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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129037/eye-movement-abnormalities-in-middle-cerebellar-peduncle-strokes
#1
Sung-Hee Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
The middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) is a major conduit for cortico-ponto-cerebellar fibers that convey information related to eye movements. This study aims to elucidate eye movement abnormalities that arise from lesions confined to the MCP. In 23 patients with acute strokes restricted to unilateral MCPs, we investigated the clinical features and ocular motor findings including spontaneous nystagmus, saccades, smooth pursuit, ocular tilt reaction, and head impulse tests. Bithermal caloric tests and audiometry were also performed...
November 11, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128561/infraciliature-of-opisthotrichum-janus-epidinium-ecaudatum-and-ophryoscolex-purkynjei-ciliophora-entodiniomorphida
#2
Akira Ito, Toshihiro Tokiwa
We described the infraciliature of Opisthotrichum janus, Epidinium ecaudatum, and Ophryoscolex purkynjei, belonging to the family Ophryoscolecidae, from pyridinated silver carbonate impregnated specimens. The adoral polybrachykinety is C-shaped in Opi. janus, whereas it is spiral-shaped in Epi. ecaudatum and Oph. purkynjei. The vestibular polybrachykinety is slender and short in Opi. janus, whereas slender and long in Epi. ecaudatum and Oph. purkynjei. The paralabial kineties are composed of several short kineties along the adoral polybrachykinety...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118202/bayesian-optimal-adaptation-explains-age-related-human-sensorimotor-changes
#3
Faisal Karmali, Gregory T Whitman, Richard F Lewis
The brain uses information from different sensory systems to guide motor behavior, and aging is associated with a simultaneous decline in the quality of sensory information provided to the brain and a deterioration in motor control. Correlations between age-dependent decline in sensory anatomical structures and behavior have been demonstrated, and it has recently been suggested that a Bayesian framework could explain these relationships. Here we show that age-dependent changes in a human sensorimotor reflex, the vestibulo-ocular reflex, are explained by a Bayesian optimal adaptation in the brain occurring in response to death of motion-sensing hair cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100928/stochastic-resonance-in-the-human-vestibular-system-noise-induced-facilitation-of-vestibulospinal-reflexes
#4
M Wuehr, J C Boerner, C Pradhan, J Decker, K Jahn, T Brandt, R Schniepp
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that the presence of noise can enhance information processing in sensory systems via stochastic resonance (SR). OBJECTIVES: To examine the presence of SR in human vestibulospinal reflex function. METHODS: Healthy subjects were stimulated with 1 Hz sinusoidal GVS of varying amplitudes (0-1.9 mA). Coherence between GVS input and stimulation-induced motion responses was determined and psychometric function fits were subsequently used to determine individual vestibulospinal reflex thresholds...
October 31, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095392/the-differential-diagnosis-of-vertigo-in-children-a-systematic-review-of-2726-cases
#5
Meghan Davitt, Michael T Delvecchio, Stephen C Aronoff
OBJECTIVES: Vertigo is a relatively common complaint in children with 5.3% of pediatric patients complaining of this symptom. Although the causes of vertigo have been well established in adults, the diagnoses in children have not been well described. The aims of this systematic review are to discover the current information regarding etiologies of vertigo in children and to determine the most common diagnoses that present with vertigo in pediatric patients. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, and Embase were searched using the PRISMA guidelines...
October 31, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088993/an-update-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-vestibular-schwannoma
#6
Jane Halliday, Scott A Rutherford, Martin G McCabe, Dafydd G Evans
Vestibular schwannomas (VS) account for approximately 85% of tumors in the cerebello-pontine angle, with a lifetime incidence of approximately 1 in 1000. Most are sporadic, with approximately 5% related to the tumor predisposition syndrome Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2). The mainstays of management strategies are: observation, surgery, radiosurgery/radiotherapy and, for patients with NF2 and rapidly growing tumors or deteriorating neurologic function the targeted therapy bevacizumab. While morbidity and mortality rates related to treatment of VS have improved dramatically over the last decades, there are still significant improvements that could be made, in particular with regards to long-term facial nerve and hearing outcomes...
