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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620284/electrophysiological-measurements-of-peripheral-vestibular-function-a-review-of-electrovestibulography
#1
REVIEW
Daniel J Brown, Christopher J Pastras, Ian S Curthoys
Electrocochleography (EcochG), incorporating the Cochlear Microphonic (CM), the Summating Potential (SP), and the cochlear Compound Action Potential (CAP), has been used to study cochlear function in humans and experimental animals since the 1930s, providing a simple objective tool to assess both hair cell (HC) and nerve sensitivity. The vestibular equivalent of ECochG, termed here Electrovestibulography (EVestG), incorporates responses of the vestibular HCs and nerve. Few research groups have utilized EVestG to study vestibular function...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618821/low-intensity-ultrasound-activates-vestibular-otolith-organs-through-acoustic-radiation-force
#2
M M Iversen, D A Christensen, D L Parker, H A Holman, J Chen, M J Frerck, R D Rabbitt
The present study examined the efficacy of 5 MHz low-intensity focused ultrasound (LiFU) as a stimulus to remotely activate inner ear vestibular otolith organs. The otolith organs are the primary sensory apparati responsible for detecting orientation of the head relative to gravity and linear acceleration in three-dimensional space. These organs also respond to loud sounds and vibration of the temporal bone. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used to facilitate unobstructed acoustic access to the otolith organs in vivo...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611657/vestibular-adaptations-induced-by-gentle-physical-activity-are-reduced-among-older-women
#3
Julien Maitre, Thierry Paillard
The aim of this study was to compare the ability of older individuals to maintain an efficient upright stance in contexts of vestibular sensory manipulation, according to their physical activity status. Two groups of healthy older women (aged over 65) free from any disorders (i.e., neurological, motor and metabolic disorders) and vestibular disturbances, participated in this study. One group comprised participants who regularly practiced gentle physical activities, i.e., soft gym, aquarobic, active walking, ballroom dancing (active group, age: 73...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605674/a-procedure-to-detect-abnormal-sensorimotor-control-in-adolescents-with-idiopathic-scoliosis
#4
Jean-Philippe Pialasse, Pierre Mercier, Martin Descarreaux, Martin Simoneau
This work identifies, among adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, those demonstrating impaired sensorimotor control through a classification procedure comparing the amplitude of their vestibular-evoked postural responses. The sensorimotor control of healthy adolescents (n=17) and adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (n=52) with either mild (Cobb angle≥15° and ≤30°) or severe (Cobb angle >30°) spine deformation was assessed through galvanic vestibular stimulation. A classification procedure sorted out adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis whether the amplitude of their vestibular-evoked postural response was dissimilar or similar to controls...
June 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592853/framing-susceptibility-in-a-risky-choice-game-is-altered-by-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation
#5
Nora Preuss, Roger Kalla, Rene Müri, Fred W Mast
Recent research provides evidence that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has a modulating effect on somatosensory perception and spatial cognition. However, other vestibular stimulation techniques have induced changes in affective control and decision making. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GVS on framing susceptibility in a risky-choice game. The participants were to decide between a safe and a risky option. The safe option was framed either positively or negatively. During the task, the participants were exposed to either left anodal/right cathodal GVS, right anodal/left cathodal GVS, or sham stimulation (control condition)...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570420/semicircular-canal-pressure-changes-during-high-intensity-acoustic-stimulation
#6
Anne K Maxwell, Renee M Banakis Hartl, Nathaniel T Greene, Victor Benichoux, Jameson K Mattingly, Stephen P Cass, Daniel J Tollin
HYPOTHESIS: Acoustic stimulation generates measurable sound pressure levels in the semicircular canals. BACKGROUND: High-intensity acoustic stimuli can cause hearing loss and balance disruptions. To examine the propagation of acoustic stimuli to the vestibular end-organs, we simultaneously measured fluid pressure in the cochlea and semicircular canals during both air- and bone-conducted sound presentation. METHODS: Five full-cephalic human cadaveric heads were prepared bilaterally with a mastoidectomy and extended facial recess...
