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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342397/imaging-the-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-cognitive-processes-at-high-temporal-resolution
#1
I Tal, M Abeles
This letter presents a noninvasive imaging technique that captures the exact timing and locations of cortical activity sequences that are specific to a cognitive process. These precise spatiotemporal sequences can be detected in the human brain as specific time-position pattern associated with a cognitive specific time-position pattern associated with a cognitive task. They are consistent with direct measurements of population activity recorded in nonhuman primates, thus suggesting that specific time-position patterns associated with a cognitive task can be identified...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339558/does-sleep-facilitate-the-consolidation-of-allocentric-or-egocentric-representations-of-implicitly-learned-visual-motor-sequence-learning
#2
Jeremy Viczko, Valya Sergeeva, Laura B Ray, Adrian M Owen, Stuart M Fogel
Sleep facilitates the consolidation (i.e., enhancement) of simple, explicit (i.e., conscious) motor sequence learning (MSL). MSL can be dissociated into egocentric (i.e., motor) or allocentric (i.e., spatial) frames of reference. The consolidation of the allocentric memory representation is sleep-dependent, whereas the egocentric consolidation process is independent of sleep or wake for explicit MSL. However, it remains unclear the extent to which sleep contributes to the consolidation of implicit (i.e., unconscious) MSL, nor is it known what aspects of the memory representation (egocentric, allocentric) are consolidated by sleep...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339557/chronic-dietary-creatine-enhances-hippocampal-dependent-spatial-memory-bioenergetics-and-levels-of-plasticity-related-proteins-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#3
Wanda M Snow, Chris Cadonic, Claudia Cortes-Perez, Subir K Roy Chowdhury, Jelena Djordjevic, Ella Thomson, Michael J Bernstein, Miyoung Suh, Paul Fernyhough, Benedict C Albensi
The brain has a high demand for energy, of which creatine (Cr) is an important regulator. Studies document neurocognitive benefits of oral Cr in mammals, yet little is known regarding their physiological basis. This study investigated the effects of Cr supplementation (3%, w/w) on hippocampal function in male C57BL/6 mice, including spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and oxygen consumption rates from isolated mitochondria in real time. Levels of transcription factors and related proteins (CREB, Egr1, and IκB to indicate NF-κB activity), proteins implicated in cognition (CaMKII, PSD-95, and Egr2), and mitochondrial proteins (electron transport chain Complex I, mitochondrial fission protein Drp1) were probed with Western blotting...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339513/projecting-one-s-own-spatial-bias-onto-others-during-a-theory-of-mind-task
#4
Branden J Bio, Taylor W Webb, Michael S A Graziano
Many people show a left-right bias in visual processing. We measured spatial bias in neurotypical participants using a variant of the line bisection task. In the same participants, we measured performance in a social cognition task. This theory-of-mind task measured whether each participant had a processing-speed bias toward the right of, or left of, a cartoon agent about which the participant was thinking. Crucially, the cartoon was rotated such that what was left and right with respect to the cartoon was up and down with respect to the participant...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339512/neural-preservation-underlies-speech-improvement-from-auditory-deprivation-in-young-cochlear-implant-recipients
#5
Gangyi Feng, Erin M Ingvalson, Tina M Grieco-Calub, Megan Y Roberts, Maura E Ryan, Patrick Birmingham, Delilah Burrowes, Nancy M Young, Patrick C M Wong
Although cochlear implantation enables some children to attain age-appropriate speech and language development, communicative delays persist in others, and outcomes are quite variable and difficult to predict, even for children implanted early in life. To understand the neurobiological basis of this variability, we used presurgical neural morphological data obtained from MRI of individual pediatric cochlear implant (CI) candidates implanted younger than 3.5 years to predict variability of their speech-perception improvement after surgery...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337050/impairments-in-social-novelty-recognition-and-spatial-memory-in-mice-with-conditional-deletion-of-scn1a-in-parvalbumin-expressing-cells
#6
Tetsuya Tatsukawa, Ikuo Ogiwara, Emi Mazaki, Atsushi Shimohata, Kazuhiro Yamakawa
Loss of function mutations in the SCN1A gene, which encodes the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.1, have been described in the majority of Dravet syndrome patients presenting with epileptic seizures, hyperactivity, autistic traits, and cognitive decline. We previously reported predominant Nav1.1 expression in parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) inhibitory neurons in juvenile mouse brain and observed epileptic seizures in mice with selective deletion of Scn1a in PV+ cells mediated by PV-Cre transgene expression (Scn1afl/+/PV-Cre-TG)...
