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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102129/an-overview-of-cochlear-implant-electrode-array-designs
#1
REVIEW
Anandhan Dhanasingh, Claude Jolly
Cochlear implant electrode arrays are designed with specific characteristics that allow for the preservation of intra-cochlear structures during the insertion process, as well as during explantation. Straight lateral wall (LW) electrode arrays and pre-curved modiolar hugging (MH) electrode arrays are the two types that are commercially available. Although there is a third type of electrode array called the mid-scala (MS), which is positioned in the middle of the scala tympani (ST), and is usually considered as an MH type of electrode...
October 18, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100928/stochastic-resonance-in-the-human-vestibular-system-noise-induced-facilitation-of-vestibulospinal-reflexes
#2
M Wuehr, J C Boerner, C Pradhan, J Decker, K Jahn, T Brandt, R Schniepp
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that the presence of noise can enhance information processing in sensory systems via stochastic resonance (SR). OBJECTIVES: To examine the presence of SR in human vestibulospinal reflex function. METHODS: Healthy subjects were stimulated with 1 Hz sinusoidal GVS of varying amplitudes (0-1.9 mA). Coherence between GVS input and stimulation-induced motion responses was determined and psychometric function fits were subsequently used to determine individual vestibulospinal reflex thresholds...
October 31, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089920/altered-insular-and-occipital-responses-to-simulated-vertical-self-motion-in-patients-with-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness
#3
Roberta Riccelli, Luca Passamonti, Nicola Toschi, Salvatore Nigro, Giuseppe Chiarella, Claudio Petrolo, Francesco Lacquaniti, Jeffrey P Staab, Iole Indovina
BACKGROUND: Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is a common functional vestibular disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of non-vertiginous dizziness and unsteadiness that are exacerbated by upright posture, self-motion, and exposure to complex or moving visual stimuli. Recent physiologic and neuroimaging data suggest that greater reliance on visual cues for postural control (as opposed to vestibular cues-a phenomenon termed visual dependence) and dysfunction in central visuo-vestibular networks may be important pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying PPPD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089158/cerebellar-ataxia-with-neuropathy-and-vestibular-areflexia-syndrome-canvas
#4
Masakatsu Taki, Takashi Nakamura, Hiraku Matsuura, Tatsuhisa Hasegawa, Hirofumi Sakaguchi, Kanako Morita, Ryotaro Ishii, Ikuko Mizuta, Takashi Kasai, Toshiki Mizuno, Shigeru Hirano
Cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and bilateral vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) is a novel ataxic disorder consisting of the triad of cerebellar impairment, bilateral vestibular hypofunction, and a somatosensory deficit. We report the first Japanese case of CANVAS. The patient is a 68-year-old Japanese male. He was referred to our university for further evaluation of progressive gait disturbance and ataxia. He exhibited horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus and sensory deficit. Nerve conduction studies showed sensory neuronopathy...
October 28, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081426/bilateral-vestibulopathy-diagnostic-criteria-consensus-document-of-the-classification-committee-of-the-b%C3%A3-r%C3%A3-ny-society
#5
Michael Strupp, Ji-Soo Kim, Toshihisa Murofushi, Dominik Straumann, Joanna C Jen, Sally M Rosengren, Charles C Della Santina, Herman Kingma
This paper describes the diagnostic criteria for bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) by the Classification Committee of the Bárány Society. The diagnosis of BVP is based on the patient history, bedside examination and laboratory evaluation. Bilateral vestibulopathy is a chronic vestibular syndrome which is characterized by unsteadiness when walking or standing, which worsen in darkness and/or on uneven ground, or during head motion. Additionally, patients may describe head or body movement-induced blurred vision or oscillopsia...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079459/effect-of-noisy-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-on-center-of-pressure-sway-of-static-standing-posture
#6
Yasuto Inukai, Naofumi Otsuru, Mitsuhiro Masaki, Kei Saito, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Hideaki Onishi
BACKGROUND: The vestibular system is involved in the control of standing balance. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a noninvasive technique that can stimulate the vestibular system. In recent years, noisy GVS (nGVS) using noise current stimulation has been attempted, but it has not been clarified whether it affects postural sway in open-eye standing. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of nGVS on the center of pressure (COP) sway measurement in open-eye standing postural control and identify the responders of nGVS...
