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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776734/taking-into-consideration-explanations-of-perception-action-interactions-that-may-be-less-dramatic-but-more-reflective-of-what-happens-in-the-real-world
#1
Robert W Proctor, Aiping Xiong
Bruce Bridgeman and colleagues reported the first experiments providing evidence of two functionally distinct visual-processing systems. We summarize that work and subsequent research that resulted in modifications of this view. Then, we describe studies of stimulus-response correspondence effects that provide evidence for distinct representations of responses. More recently, Bridgeman and colleagues examined whether "action affects perception", concluding that the phenomena can be more accurately construed as "information affects memory"...
May 15, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775836/cognitive-and-behavioural-dispositions-in-offspring-at-high-risk-for-alcoholism
#2
Rajesh Kumar, Keshav Janakiprasad Kumar, Vivek Benegal
OBJECTIVES: Offspring with family history of alcoholism are considered to be at high risk for alcoholism. The present study sought to expand our understanding of cognitive and behavioural dispositions associated with executive control and self-regulation in alcohol naïve offspring with and without family history of alcoholism. METHODS: Sample comprised of alcohol naive offspring in two groups: (i) at high risk (n = 34) and (ii) at low risk for alcoholism (n = 34)...
May 15, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774478/number-line-estimation-and-complex-mental-calculation-is-there-a-shared-cognitive-process-driving-the-two-tasks
#3
Maria Montefinese, Carlo Semenza
It is widely accepted that different number-related tasks, including solving simple addition and subtraction, may induce attentional shifts on the so-called mental number line, which represents larger numbers on the right and smaller numbers on the left. Recently, it has been shown that different number-related tasks also employ spatial attention shifts along with general cognitive processes. Here we investigated for the first time whether number line estimation and complex mental arithmetic recruit a common mechanism in healthy adults...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773978/effects-of-sevoflurane-exposure-during-mid-pregnancy-on-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-rats-beneficial-effects-of-maternal-exercise
#4
Ziyi Wu, Xingyue Li, Yi Zhang, Dongyi Tong, Lili Wang, Ping Zhao
Fetal exposure to general anesthetics may pose significant neurocognitive risks but methods to mitigate against these detrimental effects are still to be determined. We set out, therefore, to assess whether single or repeated in utero exposure to sevoflurane triggers long-term cognitive impairments in rat offspring. Since maternal exercise during pregnancy has been shown to improve cognition in offspring, we hypothesized that maternal treadmill exercise during pregnancy would protect against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772255/the-gist-and-details-of-sex-differences-in-cognition-and-the-brain-how-parallels-in-sex-differences-across-domains-are-shaped-by-the-locus-coeruleus-and-catecholamine-systems
#5
REVIEW
Alexandra Ycaza Herrera, Jiaxi Wang, Mara Mather
Across three different domains, there are similar sex differences in how men and women process information. There tends to be a male advantage in attending to and remembering the gist (essential central information of a scene or situation), but a female advantage in attending to and remembering the details (non-essential peripheral information of a scene or situation). This is seen in emotional memory, where emotion enhances gist memory more for males than for females, but enhances detail memory more for females than for males...
May 14, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770543/impairment-in-toileting-behavior-after-a-stroke
#6
Eri Kawanabe, Makoto Suzuki, Satoshi Tanaka, Shotaro Sasaki, Toyohiro Hamaguchi
AIM: Dependence for toileting is the most problematic aspect for patients after a stroke. However, the relative difficulty of each component of toileting and the predictors for independent performance of these activities are unknown. We investigated these issues in stroke patients using Boltzmann sigmoid and generalized linear modeling. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional correlation study, including 107 adult inpatients, hospitalized for a stroke. We assessed the activity components of toileting, as well as evaluated physical impairment using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, impairments in balance using the Berg Balance Scale, cognitive impairments using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the presence or absence of unilateral spatial neglect or aphasia...
May 17, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767767/waking-up-on-the-wrong-side-of-the-bed-the-effects-of-stress-anticipation-on-working-memory-in-daily-life
#7
Jinshil Hyun, Martin J Sliwinski, Joshua M Smyth
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the association between stress anticipated for the upcoming day and cognitive function later on that day, and how this relationship differed across age. Method: A diverse adult community sample (N = 240, age 25-65 years) completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports for 2 weeks on a smartphone; each day they completed a morning survey upon waking, beeped surveys at five times during a day, and an end-of-day survey...
