sense angular acceleration and output angular velocity with a short time constant of ≈4.5 s. This output is prolonged by a central integrative network, velocity storage that lengthens the time constants of eye velocity. This mechanism utilizes canal, otolith, and visual (optokinetic) information to align the axis of eye velocity toward the spatial vertical when head orientation is off-vertical axis. Previous studies indicated that vestibular-only (VO) and vestibular-pause-saccade (VPS) neurons located in the medial and superior vestibular nucleus could code all aspects of velocity storage...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855291/the-effect-of-m-current-modulation-on-mammalian-vestibular-responses-to-transient-head-motion
#9
Choongheon Lee, Joseph Christopher Holt, Timothy Arthur Jones
The precise role and mechanisms underlying efferent modulation of peripheral vestibular afferent function are not well understood in mammals. Clarifying the details of efferent action may lead to new strategies for clinical management of debilitating disturbances in vestibular and balance function. Recent evidence in turtle indicates that efferent modulation of M-currents is likely one mechanism for modifying afferent discharge. M-currents depend in part on KCNQ potassium conductances (Kv7) which can be adjusted through efferent activation of M1, M3 and/or M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs)...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840085/-pure-suprasellar-schwannoma-presented-with-communicating-hydrocephalus-a-case-report
#10
Tomoya Oishi, Seiya Takehara, Yasuhiro Yamamura, Mamoru Tomida, Shinji Ito, Ken Kuriki, Hiroki Namba
Schwannoma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor originating from Schwann cells. Most intracranial schwannomas arise from vestibular nerve and schwannoma in the suprasellar region is extremely rare. A 64-year-old man presented with walking disturbance and blurred vision for three months. Lateral hemianopsia in the left eye and brachybasia were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a suprasellar tumor with strong contrast enhancement associated with communicating hydrocephalus. The cerebrospinal fluid tap test improved gait disturbance...
July 2017: NMC Case Rep J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833167/coordination-of-the-upper-and-lower-limbs-for-vestibular-control-of-balance
#11
Craig P Smith, Jonathan E Allsop, Michael Mistry, Raymond F Reynolds
Vestibular stimulation can evoke responses in the arm when it is used for balance. Here we determine how these responses are affected by grip context, and how they are coordinated with the rest of the body. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was used to evoke balance responses under three conditions of manual contact with an earth-fixed object: no contact (NC), light grip (<1 N) (LG), and firm grip (FG). As grip progressed along this continuum, we observed an increase in GVS-evoked hand force, with a simultaneous reduction in ground reaction force (GRF) through the feet...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816686/vestibular-response-to-electrical-stimulation-of-the-otolith-organs-implications-in-the-development-of-a-vestibular-implant-for-the-improvement-of-the-sensation-of-gravitoinertial-accelerations
#12
Angel Ramos de Miguel, Juan Carlos Falcon Gonzalez, Angel Ramos Macias
OBJECTIVE: Electrical stimulation of the utricular and saccular portions of the vestibular nerve improves stability in patients suffering from vestibular dysfunction. The main objective of this study was to evaluate a new technique, vestibular response telemetry (VRT), for measuring the electrically evoked vestibular compound action potential (saccular and utricular) after stimulating the otolith organ (saccular and utricular) in adults. This study used evidence that the otolith organ can be electrically stimulated in order to develop a new vestibular implant design to improve the sensation of gravitoinertial acceleration...
August 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814637/asymmetric-vestibular-stimulation-reveals-persistent-disruption-of-motion-perception-in-unilateral-vestibular-lesions
#13
Roberto Panichi, Mario Faralli, Rosa Bruni, Artemis Kiriakarely, Chiara Occhigrossi, Aldo Ferraresi, Adolfo M Bronstein, Vito Enrico Pettorossi
Self-motion perception was studied in patients with unilateral vestibular lesions (UVL) due to acute vestibular neuritis at 1 week, 4, 8 and 12 months after the acute episode. We assessed vestibularly-mediated self-motion perception by measuring the error in reproducing the position of a remembered visual target at the end of 4 cycles of asymmetric whole-body rotation. The oscillatory stimulus consists of a slow (0.09Hz) and a fast (0.38Hz) half cycle. A large error was present in UVL patients when the slow half cycle was delivered towards the lesion side, but minimal towards the healthy side...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814456/downregulation-of-early-visual-cortex-excitability-mediates-oscillopsia-suppression
#14
Hena Ahmad, R Edward Roberts, Mitesh Patel, Rhannon Lobo, Barry Seemungal, Qadeer Arshad, Adolfo Bronstein
OBJECTIVE: To identify in an observational study the neurophysiologic mechanisms that mediate adaptation to oscillopsia in patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). METHODS: We directly probe the hypothesis that adaptive changes that mediate oscillopsia suppression implicate the early visual-cortex (V1/V2). Accordingly, we investigated V1/V2 excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 12 avestibular patients and 12 healthy controls. Specifically, we assessed TMS-induced phosphene thresholds at baseline and cortical excitability changes while performing a visual motion adaptation paradigm during the following conditions: baseline measures (i...
