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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933300/head-tilting-elicited-by-head-turning-in-three-dogs-with-hypoplastic-cerebellar-nodulus-and-ventral-uvula
#1
Shinji Tamura, Yuya Nakamoto, Takashi Uemura, Yumiko Tamura
The nodulus and ventral uvula (NU) of the cerebellum play a major role in vestibular function in humans and experimental animals; however, there is almost no information about NU function in the veterinary clinical literature. In this report, we describe three canine cases diagnosed with presumptive NU hypoplasia. Of them, one adult dog presented with cervical intervertebral disk disease, and two juvenile dogs presented with signs of central vestibular disease. Interestingly, an unusual and possibly overlooked neurological sign that we called "positioning head tilt" was observed in these dogs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911755/transformation-of-vestibular-signals-for-the-control-of-standing-in-humans
#2
Patrick A Forbes, Billy L Luu, H F Machiel Van der Loos, Elizabeth A Croft, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin
: During standing balance, vestibular signals encode head movement and are transformed into coordinates that are relevant to maintaining upright posture of the whole body. This transformation must account for head-on-body orientation as well as the muscle actions generating the postural response. Here, we investigate whether this transformation is dependent upon a muscle's ability to stabilize the body along the direction of a vestibular disturbance. Subjects were braced on top of a robotic balance system that simulated the mechanics of standing while being exposed to an electrical vestibular stimulus that evoked a craniocentric vestibular error of head roll...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883068/-cerebellar-contribution-to-visuo-attentional-alpha-rhythm-insights-from-weightlessness
#3
A M Cebolla, M Petieau, B Dan, L Balazs, J McIntyre, G Cheron
Human brain adaptation in weightlessness follows the necessity to reshape the dynamic integration of the neural information acquired in the new environment. This basic aspect was here studied by the electroencephalogram (EEG) dynamics where oscillatory modulations were measured during a visuo-attentional state preceding a visuo-motor docking task. Astronauts in microgravity conducted the experiment in free-floating aboard the International Space Station, before the space flight and afterwards. We observed stronger power decrease (~ERD: event related desynchronization) of the ~10 Hz oscillation from the occipital-parietal (alpha ERD) to the central areas (mu ERD)...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882725/analysis-of-risk-factors-to-predict-communicating-hydrocephalus-following-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-intracranial-schwannoma
#4
Seunghoon Lee, Seong-Wook Seo, Juyoung Hwang, Ho Jun Seol, Do-Hyun Nam, Jung-Il Lee, Doo-Sik Kong
Communicating hydrocephalus (HCP) in vestibular schwannomas (VS) after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been reported in the literature. However, little information about its incidence and risk factors after GKRS for intracranial schwannomas is yet available. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence and risk factors for developing communicating HCP after GKRS for intracranial schwannomas. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 702 patients with intracranial schwannomas who were treated with GKRS between January 2002 and December 2015...
November 23, 2016: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874249/role-of-neural-integrators-in-oculomotor-systems-a%C3%A2-systematic-narrative-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Katherine Sanchez, Fiona J Rowe
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of neural integrators (NI) in the oculomotor system. METHODS: A literature search was carried out using several electronic databases during the months of June 2014 to March 2015. The following keywords were used to generate focused results: 'neural integrators', 'gaze-holding', 'oculomotor integration', 'impaired gaze-holding', 'gaze evoked nystagmus' and 'gaze dysfunction'. Further materials were found through searching relevant articles within reference lists...
November 22, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869225/noisy-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-induces-a-sustained-improvement-in-body-balance-in-elderly-adults
#6
Chisato Fujimoto, Yoshiharu Yamamoto, Teru Kamogashira, Makoto Kinoshita, Naoya Egami, Yukari Uemura, Fumiharu Togo, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shinichi Iwasaki
Vestibular dysfunction causes postural instability, which is prevalent in the elderly. We previously showed that an imperceptible level of noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (nGVS) can improve postural stability in patients with bilateral vestibulopathy during the stimulus, presumably by enhancing vestibular information processing. In this study, we investigated the after-effects of an imperceptible long-duration nGVS on body balance in elderly adults. Thirty elderly participants underwent two nGVS sessions in a randomised order...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852021/-neuroanatomy-of-the-parietal-association-areas
#7
Yasushi Kobayashi
The parietal association cortex comprises the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the precuneus and the cortices in the intraparietal, parietooccipital and lunate sulci. By processing somatic, visual, acoustic and vestibular sensory information, the parietal association cortex plays a pivotal role in spatial cognition and motor control of the eyes and the extremities. Sensory information from the primary and secondary somatosensory areas enters the superior parietal lobule and is transferred to the inferior parietal lobule...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845944/the-vestibular-system-and-cognition
#8
Paul F Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The last year has seen a great deal of new information published relating vestibular dysfunction to cognitive impairment in humans, especially in the elderly. The objective of this review is to summarize and critically evaluate this new evidence in the context of the previous literature. RECENT FINDINGS: This review will address the recent epidemiological/survey studies that link vestibular dysfunction with cognitive impairment in the elderly; recent clinical investigations into cognitive impairment in the context of vestibular dysfunction, both in the elderly and in the cases of otic capsule dehiscence and partial bilateral vestibulopathy; recent evidence that vestibular impairment is associated with hippocampal atrophy; and finally recent evidence relating to the hypothesis that vestibular dysfunction could be a risk factor for dementia...
