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vestibular stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506486/preoperative-and-intraoperative-neurophysiological-investigations-for-surgical-resections-in-functional-areas
#1
G Huberfeld, A Trébuchon, L Capelle, J-M Badier, S Chen, J-P Lefaucheur, M Gavaret
Brain regions are removed to treat lesions, but great care must be taken not to disturb or remove functional areas in the lesion and in surrounding tissue where healthy and diseased cells may be intermingled, especially for infiltrating tumors. Cortical functional areas and fiber tracts can be localized preoperatively by probabilistic anatomical tools, but mapping of functional integrity by neurophysiology is essential. Identification of the primary motor cortex seems to be more effectively performed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) than functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484380/perceived-intensity-and-discrimination-ability-for-lingual-electrotactile-stimulation-depends-on-location-and-orientation-of-electrodes
#2
Joel Moritz, Philip Turk, John D Williams, Leslie M Stone-Roy
Malfunctioning sensory systems can severely impact quality of life and repair is not always possible. One solution, called sensory substitution, is to use another sensory system to bring lost information to the brain. This approach often involves the use of bioengineered devices that electrically stimulate somatosensory fibers. Interestingly, the tongue is an ideal location for electrotactile stimulation due to its dense innervation, moisture, and protected environment. Success with transmitting visual and vestibular information through the tongue indicates promise for future applications...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483393/activation-of-5-ht7-receptors-reverses-nmda-r-dependent-ltd-by-activating-pka-in-medial-vestibular-neurons
#3
Yan-Hai Li, Lei Han, Kenneth Lap-Kei Wu, Ying-Shing Chan
The medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) is a major output station for neurons that project to the vestibulo-spinal pathway. MVN neurons show capacity for long-term depression (LTD) during the juvenile period. We investigated LTD of MVN neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. High frequency stimulation (HFS) robustly induced LTD in 90% of type B neurons in the MVN, while only 10% of type A neurons were responsive, indicating that type B neurons are the major contributors to LTD in the MVN. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT) is known to modulate LTD in neural circuits of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus...
May 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475547/prediction-of-intraoperative-csf-gusher-and-postoperative-facial-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-cochleovestibular-malformations-undergoing-cochlear-implantation-surgery
#4
Teru Kamogashira, Shinichi Iwasaki, Akinori Kashio, Akinobu Kakigi, Shotaro Karino, Yu Matsumoto, Tatsuya Yamasoba
OBJECTIVE: To determine parameters in computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone that would be useful for prediction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gusher during cochlear implantation (CI) surgery and postoperative facial nerve stimulation (FNS) in patients with inner ear malformations. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Three hundred seventy-five cases who had undergone CI surgery including 54 inner ear malformation cases were analyzed...
May 4, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458103/changes-in-the-interictal-and-early-postictal-diffusion-and-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-parameters-in-familial-spontaneous-epileptic-cats
#5
Yuji Hamamoto, Daisuke Hasegawa, Shunta Mizoguchi, Yoshihiko Yu, Masae Wada, Takayuki Kuwabara, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Michio Fujita
OBJECTIVE: The familial spontaneous epileptic cat (FSEC) is thought to be a good genetic model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In the current study, cerebral diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to confirm the functional deficit zone in the FSEC and evaluate the effect of a single seizure on different brain regions. METHODS: Six FSECs and six healthy control cats were used in this study. MRI was performed in the interictal state (resting state for control) and postictal state immediately after the vestibular stimulation-induced generalized epileptic seizure (control cats received the same stimulation as the FSECs)...
April 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457586/adaptation-of-the-vertical-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-in-cats-during-low-frequency-vertical-rotation
#6
Hiroaki Fushiki, Motoyoshi Maruyama, Hideo Shojaku
OBJECTIVE: We examined plastic changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during low-frequency vertical head rotation, a condition under which otolith inputs from the vestibular system are essential for VOR generation. METHODS: For adaptive conditioning of the vertical VOR, 0.02Hz sinusoidal pitch rotation for one hour about the earth's horizontal axis was synchronized with out-of-phase vertical visual stimulation from a random dot pattern. RESULTS: A vertical VOR was well evoked when the upright animal rotated around the earth-horizontal axis (EHA) at low frequency due to the changing gravity stimulus and dynamic stimulation of the otoliths...
