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vestibular information

Matthieu O Pasquet, Matthieu Tihy, Aurélie Gourgeon, Marco N Pompili, Bill P Godsil, Clément Léna, Guillaume P Dugué
While miniature inertial sensors offer a promising means for precisely detecting, quantifying and classifying animal behaviors, versatile inertial sensing devices adapted for small, freely-moving laboratory animals are still lacking. We developed a standalone and cost-effective platform for performing high-rate wireless inertial measurements of head movements in rats. Our system is designed to enable real-time bidirectional communication between the headborne inertial sensing device and third party systems, which can be used for precise data timestamping and low-latency motion-triggered applications...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Richard F Lewis
Damage to the peripheral vestibular system can result in debilitating postural, perceptual, and visual symptoms. A new potential treatment for this clinical problem is to replace some aspects of peripheral vestibular function with an implant that senses head motion and provides this information to the brain by stimulating branches of the vestibular nerve. In this review I consider animal studies performed at our institution over the past fifteen years, which have helped elucidate how the brain processes information provided by a vestibular (semicircular canal) implant and how this information could be used to improve the problems experienced by patients with peripheral vestibular damage...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Kevin K Ohlemiller, Sherri M Jones, Kenneth R Johnson
Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) have become the major model species for inner ear research. The major uses of mice include gene discovery, characterization, and confirmation. Every application of mice is founded on assumptions about what mice represent and how the information gained may be generalized. A host of successes support the continued use of mice to understand hearing and balance. Depending on the research question, however, some mouse models and research designs will be more appropriate than others...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Adam J Toth, Laurence R Harris, John Zettel, Leah R Bent
Visuo-vestibular recalibration, in which visual information is used to alter the interpretation of vestibular signals, has been shown to influence both oculomotor control and navigation. Here we investigate whether vision can recalibrate the vestibular feedback used during the re-establishment of equilibrium following a perturbation. The perturbation recovery responses of nine participants were examined following exposure to a period of 11 s of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). During GVS in VISION trials, occlusion spectacles provided 4 s of visual information that enabled participants to correct for the GVS-induced tilt and associate this asymmetric vestibular signal with a visually provided 'upright'...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Constantin von Kirschbaum, Robert Gürkov
Introduction. Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are benign tumours of the vestibular nerve and can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, facial palsy, and brainstem compression. Audiovestibular diagnostic tests are essential for detection and treatment planning. Methods. Medline was used to perform a systematic literature review with regard to how audiovestibular test parameters correlate with symptoms, tumour size, and tumour location. Results. The auditory brainstem response can be used to diagnose retrocochlear lesions caused by VS...
2016: BioMed Research International
Stefan Rampp, Leonhard Rensch, Sebastian Simmermacher, Torsten Rahne, Christian Strauss, Julian Prell
OBJECTIVE Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) have been used for intraoperative monitoring of the auditory nerve for many years. However, BAEPs yield limited information about the expected postoperative hearing quality and speech perception. The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) enables objective audiograms to be obtained in patients under anesthesia. These ASSRs could be used for intraoperative estimation of hearing classes to improve the postoperative outcome and quality of life. Studies investigating the clinical use of ASSRs during total intravenous anesthesia are currently lacking...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Neil S Patel, Jacob B Hunter, Brendan P O'Connell, Natalie M Bertrand, George B Wanna, Matthew L Carlson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with incidental or minimally symptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) are usually observed, without surgical repair. However, it remains unknown whether a labyrinthine fistula of the superior semicircular canal is associated with progressive conductive or sensorineural hearing loss over time. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review at two tertiary care academic referral centers. METHODS: Adults analyzed were diagnosed with SSCD by high-resolution temporal bone computed tomography and vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing and observed with a minimum of two sequential audiograms...
