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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779876/linear-self-motion-cues-support-the-spatial-distribution-and-stability-of-hippocampal-place-cells
#1
Ryan E Harvey, Stephanie A Rutan, Gabrielle R Willey, Jennifer J Siegel, Benjamin J Clark, Ryan M Yoder
The vestibular system provides a crucial component of place-cell and head-direction cell activity [1-7]. Otolith signals are necessary for head-direction signal stability and associated behavior [8, 9], and the head-direction signal's contribution to parahippocampal spatial representations [10-14] suggests that place cells may also require otolithic information. Here, we demonstrate that self-movement information from the otolith organs is necessary for the development of stable place fields within and across sessions...
May 10, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779050/proprioceptive-loss-and-the-perception-control-and-learning-of-arm-movements-in-humans-evidence-from-sensory-neuronopathy
#2
R Chris Miall, Nick M Kitchen, Se-Ho Nam, Hannah Lefumat, Alix G Renault, Kristin Ørstavik, Jonathan D Cole, Fabrice R Sarlegna
It is uncertain how vision and proprioception contribute to adaptation of voluntary arm movements. In normal participants, adaptation to imposed forces is possible with or without vision, suggesting that proprioception is sufficient; in participants with proprioceptive loss (PL), adaptation is possible with visual feedback, suggesting that proprioception is unnecessary. In experiment 1 adaptation to, and retention of, perturbing forces were evaluated in three chronically deafferented participants. They made rapid reaching movements to move a cursor toward a visual target, and a planar robot arm applied orthogonal velocity-dependent forces...
May 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769117/a-protocol-for-a-network-meta-analysis-of-interventions-to-treat-patients-with-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#3
Nadera Ahmadzai, Shaun Kilty, Dianna Wolfe, Jamie Bonaparte, David Schramm, Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, Vincent Lin, Wei Cheng, Becky Skidmore, David Moher, Brian Hutton
BACKGROUND: Hearing loss is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, with greater than 20% of Canadian adults having measurable hearing loss in at least one ear. Patients with hearing loss experience impaired quality of life, and emotional and financial consequences that affect themselves and their families. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a common but difficult to treat form of hearing loss that has a sudden onset of ≤ 72 h associated with various etiologies, with the majority of cases being idiopathic...
May 16, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764786/instability-in-patients-with-canvas-can-computerized-dynamic-posturography-help-in-diagnosis
#4
Alba Marina Milá de la Roca-Morales, Joan F Andreo-Marroig, Sofía Santos-Pérez, Andrés Soto-Varela
OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of dynamic posturography or its role in diagnosis in patients with cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and vestibular arreflexia syndrome (CANVAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present and describe posturographic data of four patients diagnosed with the CANVAS syndrome in a tertiary hospital. RESULTS: In all patients, the average balance score was diminished. Two patients presented a pattern of visual dependence...
April 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764619/effects-of-unexpected-visual-motion-on-postural-sway-and-motion-sickness
#5
Mark Dennison, Michael D'Zmura
Motion sickness is thought to occur when the brain's assumptions about incoming sensory information do not match the actual signals received. These signals must involve the vestibular system for motion sickness to occur. In this paper, we describe an experiment in which subjects experienced unexpected visual motions, or perturbations, as they navigated a virtual environment (VE) while standing and wearing a head mounted display (HMD) or while viewing a monitor. We found that postural instability, as measured by a balance board, increased with time only when perturbations were present...
September 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758228/differences-in-swallow-physiology-in-patients-with-left-and-right-hemispheric-strokes
#6
Janina Wilmskoetter, Bonnie Martin-Harris, William G Pearson, Leonardo Bonilha, Jordan J Elm, Janet Horn, Heather S Bonilha
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the impact of lesion lateralization and lesion volume on swallow impairment on group-level by comparing patients with left and right hemisphere strokes and on patient-level by analyzing patients individually. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study of 46 patients with unilateral (22 left, 24 right), acute, first-ever, ischemic strokes who received a diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and modified barium swallow study (MBSS) during their acute hospital stay...
May 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755404/cognitive-rehabilitation-in-bilateral-vestibular-patients-a-computational-perspective
#7
Andrew W Ellis, Corina G Schöne, Dominique Vibert, Marco D Caversaccio, Fred W Mast
There is evidence that vestibular sensory processing affects, and is affected by, higher cognitive processes. This is highly relevant from a clinical perspective, where there is evidence for cognitive impairments in patients with peripheral vestibular deficits. The vestibular system performs complex probabilistic computations, and we claim that understanding these is important for investigating interactions between vestibular processing and cognition. Furthermore, this will aid our understanding of patients' self-motion perception and will provide useful information for clinical interventions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750273/video-head-impulse-test-to-preoperatively-identify-the-nerve-of-origin-of-vestibular-schwannomas
#8
Felipe Constanzo, Patricia Sens, Bernardo Corrêa de Almeida Teixeira, Ricardo Ramina
BACKGROUND: Identification of the nerve of origin in vestibular schwannoma (VS) is an important prognostic factor for hearing preservation surgery. Thus far, vestibular functional tests and magnetic resonance imaging have not yielded reliable results to preoperatively evaluate this information. The development of the video head impulse test (vHIT) has allowed a precise evaluation of each semicircular canal, and its localizing value has been tested for some peripheral vestibular diseases, but not for VS...