November 7, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081427/clinical-and-video-head-impulse-test-in-the-diagnosis-of-posterior-circulation-stroke-presenting-as-acute-vestibular-syndrome-in%C3%A2-the-emergency-department
#7
Ayse Guler, Funda Karbek Akarca, Cenk Eraslan, Ceyda Tarhan, Cem Bilgen, Tayfun Kirazli, Nese Celebisoy
INTRODUCTION: Head impulse test (HIT) is the critical bedside examination which differentiates vestibular neuritis (VN) from posterior circulation stroke (PCS) in acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). Video-oculography based HIT (vHIT) may have aadditional strength in making the differentiation. METHODS: Patients admitted to the emergency department of a tertiary-care medical center with AVS were studied. An emergency specialist and a neurologist performed HIT. vHIT was conducted by an neuro-otology research fellow...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073639/our-sense-of-direction-progress-controversies-and-challenges
#8
Kathleen E Cullen, Jeffrey S Taube
In this Perspective, we evaluate current progress in understanding how the brain encodes our sense of direction, within the context of parallel work focused on how early vestibular pathways encode self-motion. In particular, we discuss how these systems work together and provide evidence that they involve common mechanisms. We first consider the classic view of the head direction cell and results of recent experiments in rodents and primates indicating that inputs to these neurons encode multimodal information during self-motion, such as proprioceptive and motor efference copy signals, including gaze-related information...
October 26, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063382/relationship-between-anterior-mandibular-bone-thickness-and-the-angulation-of-incisors-and-canines-a-cbct-study
#9
Agnieszka Srebrzyńska-Witek, Rafał Koszowski, Ingrid Różyło-Kalinowska
OBJECTIVES: The morphology of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar cortex plays an important role in the planning of orthodontic treatment. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides a precise demonstration of anatomical structures. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to evaluate what influence the position of incisors and canines have on the dimensions of the cortical and spongious bone of the anterior mandibular alveolar process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The material consisted of 100 CBCT volumes (61 females and 39 males, aged 18-71 years) obtained by means of a Gendex GXCB-500 machine and analysed using i-CAT Vision and CorelDRAW 9 software...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063117/-progress-in-multisensory-integration-during-self-motion-processing
#10
Ying-Ying Zhang, Dan-Qing Jiang, Sha-Sha Li, Pei-Ji Liang, Ai-Hua Chen
In the daily life, we perceive the world around us by integrating multiple sensory cues (visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, vestibular and proprioceptive) to create a coherent, reliable representation that allows us to interact meaningfully with the environment. The integration of different sensory information is necessary for our perception, motor transformation, decision making, learning and memory. In the past decades, many interdisciplinary researchers have been attracted to the field of multisensory research, and tremendous advances have been made in this field...
October 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057523/aging-related-changes-in-the-cortical-processing-of-otolith-information-in-humans
#11
Peter Zu Eulenburg, Ria Maxine Ruehl, Pia Runge, Marianne Dieterich
Acoustic short tone bursts (STB) trigger ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs/cVEMPs) by activating irregular otolith afferents. Simultaneously, STBs introduce an artificial net acceleration signal of otolith origin into the vestibular network. VEMP parameters as diagnostic otolith processing markers have been shown to decline after the age of thirty. To delineate the differential effects of healthy aging on the cortical vestibular subnetwork processing otolith information, we measured cVEMPs and the differential effects of unilateral STB in three age groups (20-40, 40-60, 60+; n=42) using functional neuroimaging...
October 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048255/quality-of-life-in-patients-with-unilateral-vestibular-schwannoma-on-wait-and-see-strategy
#12
P C Klersy, F Arlt, M Hofer, J Meixensberger
OBJECTIVE: A 'wait and see' strategy is an option when managing patients with small vestibular schwannomas (VS). A risk of growth and worsening of hearing may influence a patient's daily quality of life (QOL). Therefore, the present study focused on QOL parameters in patients who are on a 'wait and see' strategy following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based diagnosis of small unilateral VS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-five patients (mean age 64.4 years; male:female, 32:33) who suffered from a small unilateral VS (9...
October 19, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043479/altered-auditory-and-vestibular-functioning-in-individuals-with-low-bone-mineral-density-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Niraj Kumar Singh, Raghav Hira Jha, Aditi Gargeshwari, Prawin Kumar
Alteration in the process of bone remodelling is associated with falls and fractures due to increased bone fragility and altered calcium functioning. The auditory system consists of skeletal structures and is, therefore, prone to getting affected by altered bone remodelling. In addition, the vestibule consists of huge volumes of calcium (CaCO3) in the form of otoconia crystals and alteration in functioning calcium levels could, therefore, result in vestibular symptoms. Thus, the present study aimed at compiling information from various studies on assessment of auditory or vestibular systems in individuals with reduced bone mineral density (BMD)...