May 15, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766459/cognitive-functioning-in-chiari-malformation-type-i-without-posterior-fossa-surgery
#8
Maitane García, Esther Lázaro, Juan Francisco López-Paz, Oscar Martínez, Manuel Pérez, Sarah Berrocoso, Mohammad Al-Rashaida, Imanol Amayra
Chiari Malformation type I (CM-I) is a neurological disorder characterized by a displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the spinal canal. Most research has focused on physical symptomatology but few studies include neuropsychological examinations. Moreover, although current research highlights the involvement of the cerebellum on higher cognitive functions, little is known about cognitive consequences associated with CM-I. The aim of this study is to analyze cognitive functioning between 39 CM-I patients and 39 healthy controls, matched by gender, age and years of education...
May 15, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765980/aerobic-interval-training-regulated-sirt3-attenuates-high-fat-diet-associated-cognitive-dysfunction
#9
Zhaoling Shi, Chen Li, Yue Yin, Zheng Yang, Han Xue, Nan Mu, Yishi Wang, Manling Liu, Heng Ma
Cognitive dysfunction is an important complicated disease in obesity. Exercise ameliorates obesity and the related cognitive dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether aerobic interval training (AIT) could attenuate high-fat-diet- (HFD-) associated cognitive dysfunction and the possible mechanism of SIRT3-MnSOD pathway. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and SIRT3 knockout (KO) mice were randomized into control (Con) or HFD group with or without AIT training for 6 weeks...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765348/numerical-affordance-influences-action-execution-a-kinematic-study-of-finger-movement
#10
Rosa Rugani, Sonia Betti, Luisa Sartori
Humans represent symbolic numbers as oriented from left to right: the mental number line (MNL). Up to now, scientific studies have mainly investigated the MNL by means of response times. However, the existing knowledge on the MNL can be advantaged by studies on motor patterns while responding to a number. Cognitive representations, in fact, cannot be fully understood without considering their impact on actions. Here we investigated whether a motor response can be influenced by number processing. Participants seated in front of a little soccer goal...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765347/how-deep-is-your-snarc-interactions-between-numerical-magnitude-response-hands-and-reachability-in-peripersonal-space
#11
Johannes Lohmann, Philipp A Schroeder, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Christian Plewnia, Martin V Butz
Spatial, physical, and semantic magnitude dimensions can influence action decisions in human cognitive processing and interact with each other. For example, in the spatial-numerical associations of response code (SNARC) effect, semantic numerical magnitude facilitates left-hand or right-hand responding dependent on the small or large magnitude of number symbols. SNARC-like interactions of numerical magnitudes with the radial spatial dimension (depth) were postulated from early on. Usually, the SNARC effect in any direction is investigated using fronto-parallel computer monitors for presentation of stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765102/the-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-impulsivity-and-memory-during-abstinence-in-cigarette-dependent-smokers
#12
C Hindocha, T P Freeman, M Grabski, H Crudgington, A C Davies, J B Stroud, R K Das, W Lawn, C J A Morgan, H V Curran
Acute nicotine abstinence in cigarette smokers results in deficits in performance on specific cognitive processes, including working memory and impulsivity which are important in relapse. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis, has shown pro-cognitive effects and preliminary evidence has indicated it can reduce the number of cigarettes smoked in dependent smokers. However, the effects of CBD on cognition have never been tested during acute nicotine withdrawal. The present study therefore aimed to investigate if CBD can improve memory and reduce impulsivity during acute tobacco abstinence...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764972/separate-functional-properties-of-nmdars-regulate-distinct-aspects-of-spatial-cognition
#13
Erin M Sanders, Akua O Nyarko-Odoom, Kevin Zhao, Michael Nguyen, Hong Hong Liao, Matthew Keith, Jane Pyon, Alyssa Kozma, Mohima Sanyal, Daniel G McHail, Theodore C Dumas
N -methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at excitatory synapses are central to activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. NMDARs act as ionotropic and metabotropic receptors by elevating postsynaptic calcium concentrations and by direct intracellular protein signaling. In the forebrain, these properties are controlled largely by the auxiliary GluN2 subunits, GluN2A and GluN2B. While calcium conductance through NMDAR channels and intracellular protein signaling make separate contributions to synaptic plasticity, it is not known if these properties individually influence learning and memory...
June 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763748/right-hemisphere-cognitive-functions-from-clinical-and-anatomical-bases-to-brain-mapping-during-awake-craniotomy-part-i-clinical-and-functional-anatomy
#14
REVIEW
Florian Bernard, Jean-Michel Lemée, Aram Ter Minassian, Philippe Menei
The non-dominant hemisphere (usually the right) is responsible for primary cognitive functions such as visuo-spatial and social cognition. Awake surgery using direct electrical stimulation for right cerebral tumor removal remains challenging due to the complexity of the functional anatomy and difficulties in adapting standard bedside tasks to awake surgery conditions. An understanding of semiology and anatomical bases, along with an analysis of the available cognitive tasks for visuo-spatial and social cognition per operative mapping will allow neurosurgeons to better appreciate the functional anatomy of the right hemisphere and its relevance to tumor surgery...