October 14, 2016: Laryngoscope
Dale R Wagner, Skyler Saunders, Brady Robertson, John E Davis
: Wagner, Dale R., Skyler Saunders, Brady Robertson, and John E. Davis. Normobaric hypoxia effects on balance measured by computerized dynamic posturography. High Alt Med Biol. 17:222-227, 2016.-Background/Aim: Equilibrium was measured by computerized dynamic posturography at varying levels of normobaric hypoxia before and after exercise. METHODS: Following a familiarization trial, 12 males (27.3 ± 7.1 years) completed three sessions in random order on a NeuroCom SMART Balance Master: a sham trial at the ambient altitude of 1500 m and simulated altitudes of 3000 and 5000 m created by a hypoxic generator...
September 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Laure Mathevon, Nicolas Leroux, Céline Piscicelli, Emmanuelle Clarac, Shenhao Dai, Patrice Davoine, Paul Krack, Dominic Perennou
OBJECTIVE: To take care of postural disorders is a major issue in Parkinson's disease (PD). We present a documented observation suggesting the existence of a biased representation of verticality in PD, resulting in a severe retropulsion and recurrent falls. A rehabilitation program aimed to modulate verticality perception dramatically improved the postural perception of the vertical, trunk posture and balance abilities, and reduced retropulsion as well as lastingly fall frequency. OBSERVATIONS: A 68 year-old patient with Parkinson's disease fall backward 3 times a day...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Salma Jeribi, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Imen Achour, Bouthaina Hammemi, Abdelmoneem Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib Elleuch, Sameh Ghroubi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of completing a vestibular rehabilitation treatment protocol on postural balance, dizziness and quality of life in patients with peripheral vertigo. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study concerning patients with instability due to unilateral peripheral vestibular disorder. The patients were evaluated with a clinical examination and a test of static and dynamic balance on the Satel(®) platform in which length, mediolateral (LongX) and anterior-posterior deviations (long Y) were monitored...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Carsten M Klingner, Hubertus Axer, Stefan Brodoehl, Otto W Witte
This article investigates the processing of vestibular information by interpreting current experimental knowledge in the framework of predictive coding. We demonstrate that this theoretical framework give us insights into several important questions regarding specific properties of the vestibular system. Particularly, we discuss why the vestibular network is more spatially distributed than other sensory networks, why a mismatch in the vestibular system is more clinically disturbing than in other sensory systems, why the vestibular system is only marginally affected by most cerebral lesions, and whether there is a primary vestibular cortex...
September 14, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
C Chabbert
Ideally, vestibular pharmacotherapy is intended, through specific and targeted molecular actions, to significantly alleviate vertigo symptoms, to protect or repair the vestibular sensory network under pathologic conditions, and to promote vestibular compensation, with the eventual aim of improving the patient's quality of life. In fact, in order to achieve this aim, considerable progress still needs to be made. The lack of information on the etiology of vestibular disorders and the pharmacologic targets to modulate, as well as the technical challenge of targeting a drug to its effective site are some of the main issues yet to be overcome...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Donatella Contini, Steven D Price, Jonathan J Art
Fast neurotransmitters act in conjunction with slower modulatory effectors that accumulate in restricted synaptic spaces found at giant synapses such as the calyceal endings in the auditory and vestibular systems. Here, we use dual patch-clamp recordings from turtle vestibular hair cells and their afferent neurons to show that potassium ions accumulating in the synaptic cleft modulate membrane potentials and extend the range of information transfer. High-fidelity synaptic transmission is possible due to large conductances that minimize hair cell and afferent time constants in the presence of significant membrane capacitance...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Hyo-Jung Kim, Seoyeon Kim, Jae Han Park, Ji-Soo Kim
Ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) evaluate the function of otolithic pathways in central as well as peripheral vestibular disorders. This study aimed to determine the associations and dissociations of otolithic dysfunction in lateral medullary infarction (LMI), the most well-known disorder of central vestibulopathy. At the Dizziness Clinic of a referral-based University Hospital, 45 patients with isolated LMI (28 men, mean age = 55.6 ± 12.5) had evaluation of the ocular tilt reaction (OTR), tilt of the subjective visual vertical (SVV), and ocular and cervical VEMPs from Janurary 2011 to August 2015 during the acute phase, 1-11 days from the symptom onset (median = 2 days)...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Neurology
T P Exarchos, G Rigas, A Bibas, D Kikidis, C Nikitas, F L Wuyts, B Ihtijarevic, L Maes, M Cenciarini, C Maurer, N Macdonald, D-E Bamiou, L Luxon, M Prasinos, G Spanoudakis, D D Koutsouris, D I Fotiadis
In this work we present the methodology for the development of the EMBalance diagnostic Decision Support System (DSS) for balance disorders. Medical data from patients with balance disorders have been analysed using data mining techniques for the development of the diagnostic DSS. The proposed methodology uses various data, ranging from demographic characteristics to clinical examination, auditory and vestibular tests, in order to provide an accurate diagnosis. The system aims to provide decision support for general practitioners (GPs) and experts in the diagnosis of balance disorders as well as to provide recommendations for the appropriate information and data to be requested at each step of the diagnostic process...
