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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430602/fluoxetine-attenuates-the-impairment-of-spatial-learning-ability-and-prevents-neuron-loss-in-middle-aged-appswe-psen1de9-double-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#1
Jing Ma, Yuan Gao, Lin Jiang, Feng-Lei Chao, Wei Huang, Chun-Ni Zhou, Wei Tang, Lei Zhang, Chun-Xia Huang, Yi Zhang, Yan-Min Luo, Qian Xiao, Hua-Rong Yu, Rong Jiang, Yong Tang
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been reported to increase cognitive performance in some clinical studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is a lack of evidence supporting the efficacy of SSRIs as cognition enhancers in AD, and the role of SSRIs as a treatment for AD remains largely unclear. Here, we characterized the impact of fluoxetine (FLX), a well-known SSRI, on neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) and in CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus of middle-aged (16 to 17 months old) APPswe/PSEN1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic AD model mice...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430533/new-directions-in-the-rational-design-of-electrical-and-magnetic-seizure-therapies-individualized-low-amplitude-seizure-therapy-ilast-and-magnetic-seizure-therapy-mst
#2
Thomas Radman, Sarah H Lisanby
Electroconvulsive therapy remains a key treatment option for severe cases of depression, but undesirable side-effects continue to limit its use. Innovations in the design of novel seizure therapies seek to improve its risk benefit ratio through enhanced control of the focality of stimulation. The design of seizure therapies with increased spatial precision is motivated by avoiding stimulation of deep brain structures implicated in memory retention, including the hippocampus. The development of two innovations in seizure therapy-individualized low-amplitude seizure therapy (iLAST) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST), are detailed...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429909/association-between-maternal-vitamin-d-status-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-cognitive-function-during-childhood-and-adolescence
#3
Sargoor R Veena, Ghattu V Krishnaveni, Krishnamachari Srinivasan, Kotrangada P Thajna, Bhavya G Hegde, Catharine R Gale, Caroline Hd Fall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Animal studies have demonstrated poor cognitive outcomes in offspring in relation to maternal vitamin D deficiency before and/or during pregnancy. Human studies linking maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy with offspring cognitive function are limited. We aimed to test the hypothesis that lower maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy is associated with poor offspring cognitive ability in an Indian population. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Cognitive function was assessed in children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort during childhood (age 9-10 years; n=468) and adolescence (age 13-14 years; n=472) using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring learning, long-term retrieval/ storage, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, visuo-spatial ability, and attention and concentration...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429801/the-dizzy-patient-don-t-forget-disorders-of-the-central-vestibular-system
#4
REVIEW
Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common complaints in neurology clinics, and they account for about 13% of the patients entering emergency units. In this Review, we focus on central vestibular disorders, which are mostly attributable to acute unilateral lesions of the bilateral vestibular circuitry in the brain. In a tertiary interdisciplinary outpatient dizziness unit, central vestibular disorders, including vestibular migraine, comprise about 25% of the established diagnoses. The signs and symptoms of these disorders can mimic those of peripheral vestibular disorders with sustained rotational vertigo...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429774/synchronization-and-variability-imbalance-underlie-cognitive-impairment-in-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Maria Petracca, Catarina Saiote, Heidi A Bender, Franchesca Arias, Colleen Farrell, Paola Magioncalda, Matteo Martino, Aaron Miller, Georg Northoff, Fred Lublin, Matilde Inglese
We aimed to investigate functional connectivity and variability across multiple frequency bands in brain networks underlying cognitive deficits in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PP-MS) and to explore how they are affected by the presence of cortical lesions (CLs). We analyzed functional connectivity and variability (measured as the standard deviation of BOLD signal amplitude) in resting state networks (RSNs) associated with cognitive deficits in different frequency bands in 25 PP-MS patients (12 M, mean age 50...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429657/what-happened-first-working-memory-and-negative-emotion-tell-you-better-evidence-from-a-temporal-binding-task
#6
Chiara Mirandola, Enrico Toffalini
Emotionally arousing events may disrupt the ability to bind together different features of items to their context; this holds true both for spatial binding (i.e. remembering the locations of previously presented items) and temporal binding (i.e. remembering the order in which different items were previously presented). Nonetheless, memory for emotional events may be enhanced in certain situations. A key factor that might explain the memory-emotion relation is represented by individual differences in cognition...