October 17, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075558/the-medium-latency-muscle-response-to-a-vestibular-perturbation-is-increased-after-depression-of-the-cerebellar-vermis
#7
Chris K Lam, William R Staines, Craig D Tokuno, Leah R Bent
INTRODUCTION: Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is able to evoke distinct responses in the muscles used for balance. These reflexes, termed the short (SL) and medium latency (ML) responses, can be altered by sensory input; decreasing in size when additional sensory cues are available. Although much is known about these responses, the origin and role of the responses are still not fully understood. It has been suggested that the cerebellum, a structure that is involved in postural control and sensory integration, may play a role in the modulation of these reflexes...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065095/cochlear-implant-associated-labyrinthitis-a-previously-unrecognized-phenomenon-with-a-distinct-clinical-and-electrophysiological-impedance-pattern
#8
Deeyar A Itayem, Douglas Sladen, Colin L Driscoll, Brian A Neff, Charles W Beatty, Matthew L Carlson
OBJECTIVES: To report a unique clinical entity "cochlear implant associated labyrinthitis," characterized by a distinct constellation of clinical symptoms and pattern of electrode impedance fluctuations. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: All patients that underwent cochlear implantation between January 2014 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. All subjects with acute onset dizziness, device performance decline, and characteristic erratic pattern of electrode impedances occurring after an asymptotic postoperative interval were identified and reported...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064829/cervical-kinematics-in-patients-with%C3%A2-vestibular-pathology-vs-patients-with%C3%A2-neck-pain-a-pilot-study
#9
Grace Williams, Hilla Sarig-Bahat, Katrina Williams, Ryan Tyrrell, Julia Treleaven
OBJECTIVE: Research has consistently shown cervical kinematic impairments in subjects with persistent neck pain (NP). It could be reasoned that those with vestibular pathology (VP) may also have altered kinematics since vestibular stimulation via head movement can cause dizziness and visual disturbances. However, this has not been examined to date. This pilot study investigated changes in cervical kinematics between asymptomatic control, NP and VP subjects using a Virtual Reality (VR) system...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060313/galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-gvs-effects-on-impaired-interhemispheric-connectivity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Soojin Lee, Diana Kim, Martin J McKeown
Disrupted interhemispheric connectivity (IHC) is being increasingly recognized as a robust feature of a number of neurological diseases, including Parkinson's Disease (PD). We investigated whether or not Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) - a proposed treatment for PD - affected IHC in 11 PD subjects (off medication). In order to avoid the confound of stimulation artifact disrupting the EEG, we investigated the immediate period (52 sec) after stimulation (72 sec) with noisy 1/f-type GVS stimuli. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was used to determine the subject-specific linear combination of EEG electrodes that maximized covariance between hemispheres and then computed coherence between the dominant PLS components...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020061/catching-up-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-compared-to-healthy-children-before-and-after-sensorimotor-therapy
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mats Niklasson, Torsten Norlander, Irene Niklasson, Peder Rasmussen
The aims of the present study were to (a) compare healthy children in terms of sensorimotor maturity to untreated children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and (b) compare healthy children to diagnosed children following completed treatment with sensorimotor therapy. Participants were 298 children, 196 boys and 102 girls, distributed into a Norm group of healthy children (n = 99) and a group of children diagnosed with DCD (n = 199) with a total mean age of 8.77 years (SD = 2.88). Participants in both groups were assessed on instruments aimed to detect sensorimotor deviations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972121/gaze-stabilizing-central-vestibular-neurons-project-asymmetrically-to-extraocular-motoneuron-pools
#12
David Schoppik, Isaac H Bianco, David A Prober, Adam D Douglass, Drew N Robson, Jennifer M B Li, Joel S F Greenwood, Edward Soucy, Florian Engert, Alexander F Schier
Within reflex circuits, specific anatomical projections allow central neurons to relay sensations to effectors that generate movements. A major challenge is to relate anatomical features of central neural populations -- such as asymmetric connectivity -- to the computations the populations perform. To address this problem, we mapped the anatomy, modeled the function, and discovered a new behavioral role for a genetically-defined population of central vestibular neurons in rhombomeres 5-7 of larval zebrafish...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963123/the-effect-of-fear-of-falling-on-vestibular-feedback-control-of-balance
#13
Jonathan L A de Melker Worms, John F Stins, Peter J Beek, Ian D Loram