May 10, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734006/disentangling-the-visual-motor-and-representational-effects-of-vestibular-input
#9
Naotoshi Abekawa, Elisa R Ferrè, Maria Gallagher, Hiroaki Gomi, Patrick Haggard
The body midline provides a basic reference for egocentric representation of external space. Clinical observations have suggested that vestibular information underpins egocentric representations. Here we aimed to clarify whether and how vestibular inputs contribute to egocentric representation in healthy volunteers. In a psychophysical task, participants were asked to judge whether visual stimuli were located to the left or to the right of their body midline. Artificial vestibular stimulation was applied to stimulate the vestibular organs...
April 12, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719527/vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-in-bilateral-vestibulopathy
#10
REVIEW
Sally M Rosengren, Miriam S Welgampola, Rachael L Taylor
Bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) is a chronic condition in which patients have a reduction or absence of vestibular function in both ears. BVP is characterized by bilateral reduction of horizontal canal responses; however, there is increasing evidence that otolith function can also be affected. Cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs/oVEMPs) are relatively new tests of otolith function that can be used to test the saccule and utricle of both ears independently. Studies to date show that cVEMPs and oVEMPs are often small or absent in BVP but are in the normal range in a significant proportion of patients...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717643/the-national-institute-of-neurological-disorders-and-stroke-and-department-of-defense-sport-related-concussion-common-data-elements-version-1-0-recommendations
#11
Steven P Broglio, Anthony P Kontos, Harvey Levin, Kathryn Schneider, Elisabeth A Wilde, Robert C Cantu, Nina Feddermann-Demont, Gordon Fuller, Isabelle Gagnon, Gerry Gioia, Christopher C Giza, Grace Sophia Griesbach, John J Leddy, Michael L Lipton, Andrew Mayer, Thomas McAllister, Michael McCrea, Lara McKenzie, Margot Putukian, Stefano Signoretti, Stacy J Suskauer, Robert Tamburro, Michael Turner, Keith Owen Yeates, Roger Zemek, Sherita Ala'i, Joy Esterlitz, Katelyn Gay, Patrick S F Bellgowan, Kristen Joseph
AIM: Through a partnership with the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Department of Defense (DoD), the development of Sport-Related Concussion (SRC) Common Data Elements (CDEs) was initiated. The aim of this collaboration was to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research studies and clinical treatment outcomes, increase data quality, facilitate data sharing across studies, reduce study start-up time, more effectively aggregate information into metadata results, and educate new clinical investigators...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694922/vestibular-signals-in-primate-cortex-for-self-motion-perception
#12
REVIEW
Yong Gu
The vestibular peripheral organs in our inner ears detect transient motion of the head in everyday life. This information is sent to the central nervous system for automatic processes such as vestibulo-ocular reflexes, balance and postural control, and higher cognitive functions including perception of self-motion and spatial orientation. Recent neurophysiological studies have discovered a prominent vestibular network in the primate cerebral cortex. Many of the areas involved are multisensory: their neurons are modulated by both vestibular signals and visual optic flow, potentially facilitating more robust heading estimation through cue integration...