April 21, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427569/chronic-low-level-exposure-to-the-common-seafood-toxin-domoic-acid-causes-cognitive-deficits-in-mice
#7
Kathi A Lefebvre, Preston S Kendrick, Warren Ladiges, Emma M Hiolski, Bridget E Ferriss, Donald R Smith, David J Marcinek
The consumption of one meal of seafood containing domoic acid (DA) at levels high enough to induce seizures can cause gross histopathological lesions in hippocampal regions of the brain and permanent memory loss in humans and marine mammals. Seafood regulatory limits have been set at 20mgDA/kg shellfish to protect human consumers from symptomatic acute exposure, but the effects of repetitive low-level asymptomatic exposure remain a critical knowledge gap. Recreational and Tribal-subsistence shellfish harvesters are known to regularly consume low levels of DA...
April 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426802/decoding-the-infant-mind-multivariate-pattern-analysis-mvpa-using-fnirs
#8
Lauren L Emberson, Benjamin D Zinszer, Rajeev D S Raizada, Richard N Aslin
The MRI environment restricts the types of populations and tasks that can be studied by cognitive neuroscientists (e.g., young infants, face-to-face communication). FNIRS is a neuroimaging modality that records the same physiological signal as fMRI but without the constraints of MRI, and with better spatial localization than EEG. However, research in the fNIRS community largely lacks the analytic sophistication of analogous fMRI work, restricting the application of this imaging technology. The current paper presents a method of multivariate pattern analysis for fNIRS that allows the authors to decode the infant mind (a key fNIRS population)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426729/cultural-differences-in-room-size-perception
#9
Aurelie Saulton, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Stephan de la Rosa, Trevor J Dodds
Cultural differences in spatial perception have been little investigated, which gives rise to the impression that spatial cognitive processes might be universal. Contrary to this idea, we demonstrate cultural differences in spatial volume perception of computer generated rooms between Germans and South Koreans. We used a psychophysical task in which participants had to judge whether a rectangular room was larger or smaller than a square room of reference. We systematically varied the room rectangularity (depth to width aspect ratio) and the viewpoint (middle of the short wall vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426648/pregnancy-swimming-causes-short-and-long-term-neuroprotection-against-hypoxia-ischemia-in-very-immature-rats
#10
Eduardo Farias Sanches, Luz Elena Duran Carabali, Andrea Tosta, Fabrício Nicola, Felipe Schmitz, André Rodrigues, Cassiana Siebert, Angela Wyse, Carlos Alexandre Netto
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of neurological damage in preterm. Pregnancy swimming alters the pup's brain development. We tested the effects of swimming during pregnancy in the very immature rat brain. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (n=12) were assigned to sedentary (SE, n=6) or swimming groups (SW, n=6). From the gestational day 0 (DG0) to GD21 they performed 20 min/daily swimming sessions. HI on postnatal day 3 rat cause sensorimotor and cognitive impairments...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425746/look-on-the-bright-side-positivity-bias-modulates-interference-effects-in-the-simon-task
#11
Friederike Schlaghecken, Elisabeth Blagrove, Konstantinos Mantantzis, Elizabeth A Maylor, Derrick G Watson
Negative faces are detected more quickly but categorized more slowly than positive faces. Using a Simon task, we examined stimulus- and response-related processes of this dissociation: If negative stimuli are both processed and responded to more quickly than positive ones, they should elicit reduced Simon effects. Conversely, if negative stimuli are processed more quickly but responded to more slowly, enlarged Simon effects should occur. Consistent with the first possibility, negative stimuli showed reduced Simon effects...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425678/thinking-about-quantity-the-intertwined-development-of-spatial-and-numerical-cognition
#12
Nora S Newcombe, Susan C Levine, Kelly S Mix
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425500/structure-shapes-dynamics-and-directionality-in-diverse-brain-networks-mathematical-principles-and-empirical-confirmation-in-three-species
#13
Joon-Young Moon, Junhyeok Kim, Tae-Wook Ko, Minkyung Kim, Yasser Iturria-Medina, Jee-Hyun Choi, Joseph Lee, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
Identifying how spatially distributed information becomes integrated in the brain is essential to understanding higher cognitive functions. Previous computational and empirical studies suggest a significant influence of brain network structure on brain network function. However, there have been few analytical approaches to explain the role of network structure in shaping regional activities and directionality patterns. In this study, analytical methods are applied to a coupled oscillator model implemented in inhomogeneous networks...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425061/gray-matter-and-white-matter-changes-in-non-demented-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-with-or-without-cognitive-impairment-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-tract-based-spatial-statistics-whole-brain-analysis
#14
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Franz Riederer, Ioannis Zalonis, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Georgios Velonakis, Sophia Xirou, Michalis Rentzos, Georgios Argiropoulos, Vasiliki Zouvelou, Thomas Zambelis, Athanasios Athanasakos, Panagiotis Toulas, Konstantinos Vadikolias, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Spyros Kollias, Nikolaos Karandreas, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