October 17, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037661/antisense-oligonucleotide-therapy-rescues-disruptions-in-organization-of-exploratory-movements-associated-with-usher-syndrome-type-1c-in-mice
#14
Tia N Donaldson, Kelsey T Jennings, Lucia A Cherep, Adam M McNeela, Frederic F Depreux, Francine M Jodelka, Michelle L Hastings, Douglas G Wallace
Usher syndrome, Type 1C (USH1C) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder in which a mutation in the gene encoding harmonin is associated with multi-sensory deficits (i.e., auditory, vestibular, and visual). USH1C (Usher) mice, engineered with a human USH1C mutation, exhibit these multi-sensory deficits by circling behavior and lack of response to sound. Administration of an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) therapeutic that corrects expression of the mutated USH1C gene, has been shown to increase harmonin levels, reduce circling behavior, and improve vestibular and auditory function...
February 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036855/diagnostic-criteria-for-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness-pppd-consensus-document-of-the-committee-for-the-classification-of-vestibular-disorders-of-the-b%C3%A3-r%C3%A3-ny-society
#15
Jeffrey P Staab, Annegret Eckhardt-Henn, Arata Horii, Rolf Jacob, Michael Strupp, Thomas Brandt, Adolfo Bronstein
This paper presents diagnostic criteria for persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) to be included in the International Classification of Vestibular Disorders (ICVD). The term PPPD is new, but the disorder is not. Its diagnostic criteria were derived by expert consensus from an exhaustive review of 30 years of research on phobic postural vertigo, space-motion discomfort, visual vertigo, and chronic subjective dizziness. PPPD manifests with one or more symptoms of dizziness, unsteadiness, or non-spinning vertigo that are present on most days for three months or more and are exacerbated by upright posture, active or passive movement, and exposure to moving or complex visual stimuli...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991916/the-essential-role-of-optical-flow-in-the-peripheral-visual-field-for-stable-quiet-standing-evidence-from-the-use-of-a-head-mounted-display
#16
Kentaro Horiuchi, Masami Ishihara, Kuniyasu Imanaka
It has long been thought that vision is the most essential factor in maintaining stable quiet standing compared to other sources (i.e., vestibular and somatosensory inputs) of information. Specifically, several vision studies on postural control have shown evidence for the importance of the visual system, particularly peripheral vision rather than central vision, and optical flow. Nevertheless, to date, no study has manipulated both visual field and optical flow concurrently. In the present study, we experimentally manipulated both the visual field (the central and peripheral visual fields) and the occurrence of optical flow during quiet standing, examining the effects of the visual field and optical flow on postural sway measured in terms of the center of pressure (CoP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980779/-equilibrium-management
#17
Jean-Philippe Guyot
Balance requires the modulation and integration of multiple sensory information, among which the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear plays an essential role. The management of all informations is assumed by a system whose adaptive capacities are much faster than we thought until recently, as demonstrated by the experiments carried out in human during the development of a vestibular implant designed to restore the lost function. While these adaptive capacities have the advantage of allowing all kinds of activities, they also have the disadvantage of producing various sensations, sometimes very strange...
October 4, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965517/not-a-one-trick-pony-diverse-connectivity-and-functions-of-the-rodent-lateral-geniculate-complex
#18
Aboozar Monavarfeshani, Ubadah Sabbagh, Michael A Fox
Often mislabeled as a simple relay of sensory information, the thalamus is a complicated structure with diverse functions. This diversity is exemplified by roles visual thalamus plays in processing and transmitting light-derived stimuli. Such light-derived signals are transmitted to the thalamus by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the sole projection neurons of the retina. Axons from RGCs innervate more than ten distinct nuclei within thalamus, including those of the lateral geniculate complex. Nuclei within the lateral geniculate complex of nocturnal rodents, which include the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN), and intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), are each densely innervated by retinal projections, yet, exhibit distinct cytoarchitecture and connectivity...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950080/self-motion-perception-ups-and-downs-of-multisensory-integration-and-conflict-detection
#19
Mark W Greenlee
A new study indicates that, in humans, eye movements play an important role in self-motion perception, in particular in integrating information from the visual and vestibular systems and detecting possible conflicts between them.
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948625/survey-of-systemic-antimicrobial-prescribing-for-dogs-by-victorian-veterinarians
#20
I D Barzelai, T Whittem
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the current antimicrobial prescribing patterns of veterinarians in Victoria for dogs and compare these results to patterns described 20 years ago. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 1380 veterinarians in Victoria. The first section collected demographic information of respondents. The second and third sections evaluated respondents' approach to use of antimicrobial drugs for scenarios in dogs in which 'clinical evidence suggests bacterial infection is the likely cause' and where 'it is unknown whether bacterial infection plays a role'...
October 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
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