November 10, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844055/a-bayesian-account-of-visual-vestibular-interactions-in-the-rod-and-frame-task
#9
Bart B G T Alberts, Anouk J de Brouwer, Luc P J Selen, W Pieter Medendorp
Panoramic visual cues, as generated by the objects in the environment, provide the brain with important information about gravity direction. To derive an optimal, i.e., Bayesian, estimate of gravity direction, the brain must combine panoramic information with gravity information detected by the vestibular system. Here, we examined the individual sensory contributions to this estimate psychometrically. We asked human subjects to judge the orientation (clockwise or counterclockwise relative to gravity) of a briefly flashed luminous rod, presented within an oriented square frame (rod-in-frame)...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842665/revisiting-the-relationship-of-three-dimensional-fluid-attenuation-inversion-recovery-imaging-and-hearing-outcomes-in-adults-with-idiopathic-unilateral-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#10
Wen-Huei Liao, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Hung-Yi Wu, Tzong-Yang Tu, An-Suey Shiao, Mauricio Castillo, Sheng-Che Hung
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Three-dimensional fluid attenuation inversion recovery (3D FLAIR) may demonstrate high signal in the inner ears of patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL), but the correlations of this finding with outcomes are still controversial. Here we compared 4 3D MRI sequences with the outcomes of patients with ISSNHL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 77 adult patients with ISSNHL underwent MRI with pre contrast FLAIR, fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition images (FIESTA-C), post contrast T1WI and post contrast FLAIR...
December 2016: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835042/cervical-injury-assessments-for-concussion-evaluation-a-review
#11
Kelly Cheever, Keisuke Kawata, Ryan Tierney, Anne Galgon
BACKGROUND:   A concussion is a complex pathophysiologic process that is induced by biomechanical forces and affects the brain. Cervical injuries and concussion can share similar mechanisms and nearly identical symptoms or causes. Therefore, symptoms or causes alone may be insufficient to differentiate between patients with a concussion and patients with cervical injuries. OBJECTIVE:   To demonstrate the homogeneous causes and symptoms observed in patients with a concussion and patients with cervical injury and to provide information on clinical tests that can differentiate cervical injury from pathologic conditions of vestibular or central origin...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826999/the-new-classification-system-for-inner-ear-malformations-the-incav-system
#12
Zehra Hilal Adibelli, Leyla Isayeva, Ali Murat Koc, Tolgahan Catli, Hamit Adibelli, Levent Olgun
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed INCAV system standardizes reporting of inner ear malformations; gives adequate information about the structures of inner ear; defines the ears which could not be classified before; and helps in the selection of the ear as the cochlear implant candidate. Also it is easy-to-use for radiologists, and useful to the referring otolaryngologists. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to explore a more specific, definitive classification system which was based on radiological criteria for inner ear malformations...
November 9, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813685/physical-activity-and-intermittent-postconcussion-symptoms-after-a-period-of-symptom-limited-physical-and-cognitive-rest
#13
Quinton Sawyer, Brian Vesci, Tamara C Valovich McLeod
: Reference: Schneider KJ, Iverson GL, Emery CA, McCrory P, Herring SA, Meeuwisse WH. The effects of rest and treatment following sport-related concussion: a systematic review of the literature. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(5):304-307. CLINICAL QUESTION: After concussion and a period of symptom-limited physical and cognitive rest, do athletes who experience intermittent symptoms return to asymptomatic condition more quickly with physical activity than with prolonged physical rest? DATA SOURCES: One investigator performed an individual search for each research question using the following databases: CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registers, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, ProQuest, PsychInfo, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science...