April 27, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455665/cross-coupling-vestibular-stimulation-motion-sickness-and-the-vestibulo-sympathetic-reflex
#7
Fausto Romano, Nicoletta Caramia, Dominik Straumann, Eugene Nalivaiko, Giovanni Bertolini
Motion sickness is associated with a variety of autonomic symptoms, presumably due to proximity or functional interconnectivity between the autonomic centers in the brainstem and the vestibular system. A direct influence of the vestibular system on cardiovascular variables, defined as the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex, has been reported previously. Our aim was to investigate the sudomotor components of the autonomic responses associated with motion sickness during passive cross-coupling stimulation ("roll while rotating")...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424657/magnetic-vestibular-stimulation-mvs-as-a-technique-for-understanding-the-normal-and-diseased-labyrinth
#8
REVIEW
Bryan K Ward, Jorge Otero-Millan, Prem Jareonsettasin, Michael C Schubert, Dale C Roberts, David S Zee
Humans often experience dizziness and vertigo around strong static magnetic fields such as those present in an MRI scanner. Recent evidence supports the idea that this effect is the result of inner ear vestibular stimulation and that the mechanism is a magnetohydrodynamic force (Lorentz force) that is generated by the interactions between normal ionic currents in the inner ear endolymph and the strong static magnetic field of MRI machines. While in the MRI, the Lorentz force displaces the cupula of the lateral and anterior semicircular canals, as if the head was rotating with a constant acceleration...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424655/sustained-and-transient-vestibular-systems-a-physiological-basis-for-interpreting-vestibular-function
#9
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys, Hamish G MacDougall, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Catherine de Waele
Otolithic afferents with regular resting discharge respond to gravity or low-frequency linear accelerations, and we term these the static or sustained otolithic system. However, in the otolithic sense organs, there is anatomical differentiation across the maculae and corresponding physiological differentiation. A specialized band of receptors called the striola consists of mainly type I receptors whose hair bundles are weakly tethered to the overlying otolithic membrane. The afferent neurons, which form calyx synapses on type I striolar receptors, have irregular resting discharge and have low thresholds to high frequency (e...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409723/role-of-electrophysiology-in-guiding-near-total-resection-for-preservation-of-facial-nerve-function-in-the-surgical-treatment-of-large-vestibular-schwannomas
#10
Daniele Bernardeschi, Nadya Pyatigorskaya, Antoine Vanier, Franck Bielle, Mustapha Smail, Georges Lamas, Olivier Sterkers, Michel Kalamarides
OBJECTIVE In large vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery, the facial nerve (FN) is at high risk of injury. Near-total resection has been advocated in the case of difficult facial nerve dissection, but the amount of residual tumor that should be left and when dissection should be stopped remain controversial factors. The objective of this study was to report FN outcome and radiological results in patients undergoing near-total VS resection guided by electromyographic supramaximal stimulation of the FN at the brainstem...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405011/plasticity-within-excitatory-and-inhibitory-pathways-of-the-vestibulo-spinal-circuitry-guides-changes-in-motor-performance
#11
Diana E Mitchell, Charles C Della Santina, Kathleen E Cullen
Investigations of behaviors with well-characterized circuitry are required to understand how the brain learns new motor skills and ensures existing behaviors remain appropriately calibrated over time. Accordingly, here we recorded from neurons within different sites of the vestibulo-spinal circuitry of behaving macaque monkeys during temporally precise activation of vestibular afferents. Behaviorally relevant patterns of vestibular nerve activation generated a rapid and substantial decrease in the monosynaptic responses recorded at the first central stage of processing from neurons receiving direct input from vestibular afferents within minutes, as well as a decrease in the compensatory reflex response that lasted up to 8 hours...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391373/noisy-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-an-emerging-treatment-option-for-bilateral-vestibulopathy
#12
Max Wuehr, Julian Decker, Roman Schniepp
Patients with bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) suffer from persistent imbalance during standing and walking as well as an impaired gaze stabilization during head movements. Disabilities associated with BVP severely compromise patients' daily activities and are often linked to an increased risk of falls. Currently, the only established treatment option in BVP is physical therapy. However, treatment effects of physical therapy in BVP are most often limited and many patients do not adequately recover performance...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388686/vestibular-stimulation-induced-facilitation-of-cervical-premotoneuronal-systems-in-humans
#13
Shinya Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Shun Irie, Ryohei Ariyasu, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Yukari Ohki
It is unclear how descending inputs from the vestibular system affect the excitability of cervical interneurons in humans. To elucidate this, we investigated the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on the spatial facilitation of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by combined pyramidal tract and peripheral nerve stimulation. To assess the spatial facilitation, electromyograms were recorded from the biceps brachii muscles (BB) of healthy subjects. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the contralateral primary motor cortex and electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral ulnar nerve at the wrist were delivered either separately or together, with interstimulus intervals of 10 ms (TMS behind)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387693/visual-vestibular-processing-deficits-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
