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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734164/cognitive-strategies-in-the-mental-rotation-task-revealed-by-eeg-spectral-power
#1
Aaron L Gardony, Marianna D Eddy, Tad T Brunyé, Holly A Taylor
The classic mental rotation task (MRT; Shepard & Metzler, 1971) is commonly thought to measure mental rotation, a cognitive process involving covert simulation of motor rotation. Yet much research suggests that the MRT recruits both motor simulation and other analytic cognitive strategies that depend on visuospatial representation and visual working memory (WM). In the present study, we investigated cognitive strategies in the MRT using time-frequency analysis of EEG and independent component analysis. We scrutinized sensorimotor mu (µ) power reduction, associated with motor simulation, parietal alpha (pα) power reduction, associated with visuospatial representation, and frontal midline theta (fmθ) power enhancement, associated with WM maintenance and manipulation...
July 19, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731445/colivelin-ameliorates-impairments-in%C3%A2-cognitive-behaviors-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#2
Meina Wu, Hui Shi, Yexin He, Li Yuan, Xuesong Qu, Jun Zhang, Zhaojun Wang, Hongyan Cai, Jinshun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and effective therapeutics are lacking. Colivelin (CLN), a novel, strong humanin derivative, is effective in vitro in preventing cell death induced by AD-causative genes and amyloid-β protein (Aβ) even at a low concentration. We recently demonstrated that intrahippocampal injection of CLN prevents Aβ25-35-induced deficits in spatial memory and synaptic plasticity in normal rats. Here, we further observed the effects of chronically intranasally (i...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731436/impaired-processing-of-serial-order-determines-working-memory-impairments-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Maya De Belder, Patrick Santens, Anne Sieben, Wim Fias
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) problems are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the affected mechanisms leading to impaired WM are still insufficiently understood. The ability to efficiently process serial order in WM has been demonstrated to be fundamental to fluent daily life functioning. The decreased capability to mentally process serial position in WM has been put forward as the underlying explanation for generally compromised WM performance. OBJECTIVE: Determine which mechanisms, such as order processing, are responsible for deficient WM functioning in AD...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729692/extensive-astrocyte-synchronization-advances-neuronal-coupling-in-slow-wave-activity-in-vivo
#4
Zsolt Szabó, László Héja, Gergely Szalay, Orsolya Kékesi, András Füredi, Kornélia Szebényi, Árpád Dobolyi, Tamás I Orbán, Orsolya Kolacsek, Tamás Tompa, Zsombor Miskolczy, László Biczók, Balázs Rózsa, Balázs Sarkadi, Julianna Kardos
Slow wave activity (SWA) is a characteristic brain oscillation in sleep and quiet wakefulness. Although the cell types contributing to SWA genesis are not yet identified, the principal role of neurons in the emergence of this essential cognitive mechanism has not been questioned. To address the possibility of astrocytic involvement in SWA, we used a transgenic rat line expressing a calcium sensitive fluorescent protein in both astrocytes and interneurons and simultaneously imaged astrocytic and neuronal activity in vivo...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729138/spatial-working-memory-in-the-touchscreen-operant-platform-is-disrupted-in-female-rats-by-ovariectomy-but-not-estrous-cycle
#5
Alyssa M Sbisa, Andrea Gogos, Maarten van den Buuse
Learning and memory deficits have been described in rats and mice after ovariectomy (OVX) and across the estrous cycle. Preclinical researchers therefore often avoid using female animals and, consequently, a large male bias exists in the preclinical cognitive literature. In the present study we examined the role of sex hormones in the touchscreen operant platform using the spatial working memory trial unique nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task. Twenty-nine Long Evans rats were trained to acquire the TUNL task including three incremental spatial separations (S0, S1, S2)...
July 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729016/learning-based-structurally-guided-construction-of-resting-state-functional-correlation-tensors
#6
Lichi Zhang, Han Zhang, Xiaobo Chen, Qian Wang, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures changes in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals to detect brain activities. It has been recently reported that the spatial correlation patterns of resting-state BOLD signals in the white matter (WM) also give WM information often measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). These correlation patterns can be captured using functional correlation tensor (FCT), which is analogous to the diffusion tensor (DT) obtained from DTI. In this paper, we propose a noise-robust FCT method aiming at further improving its quality, and making it eligible for further neuroscience study...
July 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726502/spatial-reorientation-decline-in-aging-the-combination-of-geometry-and-landmarks
#7
Alessandro O Caffò, Antonella Lopez, Giuseppina Spano, Silvia Serino, Pietro Cipresso, Fabrizio Stasolla, Michelina Savino, Giulio E Lancioni, Giuseppe Riva, Andrea Bosco
OBJECTIVES: The study is focused on the assessment of reorientation skills in a sample of community-dwelling elderly people, manipulating landmarks and geometric (layout) information. METHOD: A neuropsychological assessment was administered to 286 elderly participants, divided into six groups (healthy controls, HC; four subgroups of participants with mild cognitive impairment, MCI; participants with probable dementia, Prob_D) and tested with the Virtual Reorientation Test (VReoT)...