September 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803960/fractionated-vs-single-fraction-stereotactic-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-vestibular-schwannoma-hearing-preservation-and-patients-self-reported-outcome-based-on-an-established-questionnaire
#14
Kerstin A Kessel, Hanna Fischer, Marco M E Vogel, Markus Oechsner, Henning Bier, Bernhard Meyer, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiotherapy (RT) has been established as a valid treatment alternative in patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS). There is ongoing controversy regarding the optimal fractionation. Hearing preservation may be the primary goal for patients with VS, followed by maintenance of quality of life (QoL). METHODS: From 2002 to 2015, 184 patients with VS were treated with radiosurgery (RS) or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). A survey on current symptoms and QoL was conducted between February and June 2016...
November 1, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802298/tripping-elicits-earlier-and-larger-deviations-in-linear-head-acceleration-compared-to-slipping
#15
Sara L Arena, Julian L Davis, J Wallace Grant, Michael L Madigan
Slipping and tripping contribute to a large number of falls and fall-related injuries. While the vestibular system is known to contribute to balance and fall prevention, it is unclear whether it contributes to detecting slip or trip onset. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of slipping and tripping on head acceleration during walking. This information would help determine whether individuals with vestibular dysfunction are likely to be at a greater risk of falls due to slipping or tripping, and would inform the potential development of assistive devices providing augmented sensory feedback for vestibular dysfunction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800104/epidemiological-and-clinical-aspects-of-ear-nose-and-throat-sensorineural-emergencies-in-the-yaound%C3%A3-reference-hospital
#16
François Djomou, Yves Christian Andjock Nkouo, Eko David Mindja, Choffor Nchinda, Luc Meka, Emilia Mbamyah-Lyonga, Alexis Ndjolo
INTRODUCTION: Sensorineural emergencies (SNE) are rare clinical situations. Few patients consult early explaining subsequent difficulty in having accurate data and management. Three clinical conditions are considered SNE in otolaryngology; they include sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL), Bell's palsy and acute vertigo. There is very little data available on sensorineural emergencies in our setting. The aim of this study was to provide preliminary data on the management of Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) sensorineural emergency cases in Yaoundé Reference Hospital...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786265/self-motion-evokes-precise-spike-timing-in-the-primate-vestibular-system
#17
Mohsen Jamali, Maurice J Chacron, Kathleen E Cullen
The accurate representation of self-motion requires the efficient processing of sensory input by the vestibular system. Conventional wisdom is that vestibular information is exclusively transmitted through changes in firing rate, yet under this assumption vestibular neurons display relatively poor detection and information transmission. Here, we carry out an analysis of the system's coding capabilities by recording neuronal responses to repeated presentations of naturalistic stimuli. We find that afferents with greater intrinsic variability reliably discriminate between different stimulus waveforms through differential patterns of precise (∼6 ms) spike timing, while those with minimal intrinsic variability do not...
October 27, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780583/development-of-an-evidence-based-decision-pathway-for-vestibular-schwannoma-treatment-options
#18
Faina Linkov, Benita Valappil, Jacob McAfee, Sharon L Goughnour, Douglas M Hildrew, Andrew A McCall, Igor Linkov, Barry Hirsch, Carl Snyderman
OBJECTIVE: To integrate multiple sources of clinical information with patient feedback to build evidence-based decision support model to facilitate treatment selection for patients suffering from vestibular schwannomas (VS). METHODS: This was a mixed methods study utilizing focus group and survey methodology to solicit feedback on factors important for making treatment decisions among patients. Two 90-minute focus groups were conducted by an experienced facilitator...
January 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767085/wireless-inertial-measurement-of-head-kinematics-in-freely-moving-rats
#19
Matthieu O Pasquet, Matthieu Tihy, Aurélie Gourgeon, Marco N Pompili, Bill P Godsil, Clément Léna, Guillaume P Dugué
While miniature inertial sensors offer a promising means for precisely detecting, quantifying and classifying animal behaviors, versatile inertial sensing devices adapted for small, freely-moving laboratory animals are still lacking. We developed a standalone and cost-effective platform for performing high-rate wireless inertial measurements of head movements in rats. Our system is designed to enable real-time bidirectional communication between the headborne inertial sensing device and third party systems, which can be used for precise data timestamping and low-latency motion-triggered applications...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760820/vestibular-implants-studied-in-animal-models-clinical-and-scientific-implications
#20
Richard F Lewis
Damage to the peripheral vestibular system can result in debilitating postural, perceptual, and visual symptoms. A new potential treatment for this clinical problem is to replace some aspects of peripheral vestibular function with an implant that senses head motion and provides this information to the brain by stimulating branches of the vestibular nerve. In this review I consider animal studies performed at our institution over the past fifteen years, which have helped elucidate how the brain processes information provided by a vestibular (semicircular canal) implant and how this information could be used to improve the problems experienced by patients with peripheral vestibular damage...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
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