October 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Laura Rammazzo, Dimitris Kikidis, Amal Anwer, Nora Macdonald, Efthymios Kyrodimos, Christoph Maurer, Floris Wuyts, Linda Luxon, Athanasios Bibas, Doris-Eva Bamiou
BACKGROUND: Balance problems are caused by multiple factors and often lead to falls and related fractures, bringing large socio-economic costs. The complexity of balance control mechanisms, the lack of medical expertise, and the absence of specialised equipment contribute to the delayed or incorrect diagnosis and management ofthese patients. Advances in computer science have allowed the development of computer systems that support clinical diagnosis and treatment decisions based on individualised patient data...
2016: Trials
Nuno Alexandre De Sá Teixeira, Heiko Hecht, Ana Diaz Artiles, Kimia Seyedmadani, David P Sherwood, Laurence R Young
The remembered vanishing location of a moving target has been found to be displaced downward in the direction of gravity (Representational Gravity) and more so with increasing retention intervals, suggesting that the visual spatial updating recruits an internal model of gravity. Despite being consistently linked with gravity, few inquiries have been made about the role of vestibular information in these trends. Previous experiments with static tilting of observers' bodies suggest that under conflicting cues between the idiotropic vector and vestibular signals, the dynamic drift in memory is reduced to a constant displacement along the body's main axis...
September 5, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Tayfun Hakan, Erhan Celikoğlu, Fügen Aker, Nagehan Barişik
The aims of this addendum are to inform the readers about the advances in the case with spinal schwannomatosis that previously published in this journal. The patient was accepted as possible schwannomatosis. He was younger than 30 years old, has two non-intradermal schwannomas, two histological confirmations and no evidence of vestibular tumor on a high quality MR scan. Following the publishing of the case, he underwent tumor excision three more times for his spinal tumors diagnosed as schwannoma in a five-year period...
February 5, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
Chong Guo, Laurens Witter, Stephanie Rudolph, Hunter L Elliott, Katelin A Ennis, Wade G Regehr
Inhibition of granule cells plays a key role in gating the flow of signals into the cerebellum, and it is thought that Golgi cells are the only interneurons that inhibit granule cells. Here we show that Purkinje cells, the sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex, also directly inhibit granule cells via their axon collaterals. Anatomical and optogenetic studies indicate that this non-canonical feedback is region specific: it is most prominent in lobules that regulate eye movement and process vestibular information...
September 21, 2016: Neuron
Matthew L Carlson, Katherine A Lees, Neil S Patel, Christine M Lohse, Brian A Neff, Michael J Link, Colin L Driscoll
BACKGROUND: The clinical behavior of asymptomatic incidentally diagnosed vestibular schwannoma (VS) remains undefined. Specifically, it is unknown whether these tumors represent a more indolent biological variant. Such information would be beneficial toward patient counseling regarding treatment strategy and surveillance intervals during observation. STUDY DESIGN: Case series with matched cohort. SETTING: Single tertiary academic referral center...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
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