Vestibular sensation contributes to cervical-head stabilization and fall prevention. To what extent fear of falling influences the associated vestibular feedback processes is currently undetermined. We used galanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) to induce vestibular reflexes while participants stood at ground level and on a narrow walkway at 3.85 m height to induce fear of falling. Fear was confirmed by questionnaires and elevated skin conductance. Full-body kinematics was measured to differentiate the whole-body centre of mass response (CoM) into component parts (cervical, axial trunk, appendicular short latency, and medium latency)...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931814/optical-trapping-of-otoliths-drives-vestibular-behaviours-in-larval-zebrafish
#14
Itia A Favre-Bulle, Alexander B Stilgoe, Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Ethan K Scott
The vestibular system, which detects gravity and motion, is crucial to survival, but the neural circuits processing vestibular information remain incompletely characterised. In part, this is because the movement needed to stimulate the vestibular system hampers traditional neuroscientific methods. Optical trapping uses focussed light to apply forces to targeted objects, typically ranging from nanometres to a few microns across. In principle, optical trapping of the otoliths (ear stones) could produce fictive vestibular stimuli in a stationary animal...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919878/postural-control-in-bilateral-vestibular-failure-its-relation-to-visual-proprioceptive-vestibular-and-cognitive-input
#15
Andreas Sprenger, Jann F Wojak, Nico M Jandl, Christoph Helmchen
Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC), visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912091/is-hippocampal-neurogenesis-modulated-by-the-sensation-of-self-motion-encoded-by-the-vestibular-system
#16
REVIEW
Paul F Smith
It is now well accepted that physical exercise stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and may promote cognitive ability. Less clear are the mechanisms by which this process occurs. One potential contributing influence, that is usually neglected, is the vestibular system, which by its very nature must be activated during physical exercise and which essentially cannot be turned off without complete bilateral vestibular lesions. This paper reviews a small literature that demonstrates that bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) in rats modulates cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) and that artificial electrical activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation, does also...
September 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904100/influence-of-biases-in-numerical-magnitude-allocation-on-human-pro-social-decision-making
#17
Qadeer Arshad, Yuliya Nigmatullina, Shuaib Siddiqui, Mustafa Franka, Saniya Mediratta, Sanjeev Ramachandaran, Rhannon Lobo, Paresh Malhotra, R Edward Roberts, Adolfo M Bronstein
Over the past decade neuroscientific research has attempted to probe the neurobiological underpinnings of human pro-social decision-making. Such research has almost ubiquitously employed tasks such as the dictator game or similar variations (i.e. ultimatum game). Considering the explicit numerical nature of such tasks, it is surprising that the influence of numerical cognition upon decision-making during task performance remains unknown. Whilst performing these tasks, participants typically tend to anchor upon a 50:50 split that necessitates an explicit numerical judgement (i...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877495/wave-mechanics-of-the-vestibular-semicircular-canals
#18
Marta M Iversen, Richard D Rabbitt
The semicircular canals are biomechanical sensors responsible for detecting and encoding angular motion of the head in 3D space. Canal afferent neurons provide essential inputs to neural circuits responsible for representation of self-position/orientation in space, and to compensatory circuits including the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-collic reflex arcs. In this work we derive, to our knowledge, a new 1D mathematical model quantifying canal biomechanics based on the morphology, dynamics of the inner ear fluids, and membranous labyrinth deformability...
September 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861037/the-clinical-utility-of-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-in-the-diagnosis-of-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Maxime Maheu, Jenny Marylin Alvarado-Umanzor, Audrey Delcenserie, François Champoux
Ménière's disease (MD) is a condition that has been proposed over 150 years ago, which involves audiological and vestibular manifestations, such as aural fullness, tinnitus, vertigo, and fluctuating hearing thresholds. Over the past few years, many researchers have assessed different techniques to help diagnose this pathology. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) is an electrophysiological method assessing the saccule (cVEMP) and the utricule (oVEMP). Its clinical utility in the diagnosis of multiple pathologies, such as superior canal dehiscence, has made this tool a common method used in otologic clinics...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861034/playing-music-may-improve-the-gait-pattern-in-patients-with-bilateral-caloric-areflexia-wearing-a-cochlear-implant-results-from-a-pilot-study
#20
Ann Hallemans, Griet Mertens, Paul Van de Heyning, Vincent Van Rompaey
HYPOTHESIS: Auditory information through an active cochlear implant (CI) influences gait parameters in adults with bilateral caloric areflexia and profound sensorineural hearing loss. BACKGROUND: Patients with bilateral caloric areflexia suffer from imbalance, resulting in an increased risk of falling. In case of simultaneous deafness, the lack of auditory feedback results in less awareness of the auditory scene. This combination might produce significant challenges while walking and navigating...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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