May 31, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537687/the-effect-of-optimizing-eabr-parameters-in-artificial-cochlear-implantation-for-auditory-rehabilitation
#7
H-L Yang, Z Liu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to observe the relationship between V extraction rate and threshold value of electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR) waves in artificial cochlear implantation, in order to optimize EABR parameters for improving auditory rehabilitation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty patients without residual hearing and treated with artificial cochlear implants were selected. The experimental group included 17 cases with normal cochlear morphology, four with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS), six with Mondini malformation, and three with internal auditory canal stenosis...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506486/preoperative-and-intraoperative-neurophysiological-investigations-for-surgical-resections-in-functional-areas
#8
G Huberfeld, A Trébuchon, L Capelle, J-M Badier, S Chen, J-P Lefaucheur, M Gavaret
Brain regions are removed to treat lesions, but great care must be taken not to disturb or remove functional areas in the lesion and in surrounding tissue where healthy and diseased cells may be intermingled, especially for infiltrating tumors. Cortical functional areas and fiber tracts can be localized preoperatively by probabilistic anatomical tools, but mapping of functional integrity by neurophysiology is essential. Identification of the primary motor cortex seems to be more effectively performed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) than functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484380/perceived-intensity-and-discrimination-ability-for-lingual-electrotactile-stimulation-depends-on-location-and-orientation-of-electrodes
#9
Joel Moritz, Philip Turk, John D Williams, Leslie M Stone-Roy
Malfunctioning sensory systems can severely impact quality of life and repair is not always possible. One solution, called sensory substitution, is to use another sensory system to bring lost information to the brain. This approach often involves the use of bioengineered devices that electrically stimulate somatosensory fibers. Interestingly, the tongue is an ideal location for electrotactile stimulation due to its dense innervation, moisture, and protected environment. Success with transmitting visual and vestibular information through the tongue indicates promise for future applications...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483393/activation-of-5-ht7-receptors-reverses-nmda-r-dependent-ltd-by-activating-pka-in-medial-vestibular-neurons
#10
Yan-Hai Li, Lei Han, Kenneth Lap-Kei Wu, Ying-Shing Chan
The medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) is a major output station for neurons that project to the vestibulo-spinal pathway. MVN neurons show capacity for long-term depression (LTD) during the juvenile period. We investigated LTD of MVN neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. High frequency stimulation (HFS) robustly induced LTD in 90% of type B neurons in the MVN, while only 10% of type A neurons were responsive, indicating that type B neurons are the major contributors to LTD in the MVN. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT) is known to modulate LTD in neural circuits of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus...
May 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475547/prediction-of-intraoperative-csf-gusher-and-postoperative-facial-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-cochleovestibular-malformations-undergoing-cochlear-implantation-surgery
#11
Teru Kamogashira, Shinichi Iwasaki, Akinori Kashio, Akinobu Kakigi, Shotaro Karino, Yu Matsumoto, Tatsuya Yamasoba
OBJECTIVE: To determine parameters in computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone that would be useful for prediction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gusher during cochlear implantation (CI) surgery and postoperative facial nerve stimulation (FNS) in patients with inner ear malformations. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Three hundred seventy-five cases who had undergone CI surgery including 54 inner ear malformation cases were analyzed...
July 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458103/changes-in-the-interictal-and-early-postictal-diffusion-and-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-parameters-in-familial-spontaneous-epileptic-cats
#12
Yuji Hamamoto, Daisuke Hasegawa, Shunta Mizoguchi, Yoshihiko Yu, Masae Wada, Takayuki Kuwabara, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Michio Fujita
OBJECTIVE: The familial spontaneous epileptic cat (FSEC) is thought to be a good genetic model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In the current study, cerebral diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to confirm the functional deficit zone in the FSEC and evaluate the effect of a single seizure on different brain regions. METHODS: Six FSECs and six healthy control cats were used in this study. MRI was performed in the interictal state (resting state for control) and postictal state immediately after the vestibular stimulation-induced generalized epileptic seizure (control cats received the same stimulation as the FSECs)...
April 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457586/adaptation-of-the-vertical-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-in-cats-during-low-frequency-vertical-rotation
#13
Hiroaki Fushiki, Motoyoshi Maruyama, Hideo Shojaku
OBJECTIVE: We examined plastic changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during low-frequency vertical head rotation, a condition under which otolith inputs from the vestibular system are essential for VOR generation. METHODS: For adaptive conditioning of the vertical VOR, 0.02Hz sinusoidal pitch rotation for one hour about the earth's horizontal axis was synchronized with out-of-phase vertical visual stimulation from a random dot pattern. RESULTS: A vertical VOR was well evoked when the upright animal rotated around the earth-horizontal axis (EHA) at low frequency due to the changing gravity stimulus and dynamic stimulation of the otoliths...