W G Wright, R T Tierney, J McDevitt
BACKGROUND: The search for reliable and valid signs and symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly synonymous with concussion, has lead to a growing body of evidence that individuals with long-lasting, unremitting impairments often experience visual and vestibular symptoms, such as dizziness, postural and gait disturbances. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the role of visual-vestibular processing deficits following concussion. METHODS: A number of clinically accepted vestibular, oculomotor, and balance assessments as well as a novel virtual reality (VR)-based balance assessment device were used to assess adults with post-acute concussion (n = 14) in comparison to a healthy age-matched cohort (n = 58)...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387690/the-vestibular-implant-a-probe-in-orbit-around-the-human-balance-system
#15
Angelica Perez Fornos, Samuel Cavuscens, Maurizio Ranieri, Raymond van de Berg, Robert Stokroos, Herman Kingma, Jean-Philippe Guyot, Nils Guinand
The primary goal of the vestibular implant is to restore the vestibular function in patients with a disabling bilateral vestibular loss for whom there is currently no available treatment. The prototype developed by our team is a hybrid system consisting of a modified cochlear implant incorporating additional vestibular electrodes. Therefore, in addition of delivering sound information it is also capable of delivering motion information to the central nervous system using electrical stimulation. To date, thirteen patients have been implanted with such vestibular implant prototypes...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371703/use-of-neck-torsion-as-a-specific-test-of-neck-related-postural-instability
#16
Katrina Williams, Ahmad Tarmizi, Julia Treleaven
BACKGROUND: Disturbed postural stability in neck pain (NP) is likely due to abnormal cervical afferent function. Several potential causes requires specific diagnostic tests. The neck torsion (head still body rotated) manoeuvre stimulates cervical but not vestibular receptors and identified abnormal cervical afferent input as the cause in patients with NP compared to healthy controls. Comparison between vestibular and NP subjects is now needed. AIMS: To compare individuals with unilateral vestibular loss (UVL), persistent NP and asymptomatic controls...
June 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368883/effect-of-gaze-stabilization-exercises-on-vestibular-function-during-postural-control
#17
Akiyoshi Matsugi, Yusuke Ueta, Kosuke Oku, Kojiro Okuno, Yoshiki Tamaru, Shohei Nomura, Hiroaki Tanaka, Nobuhiko Mori
Gaze-stabilization exercise (GSE) is often conducted in vestibular rehabilitation, but its effect on vestibular function in postural control is not clear. We investigated whether GSE affects vestibular function during static upright standing and vestibulospinal reflex (VSR) in healthy young adults. First, the center of pressure of the total trajectory length (CoP-L) was measured before each GSE task or control (only standing) task (pre), immediately after (post), and 10 min after (post10) in the static standing position on foam rubber with the eyes open or closed (EC)...
May 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362960/ipsilateral-motor-innervation-discovered-incidentally-on-intraoperative-monitoring-a-case-report
#18
Jerry Ku, Daniel Mendelsohn, Jason Chew, Jason Shewchuk, Charles Dong, Ryojo Akagami
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Lesions in the corticospinal tract above the decussation at the medullary pyramids almost universally produce contralateral deficits. Rare cases of supratentorial lesions causing ipsilateral motor deficits have been reported previously, but only ever found secondary to stroke or congenital pyramidal tract malformations. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Herein, we report a case of ipsilateral corticospinal tract innervation discovered incidentally with intraoperative monitoring during a microsurgical resection of a vestibular schwannoma...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360882/vestibular-activation-habituates-the-vasovagal-response-in-the-rat
#19
Bernard Cohen, Giorgio P Martinelli, Yongqing Xiang, Theodore Raphan, Sergei B Yakushin
Vasovagal syncope is a significant medical problem without effective therapy, postulated to be related to a collapse of baroreflex function. While some studies have shown that repeated static tilts can block vasovagal syncope, this was not found in other studies. Using anesthetized, male Long-Evans rats that were highly susceptible to generation of vasovagal responses, we found that repeated activation of the vestibulosympathetic reflex (VSR) with ±2 and ±3 mA, 0.025 Hz sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS) caused incremental changes in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) that blocked further generation of vasovagal responses...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360849/embodied-medicine-mens-sana-in-corpore-virtuale-sano
#20
Giuseppe Riva, Silvia Serino, Daniele Di Lernia, Enea Francesco Pavone, Antonios Dakanalis
Progress in medical science and technology drastically improved physicians' ability to interact with patient's physical body. Nevertheless, medicine still addresses the human body from a Hippocratic point of view, considering the organism and its processes just as a matter of mechanics and fluids. However, the interaction between the cognitive neuroscience of bodily self-consciousness (BSC), fundamentally rooted in the integration of multisensory bodily inputs, with virtual reality (VR), haptic technologies and robotics is giving a new meaning to the classic Juvenal's latin dictum "Mens sana in corpore sano" (a healthy mind in a healthy body)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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