April 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667535/clinical-features-and-short-term-outcome-of-presumptive-intracranial-complications-associated-with-otitis-media-interna-a-multi-center-retrospective-study-of-19-cats-2009-2017
#13
Sarah A Moore, R Timothy Bentley, Sheila Carrera-Justiz, Kari D Foss, Ronaldo C da Costa, Laurie B Cook
Objectives The aim of this study was to compile an overview of the clinical features of intracranial complication of otitis media/interna (OMI) in cats managed across five veterinary referral hospitals. Of additional interest were culture results that could inform empirical antibiotic selection, as well as outcome with both medical and surgical management. Methods A retrospective medical record review was conducted at five veterinary referral practices to identify cats with a diagnosis of intracranial complication secondary to OMI between 2009 and 2017...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667085/long-term-hearing-outcomes-after-gamma-knife-surgery-in-patients-with-vestibular-schwannoma-with-hearing-preservation-evaluation-in-92-patients-with-serial-audiograms
#14
Toshinori Hasegawa, Takenori Kato, Takashi Yamamoto, Takehiro Naito, Naoki Kato, Jun Torii, Kazuki Ishii
The treatment strategy for patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) is controversial, and data concerning the long-term hearing outcomes > 5 years after gamma knife surgery (GKS) are limited. The long-term hearing outcomes after GKS were evaluated in VS patients with hearing preservation. Ninety-two VS patients with a pure tone average (PTA) ≤ 50 dB were evaluated. The median age was 54 years; the median tumor volume was 1.5 cm3 . The tumors were treated with a median margin dose of 12 Gy and a median mean cochlear dose of 4...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661612/hearing-self-motion-perception-mobility-and-aging
#15
REVIEW
Jennifer Campos, Robert Ramkhalawansingh, M Kathleen Pichora-Fuller
Hearing helps us know where we are relative to important events and objects in our environment and it allows us to track our changing position dynamically over space and time. Auditory cues are used in combination with other sensory inputs (visual, vestibular, proprioceptive) to help us perceive our own movements through space, known as self-motion perception. Whether we are maintaining standing balance, walking, or driving, audition can provide unique and important information to help optimize self-motion perception, and consequently to support safe mobility...
March 31, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659185/the-cochlear-spiral-ganglion-neurons-the-auditory-portion-of-the-viii-nerve
#16
Francisco Carricondo, Bárbara Romero-Gómez
The VIII nerve is formed by sensory neurons that innervate the inner ear, i.e. the vestibular and the auditory receptors. Neurons of the auditory portion, the cochlear afferent fibers that innervate the sensory hair cells of the organ of Corti, have their somas in the cochlear spiral ganglion where two types of neurons can be distinguished. Afferent type-I neurons are the 95% of the total population. Bipolar and myelinated fibers, each one innervates only one cochlear inner hair cell (IHC). In contrast, afferent type-II neurons are only the 5% of the spiral ganglion population...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657118/functional-maps-of-mechanosensory-features-in-the-drosophila-brain
#17
Paola Patella, Rachel I Wilson
Johnston's organ is the largest mechanosensory organ in Drosophila. It contributes to hearing, touch, vestibular sensing, proprioception, and wind sensing. In this study, we used in vivo 2-photon calcium imaging and unsupervised image segmentation to map the tuning properties of Johnston's organ neurons (JONs) at the site where their axons enter the brain. We then applied the same methodology to study two key brain regions that process signals from JONs: the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) and the wedge, which is downstream of the AMMC...
April 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656878/postoperative-headache-following-treatment-of-vestibular-schwannoma-a-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Ahad Sabab, Jaspreet Sandhu, Stephen Bacchi, Alistair Jukes, Andrew Zacest
Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a brain tumour arising from Schwann cells that is typically closely associated with the vestibulocochlear nerve. Post-operative headaches (POH) are a potentially common complication of surgery for VS. Greatly differing rates of POH have previously been reported, particularly with different surgical approaches. The aim of this review is to identify and summarise the available peer-reviewed evidence on rates of POH following operative (or radiosurgery) treatment for VS, in addition to information about the treatment and prognosis of POH in these patients...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651250/efficacy-of-stochastic-vestibular-stimulation-to-improve-locomotor-performance-during-adaptation-to-visuomotor-and-somatosensory-distortion
#19
David R Temple, Yiri E De Dios, Charles S Layne, Jacob J Bloomberg, Ajitkumar P Mulavara
Astronauts exposed to microgravity face sensorimotor challenges affecting balance control when readapting to Earth's gravity upon return from spaceflight. Small amounts of electrical noise applied to the vestibular system have been shown to improve balance control during standing and walking under discordant sensory conditions in healthy subjects, likely by enhancing information transfer through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that imperceptible levels of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) could improve short-term adaptation to a locomotor task in a novel sensory discordant environment...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615643/computational-repositioning-and-preclinical-validation-of-mifepristone-for-human-vestibular-schwannoma
#20
Jessica E Sagers, Adam S Brown, Sasa Vasilijic, Rebecca M Lewis, Mehmet I Sahin, Lukas D Landegger, Roy H Perlis, Isaac S Kohane, D Bradley Welling, Chirag J Patel, Konstantina M Stankovic
The computational repositioning of existing drugs represents an appealing avenue for identifying effective compounds to treat diseases with no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies. Here we present the largest meta-analysis to date of differential gene expression in human vestibular schwannoma (VS), a debilitating intracranial tumor, and use these data to inform the first application of algorithm-based drug repositioning for this tumor class. We apply an open-source computational drug repositioning platform to gene expression data from 80 patient tumors and identify eight promising FDA-approved drugs with potential for repurposing in VS...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
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