May 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761057/the-performance-of-cleaner-wrasse-labroides-dimidiatus-in-a-reversal-learning-task-varies-across-experimental-paradigms
#15
Simon Gingins, Fanny Marcadier, Sharon Wismer, Océane Krattinger, Fausto Quattrini, Redouan Bshary, Sandra A Binning
Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaners")...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761010/central-cholinergic-system-mediates-working-memory-deficit-induced-by-anesthesia-surgery-in-adult-mice
#16
Xiao Zhang, Xuliang Jiang, Lili Huang, Weitian Tian, Xuemei Chen, Xiyao Gu, Weifeng Yu, Jie Tian, Diansan Su
Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is consistently associated with increased morbidity and mortality, which has become a major concern of patients and caregivers. Although POCD occurs mainly in aged patients, it happens at any age. Previous studies demonstrated that anesthesia/surgery had no effects on reference memory of adult mice. However, whether it impairs working memory remains unclear. Working memory deficit would result in many deficits of executive function...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761004/exploring-the-impact-of-chronic-high-altitude-exposure-on-visual-spatial-attention-using-the-erp-approach
#17
Delong Zhang, Hailin Ma, Jiaqun Huang, Xinjuan Zhang, Huifang Ma, Ming Liu
Introduction: Previous studies have reported the slowing of reaction times to attentionally demanding tasks due to a reduction in cognitive resource as a result of chronic high-altitude exposure. However, it is still largely unknown whether this reaction slowness can be attributed to the attentional allocation change and/or response patterns. Methods: To clarify this issue, this study investigated attention-related (N2pc and N2 cc) and response-related (MP and RAP) event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify the performance of a visual search task by individuals who had lived in high-altitude areas for three years compared with those living at sea level...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760466/two-photon-imaging-of-neuronal-activity-in-motor-cortex-of-marmosets-during-upper-limb-movement-tasks
#18
Teppei Ebina, Yoshito Masamizu, Yasuhiro R Tanaka, Akiya Watakabe, Reiko Hirakawa, Yuka Hirayama, Riichiro Hira, Shin-Ichiro Terada, Daisuke Koketsu, Kazuo Hikosaka, Hiroaki Mizukami, Atsushi Nambu, Erika Sasaki, Tetsuo Yamamori, Masanori Matsuzaki
Two-photon imaging in behaving animals has revealed neuronal activities related to behavioral and cognitive function at single-cell resolution. However, marmosets have posed a challenge due to limited success in training on motor tasks. Here we report the development of protocols to train head-fixed common marmosets to perform upper-limb movement tasks and simultaneously perform two-photon imaging. After 2-5 months of training sessions, head-fixed marmosets can control a manipulandum to move a cursor to a target on a screen...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759684/how-aging-impacts-the-encoding-of-binaural-cues-and-the-perception-of-auditory-space
#19
REVIEW
Ann Clock Eddins, Erol J Ozmeral, David A Eddins
Over the years, the effect of aging on auditory function has been investigated in animal models and humans in an effort to characterize age-related changes in both perception and physiology. Here, we review how aging may impact neural encoding and processing of binaural and spatial cues in human listeners with a focus on recent work by the authors as well as others. Age-related declines in monaural temporal processing, as estimated from measures of gap detection and temporal fine structure discrimination, have been associated with poorer performance on binaural tasks that require precise temporal processing...
May 5, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759084/sex-differences-in-associations-between-maternal-deprivation-and-alterations-in-hippocampal-calcium-binding-proteins-and-cognitive-functions-in-rats
#20
Hongyu Xu, Yuqin Ye, Yelu Hao, Fei Shi, Zhiqiang Yan, Guohao Yuan, Yuefan Yang, Zhou Fei, Xiaosheng He
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adverse early-life experiences have been suggested as one of the key contributors to neurodevelopmental disorders, such that these experiences influence brain development, cognitive ability and mental health. Previous studies indicated that hippocampal levels of the calcium-binding proteins calretinin (CALR) and calbindin-D28k (CALB) changed in response to maternal deprivation (MD), a model for adverse early-life experiences. We investigated the effects of MD on hippocampal CALR and CALB protein levels and cognitive behaviors, and explored whether these effects were sex-related...
May 15, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
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