September 12, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807144/regulation-of-l-type-cav1-3-channel-activity-and-insulin-secretion-by-the-cgmp-pkg-signaling-pathway
#15
Alejandro Sandoval, Paz Duran, María A Gandini, Arturo Andrade, Angélica Almanza, Simon Kaja, Ricardo Felix
cGMP is a second messenger widely used in the nervous system and other tissues. One of the major effectors for cGMP is the serine/threonine protein kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of a variety of proteins including ion channels. Previously, it has been shown that the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway inhibits Ca(2+) currents in rat vestibular hair cells and chromaffin cells. This current allegedly flow through voltage-gated CaV1.3L-type Ca(2+) channels, and is important for controlling vestibular hair cell sensory function and catecholamine secretion, respectively...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798718/vestibular-modulation-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity-to-muscle-and-skin-in-humans
#16
REVIEW
Elie Hammam, Vaughan G Macefield
We review the existence of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans. While several methods to activate the human vestibular apparatus have been used, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a means of selectively modulating vestibular afferent activity via electrodes over the mastoid processes, causing robust vestibular illusions of side-to-side movement. Sinusoidal GVS (sGVS) causes partial entrainment of sympathetic outflow to muscle and skin. Modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) from vestibular inputs competes with baroreceptor inputs, with stronger temporal coupling to the vestibular stimulus being observed at frequencies remote from the cardiac frequency; "super entrainment" was observed in some individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797517/gynecologic-anatomic-abnormalities-following-anorectal-malformations-repair
#17
Alejandra Vilanova-Sanchez, Carlos A Reck, Kate A McCracken, Victoria A Lane, Alessandra C Gasior, Richard J Wood, Marc A Levitt, Geri D Hewitt
BACKGROUND/AIM: Patients may present with gynecologic concerns after previous posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) for repair of an anorectal malformation (ARM). Common findings include an inadequate or shortened perineal body, as well as introital stenosis, retained vaginal septum, and remnant rectovestibular fistula. An inadequate or shortened perineal body may impact fecal continence, sexual function and recommendations regarding obstetrical mode of delivery. We describe our experience with female patients referred to our center for evaluation of their previously repaired ARM, with a specific focus on perineal body anatomy and concomitant gynecologic abnormalities...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796087/hearing-preservation-during-cochlear-implantation-and-electroacoustic-stimulation-in-patients-with-slc26a4-mutations
#18
Kyung Jin Roh, Sera Park, Jin Se Jung, In Seok Moon, Sung Huhn Kim, Mi Young Bang, Jae Young Choi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with SCL26A4 mutations presenting with Mondini deformity and enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) tend to have comparable residual hearing. Although cochlear implantation (CI) produces good results in this group, deterioration of residual hearing can be an adverse event after surgery due to accompanying cochlear malformation and perilymph leakage during cochleostomy. The purpose of this study was to investigate if CI in patients with SCL26A4 mutations via the round window (RW) approach could achieve preservation of residual hearing, and to evaluate their speech reception with electroacoustic stimulation (EAS)...
October 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790966/randomized-controlled-study-of-a-remote-flipped-classroom-neuro-otology-curriculum
#19
Frederick Robert Carrick, Mahera Abdulrahman, Ahmed Hankir, Maksim Zayaruzny, Kinda Najem, Palita Lungchukiet, Roger A Edwards
CONTEXT: Medical Education can be delivered in the traditional classroom or via novel technology including an online classroom. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that learning in an online classroom would result in similar outcomes as learning in the traditional classroom when using a flipped classroom pedagogy. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. A total of 274 subjects enrolled in a Neuro-otology training program for non-Neuro-otologists of 25 h held over a 3-day period...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783491/adaptation-of-postural-recovery-responses-to-a-vestibular-sensory-illusion-in-individuals-with-parkinson-disease-and-healthy-controls
#20
Mark E Lester, James T Cavanaugh, K Bo Foreman, Scott W Shaffer, Robin Marcus, Leland E Dibble
BACKGROUND: The ability to adapt postural responses to sensory illusions diminishes with age and is further impaired by Parkinson disease. However, limited information exists regarding training-related adaptions of sensory reweighting in these populations. METHODS: This study sought to determine whether Parkinson disease or age would differentially affect acute postural recovery or adaptive postural responses to novel or repeated exposure to sensory illusions using galvanic vestibular stimulation during quiet stance...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
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