July 20, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726177/the-reliability-paradox-why-robust-cognitive-tasks-do-not-produce-reliable-individual-differences
#8
Craig Hedge, Georgina Powell, Petroc Sumner
Individual differences in cognitive paradigms are increasingly employed to relate cognition to brain structure, chemistry, and function. However, such efforts are often unfruitful, even with the most well established tasks. Here we offer an explanation for failures in the application of robust cognitive paradigms to the study of individual differences. Experimental effects become well established - and thus those tasks become popular - when between-subject variability is low. However, low between-subject variability causes low reliability for individual differences, destroying replicable correlations with other factors and potentially undermining published conclusions drawn from correlational relationships...
July 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725993/are-young-children-able-to-learn-exploratory-strategies-by-observation
#9
Francesca Foti, Domenico Martone, Stefania Orrù, Simone Montuori, Esther Imperlini, Pasqualina Buono, Laura Petrosini, Laura Mandolesi
New competencies may be learned through active experience (experiential learning or learning by doing) or observation of others' experiences (learning by observation). Observing another person performing a complex action facilitates the observer's acquisition of the same action. The present research is aimed at analyzing if the observation of specific explorative strategies adopted in a constrained environment, such as the Radial Arm Maze (RAM), could help young children to explore the maze and to build a cognitive spatial map of the explored environment...
July 20, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725547/spatial-working-memory-in-neurofibromatosis-1-altered-neural-activity-and-functional-connectivity
#10
Amira F A Ibrahim, Caroline A Montojo, Kristen M Haut, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Laura Hansen, Eliza Congdon, Tena Rosser, Robert M Bilder, Alcino J Silva, Carrie E Bearden
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder that disrupts central nervous system development and neuronal function. Cognitively, NF1 is characterized by difficulties with executive control and visuospatial abilities. Little is known about the neural substrates underlying these deficits. The current study utilized Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) to explore the neural correlates of spatial working memory (WM) deficits in patients with NF1. METHODS: BOLD images were acquired from 23 adults with NF1 (age M = 32...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725201/nature-and-specificity-of-gestural-disorder-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-multiple-case-study
#11
Orianne Costini, Arnaud Roy, Chrystelle Remigereau, Sylvane Faure, Catherine Fossoud, Didier Le Gall
Aim: Praxis assessment in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is usually based on tests of adult apraxia, by comparing across types of gestures and input modalities. However, the cognitive models of adult praxis processing are rarely used in a comprehensive and critical interpretation. These models generally involve two systems: a conceptual system and a production system. Heterogeneity of deficits is consistently reported in DCD, involving other cognitive skills such as executive or visual-perceptual and visuospatial functions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725174/altered-functional-connectivity-following-an-inflammatory-white-matter-injury-in-the-newborn-rat-a-high-spatial-and-temporal-resolution-intrinsic-optical-imaging-study
#12
Edgar Guevara, Wyston C Pierre, Camille Tessier, Luis Akakpo, Irène Londono, Frédéric Lesage, Gregory A Lodygensky
Very preterm newborns have an increased risk of developing an inflammatory cerebral white matter injury that may lead to severe neuro-cognitive impairment. In this study we performed functional connectivity (fc) analysis using resting-state optical imaging of intrinsic signals (rs-OIS) to assess the impact of inflammation on resting-state networks (RSN) in a pre-clinical model of perinatal inflammatory brain injury. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline injections were administered in postnatal day (P3) rat pups and optical imaging of intrinsic signals were obtained 3 weeks later...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725022/action-video-games-improve-reading-abilities-and-visual-to-auditory-attentional-shifting-in-english-speaking-children-with-dyslexia
#13
Sandro Franceschini, Piergiorgio Trevisan, Luca Ronconi, Sara Bertoni, Susan Colmar, Kit Double, Andrea Facoetti, Simone Gori
Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read and there is some evidence that action video games (AVG), without any direct phonological or orthographic stimulation, improve reading efficiency in Italian children with dyslexia. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying this improvement and the extent to which the benefits of AVG training would generalize to deep English orthography, remain two critical questions. During reading acquisition, children have to integrate written letters with speech sounds, rapidly shifting their attention from visual to auditory modality...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724985/increased-neural-noise-and-impaired-brain-synchronization-in-fibromyalgia-patients-during-cognitive-interference
#14
A J González-Villar, N Samartin-Veiga, M Arias, M T Carrillo-de-la-Peña