April 27, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455665/cross-coupling-vestibular-stimulation-motion-sickness-and-the-vestibulo-sympathetic-reflex
#14
Fausto Romano, Nicoletta Caramia, Dominik Straumann, Eugene Nalivaiko, Giovanni Bertolini
Motion sickness is associated with a variety of autonomic symptoms, presumably due to proximity or functional interconnectivity between the autonomic centers in the brainstem and the vestibular system. A direct influence of the vestibular system on cardiovascular variables, defined as the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex, has been reported previously. Our aim was to investigate the sudomotor components of the autonomic responses associated with motion sickness during passive cross-coupling stimulation ("roll while rotating")...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424657/magnetic-vestibular-stimulation-mvs-as-a-technique-for-understanding-the-normal-and-diseased-labyrinth
#15
REVIEW
Bryan K Ward, Jorge Otero-Millan, Prem Jareonsettasin, Michael C Schubert, Dale C Roberts, David S Zee
Humans often experience dizziness and vertigo around strong static magnetic fields such as those present in an MRI scanner. Recent evidence supports the idea that this effect is the result of inner ear vestibular stimulation and that the mechanism is a magnetohydrodynamic force (Lorentz force) that is generated by the interactions between normal ionic currents in the inner ear endolymph and the strong static magnetic field of MRI machines. While in the MRI, the Lorentz force displaces the cupula of the lateral and anterior semicircular canals, as if the head was rotating with a constant acceleration...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424655/sustained-and-transient-vestibular-systems-a-physiological-basis-for-interpreting-vestibular-function
#16
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys, Hamish G MacDougall, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Catherine de Waele
Otolithic afferents with regular resting discharge respond to gravity or low-frequency linear accelerations, and we term these the static or sustained otolithic system. However, in the otolithic sense organs, there is anatomical differentiation across the maculae and corresponding physiological differentiation. A specialized band of receptors called the striola consists of mainly type I receptors whose hair bundles are weakly tethered to the overlying otolithic membrane. The afferent neurons, which form calyx synapses on type I striolar receptors, have irregular resting discharge and have low thresholds to high frequency (e...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409723/role-of-electrophysiology-in-guiding-near-total-resection-for-preservation-of-facial-nerve-function-in-the-surgical-treatment-of-large-vestibular-schwannomas
#17
Daniele Bernardeschi, Nadya Pyatigorskaya, Antoine Vanier, Franck Bielle, Mustapha Smail, Georges Lamas, Olivier Sterkers, Michel Kalamarides
OBJECTIVE In large vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery, the facial nerve (FN) is at high risk of injury. Near-total resection has been advocated in the case of difficult facial nerve dissection, but the amount of residual tumor that should be left and when dissection should be stopped remain controversial factors. The objective of this study was to report FN outcome and radiological results in patients undergoing near-total VS resection guided by electromyographic supramaximal stimulation of the FN at the brainstem...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405011/plasticity-within-excitatory-and-inhibitory-pathways-of-the-vestibulo-spinal-circuitry-guides-changes-in-motor-performance
#18
Diana E Mitchell, Charles C Della Santina, Kathleen E Cullen
Investigations of behaviors with well-characterized circuitry are required to understand how the brain learns new motor skills and ensures existing behaviors remain appropriately calibrated over time. Accordingly, here we recorded from neurons within different sites of the vestibulo-spinal circuitry of behaving macaque monkeys during temporally precise activation of vestibular afferents. Behaviorally relevant patterns of vestibular nerve activation generated a rapid and substantial decrease in the monosynaptic responses recorded at the first central stage of processing from neurons receiving direct input from vestibular afferents within minutes, as well as a decrease in the compensatory reflex response that lasted up to 8 hours...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391373/noisy-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-an-emerging-treatment-option-for-bilateral-vestibulopathy
#19
Max Wuehr, Julian Decker, Roman Schniepp
Patients with bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) suffer from persistent imbalance during standing and walking as well as an impaired gaze stabilization during head movements. Disabilities associated with BVP severely compromise patients' daily activities and are often linked to an increased risk of falls. Currently, the only established treatment option in BVP is physical therapy. However, treatment effects of physical therapy in BVP are most often limited and many patients do not adequately recover performance...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388686/vestibular-stimulation-induced-facilitation-of-cervical-premotoneuronal-systems-in-humans
#20
Shinya Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Shun Irie, Ryohei Ariyasu, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Yukari Ohki
It is unclear how descending inputs from the vestibular system affect the excitability of cervical interneurons in humans. To elucidate this, we investigated the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on the spatial facilitation of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by combined pyramidal tract and peripheral nerve stimulation. To assess the spatial facilitation, electromyograms were recorded from the biceps brachii muscles (BB) of healthy subjects. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the contralateral primary motor cortex and electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral ulnar nerve at the wrist were delivered either separately or together, with interstimulus intervals of 10 ms (TMS behind)...
2017: PloS One
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