The phenotypic heterogeneity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) implies that patients show structural changes within but also beyond the motor cortex and corticospinal tract and furthermore outside the frontal lobes, even if frank dementia is not detected. The aim of the present study was to investigate both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with or without cognitive impairment (ALS-motor and ALS-plus, respectively). Nineteen ALS-motor, 31 ALS-plus and 25 healthy controls (HC) underwent 3D-T1-weighted and 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3 T MRI scanner...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424512/human-umbilical-cord-plasma-proteins-revitalize-hippocampal-function-in-aged-mice
#15
Joseph M Castellano, Kira I Mosher, Rachelle J Abbey, Alisha A McBride, Michelle L James, Daniela Berdnik, Jadon C Shen, Bende Zou, Xinmin S Xie, Martha Tingle, Izumi V Hinkson, Martin S Angst, Tony Wyss-Coray
Ageing drives changes in neuronal and cognitive function, the decline of which is a major feature of many neurological disorders. The hippocampus, a brain region subserving roles of spatial and episodic memory and learning, is sensitive to the detrimental effects of ageing at morphological and molecular levels. With advancing age, synapses in various hippocampal subfields exhibit impaired long-term potentiation, an electrophysiological correlate of learning and memory. At the molecular level, immediate early genes are among the synaptic plasticity genes that are both induced by long-term potentiation and downregulated in the aged brain...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424397/-spatial-cognition-and-episodic-memory-formation-in-the-limbic-cortex
#16
Yasushi Kobayashi
The limbic lobe defined by Broca is a cortical region with highly diverse structure and functions, and comprises the paleo-, archi-, and neocortices as well as their transitional zones. In the limbic lobe, Brodmann designated areas 27, 28, 34, 35, and 36 adjacent to the hippocampus, and areas 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 around the corpus callosum. In the current literature, areas 27 and 28 correspond to the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively. Area 34 represents the cortico-medial part of the amygdaloid complex...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420443/tau-phosphorylation-induced-by-severe-closed-head-traumatic-brain-injury-is-linked-to-the-cellular-prion-protein
#17
Richard Rubenstein, Binggong Chang, Natalia Grinkina, Eleanor Drummond, Peter Davies, Meir Ruditzky, Deep Sharma, Kevin Wang, Thomas Wisniewski
Studies in vivo and in vitro have suggested that the mechanism underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathogenesis is initiated by an interaction between the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) and amyloid-β oligomers (Aβo). This PrP(C)-Aβo complex activates Fyn kinase which, in turn, hyperphosphorylates tau (P-Tau) resulting in synaptic dysfunction, neuronal loss and cognitive deficits. AD transgenic mice lacking PrP(C) accumulate Aβ, but show normal survival and no loss of spatial learning and memory suggesting that PrP(C) functions downstream of Aβo production but upstream of intracellular toxicity within neurons...
April 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419914/longitudinal-changes-in-pubertal-maturation-and-white-matter-microstructure
#18
Megan M Herting, Robert Kim, Kristina A Uban, Eric Kan, Andrea Binley, Elizabeth R Sowell
Emerging evidence in the field of adolescent neurodevelopment suggests that pubertal processes may contribute to known trajectories of brain maturation, and may contribute, in part, to sex differences in related cognitive, behavioral and mental health outcomes. The current longitudinal study examined how changes in physical pubertal maturation (measured by the Peterson Developmental Scale) predict changes in white matter microstructure in 18 boys and 15 girls over an approximate 2-year follow-up period, while accounting for age...
March 30, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419879/challenging-the-myth-of-right-non-dominant-hemisphere-lessons-from-cortico-subcortical-stimulation-mapping-in-awake-surgery-and-surgical-implications
#19
REVIEW
Tatiana Vilasboas, Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau
For a long time, the right hemisphere (RH) was considered as "non-dominant", especially in right-handers. In neurosurgical practice, this dogma resulted in the selection of awake procedure with language mapping only for lesions of the left "dominant" hemisphere. Conversely, surgery under general anesthesia (possibly with motor mapping) was usually proposed for right lesions. However, when objective neuropsychological assessments were performed, they frequently revealed cognitive and behavioral deficits following brain surgery, even in the RH...
April 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418327/auditory-and-cognitive-factors-associated-with-speech-in-noise-complaints-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Eric C Hoover, Pamela E Souza, Frederick J Gallun
BACKGROUND: Auditory complaints following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) are common, but few studies have addressed the role of auditory temporal processing in speech recognition complaints. PURPOSE: In this study, deficits understanding speech in a background of speech noise following MTBI were evaluated with the goal of comparing the relative contributions of auditory and nonauditory factors. RESEARCH DESIGN: A matched-groups design was used in which a group of listeners with a history of MTBI were compared to a group matched in age and pure-tone thresholds, as well as a control group of young listeners with normal hearing (YNH)...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
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