Fibromyalgia (FM) and other chronic pain syndromes are associated with cognitive dysfunction and attentional deficits, but the neural basis of such alterations is poorly understood. Dyscognition may be related to high levels of neural noise, understood as increased random electrical fluctuations that impair neural communication; however, this hypothesis has not yet been tested in any chronic pain condition. Here we compared electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in 18 FM patients -with high self-reported levels of cognitive dysfunction- and 22 controls during a cognitive control task...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724747/interleukin-1-receptor-in-seizure-susceptibility-after-traumatic-injury-to-the-pediatric-brain
#15
Bridgette D Semple, Terence J O'Brien, Kayleen Gimlin, David K Wright, Shi Eun Kim, Pablo M Casillas-Espinosa, Kyria M Webster, Steven Petrou, Linda J Noble-Haeusslein
Epilepsy after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with poor quality of life. This study aimed to characterize post-traumatic epilepsy in a mouse model of pediatric brain injury, and to evaluate the role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling as a target for pharmacological intervention. Male mice received a controlled cortical impact or sham surgery at postnatal day 21, approximating a toddler-aged child. Mice were treated acutely with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra; 100 mg/kg s.c.) or vehicle...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722640/the-role-of-risk-proximity-in-the-beliefs-and-behaviors-related-to-mosquito-borne-diseases-the-case-of-chikungunya-in-french-guiana
#16
Claude Flamand, Camille Fritzell, Pauline Obale, Philippe Quenel, Jocelyn Raude
Human behaviors are increasingly recognized to play a key role in the spread of infectious diseases. Although a set of social and cognitive determinants has been consistently found to affect the adoption of health protective behaviors aiming to control and prevent a variety of infections, little is currently known about the ecological drivers of these behaviors in epidemic settings. In this article, we took advantage of the outbreak of chikungunya, a reemerging mosquito-borne disease, that occurred in French Guiana in 2014-15 to test empirically the assumption proposed by Zielinski-Gutierrez and Hayden that the proximity of the disease and perceptions of the natural environment may considerably shape public response to an emerging health threat...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720898/balance-training-improves-memory-and-spatial-cognition-in-healthy-adults
#17
Ann-Kathrin Rogge, Brigitte Röder, Astrid Zech, Volker Nagel, Karsten Hollander, Klaus-Michael Braumann, Kirsten Hötting
Physical exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functions. However, it is still unknown which type of exercise affects cognition. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a demanding balance training program improves memory and spatial cognition. Forty healthy participants aged 19-65 years were randomly assigned to either a balance or relaxation training intervention. Each group exercised twice a week for a total of 12 weeks. Pre- and posttests assessed balance performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, memory, spatial cognition, and executive functions...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720858/gsk-3%C3%AE-deletion-in-dentate-gyrus-excitatory-neuron-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory
#18
Enjie Liu, Ao-Ji Xie, Qiuzhi Zhou, Mengzhu Li, Shujuan Zhang, Shihong Li, Weijin Wang, Xiaochuan Wang, Qun Wang, Jian-Zhi Wang
Increasing evidence suggests that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) plays a crucial role in neurodegenerative/psychiatric disorders, while pan-neural knockout of GSK-3β also shows detrimental effects. Currently, the function of GSK-3β in specific type of neurons is elusive. Here, we infused AAV-CaMKII-Cre-2A-eGFP into GSK-3β(lox/lox) mice to selectively delete the kinase in excitatory neurons of hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), and studied the effects on cognitive/psychiatric behaviors and the molecular mechanisms...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720484/long-term-enzyme-replacement-therapy-improves-neurocognitive-functioning-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-in-immune-tolerant-alpha-mannosidosis-mice
#19
Stijn Stroobants, Markus Damme, Ann Van der Jeugd, Ben Vermaercke, Claes Andersson, Jens Fogh, Paul Saftig, Judith Blanz, Rudi D'Hooge
Alpha-mannosidosis is a glycoproteinosis caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-mannosidase (LAMAN), which markedly affects neurons of the central nervous system (CNS), and causes pathognomonic intellectual dysfunction in the clinical condition. Cognitive improvement consequently remains a major therapeutic objective in research on this devastating genetic error. Immune-tolerant LAMAN knockout mice were developed to evaluate the effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) by prolonged administration of recombinant human enzyme...
July 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716250/white-matter-lesions-and-cognitive-impairment-may-be-related-to-recovery-from-unilateral-spatial-neglect-after-stroke
#20
Chisako Köder Kamakura, Yuji Ueno, Yuzuru Sakai, Hisao Yoshida, Saiko Aiba, Akito Hayashi, Hideki Shimura, Katsuhiko Takeda, Keiko Kamakura, Nobutaka Hattori, Takao Urabe
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is frequently found in ischemic stroke patients. Because USN is related to poor functional outcomes, evaluating recovery from USN after stroke is critical. METHODS: Patients with acute ischemic stroke with lesions in the right cerebral hemisphere on MRI and exhibiting left USN were administered the Behavior Inattention Test (BIT) at 1 and 3weeks after admission. BIT improvement was defined as a ≥1-point increase in ≥4 of the 6 BIT subtests from 1 to 3weeks, or a total BIT score ≥131 at 3weeks...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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