January 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336906/progression-of-white-matter-damage-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-with-predominant-parkinsonism
#7
Francesca Caso, Federica Agosta, Milica Ječmenica-Lukić, Igor Petrović, Alessandro Meani, Vladimir S Kostic, Massimo Filippi
INTRODUCTION: Progressive supranuclear palsy with predominant parkinsonism (PSP-P) accounts for 14-35% of all PSP cases. A few cross-sectional MRI studies in PSP-P showed a remarkable white matter (WM) damage. Progression of brain structural damage in these patients remains unknown. METHODS: Longitudinal clinical, cognitive and diffusion tensor (DT) MRI data were obtained over a mean 1.6 year follow up in 10 PSP-P patients. At study entry, patients were compared with 36 healthy controls...
January 4, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336730/motor-and-visual-spatial-cognition-development-in-primary-school-aged-children-in-cameroon-and-germany
#8
Petra Jansen, Jennifer Lehmann, Christoph Tafelmeier
It was the main goal of this study to investigate the motor and visual-spatial development in primary school-aged children in Cameroon and Germany. Thirty-four children from each country completed a motor test and a mental rotation test. It was found that children in Cameroon showed a better motor ability (better overall gross motor score and also on most single items) than children in Germany did. This can be explained by the early motor stimulation in infancy in Cameroon. Concerning mental rotation performance, Cameroonian children perform below chance level...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336125/association-of-chronic-subjective-tinnitus-with-neuro-cognitive-performance
#9
Sunita Gudwani, Sanjay K Munjal, Naresh K Panda, Adarsh Kohli
INTRODUCTION: Chronic subjective tinnitus is associated with cognitive disruptions affecting perception, thinking, language, reasoning, problem solving, memory, visual tasks (reading) and attention. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate existence of any association between tinnitus parameters and neuropsychological performance to explain cognitive processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study design was prospective, consisting 25 patients with idiopathic chronic subjective tinnitus and gave informed consent before planning their treatment...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335778/hippocampal-area-ca2-properties-and-contribution-to-hippocampal-function
#10
REVIEW
Vincent Robert, Sadiyah Cassim, Vivien Chevaleyre, Rebecca A Piskorowski
This review focuses on area CA2 of the hippocampus, as recent results have revealed the unique properties and surprising role of this region in encoding social, temporal and contextual aspects of memory. Originally identified and described by Lorente de No, in 1934, this region of the hippocampus has unique intra-and extra-hippocampal connectivity, sending and receiving input to septal and hypothalamic regions. Recent in vivo studies have indicated that CA2 pyramidal neurons encode spatial information during immobility and play an important role in the generation of sharp-wave ripples...
January 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335016/autophagy-is-required-for-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-improve-spatial-working-memory-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mouse-model
#11
Wen Li, Kai Li, Jing Gao, Zhuo Yang
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that autophagy plays a central role in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and many studies have shown that human umbilical cord MSCs (huMSCs) can treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) through a variety of mechanisms. However, no studies have looked at the effects of autophagy on neuroprotective function of huMSCs in the AD mouse model. Thus, in this study we investigated whether inhibition of autophagy could weaken or block the function of huMSCs through in vitro and in vivo experiments...
January 15, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334662/aqueous-extracts-of-two-tropical-ethnobotanicals-tetrapleura-tetraptera-and-quassia-undulata-improved-spatial-and-non-spatial-working-memories-in-scopolamine-induced-amnesic-rats-influence-of-neuronal-cholinergic-and-antioxidant-systems
#12
Veronica O Odubanjo, Emmanuel O Ibukun, Ganiyu Oboh, Stephen A Adefegha
BACKGROUND: Tetrapleura tetraptera (TT) and Quassia undulata (QU) are two predominant tropical ethnobotanicals with various medicinal values but are commonly used in folklore for the treatment of mental illness without justifiable mechanisms of action. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of aqueous extracts from TT fruits and QU leaves on the spatial and non-spatial working memory, antioxidant status and activities of neuronal marker enzymes of scopolamine-induced amnesic rats and thus, understand the possible mechanism of action of these plants...
January 11, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333917/role-of-cortical-microbleeds-in-cognitive-impairment-in%C3%A2-vivo-behavioral-and-imaging-characterization-of-a-novel-murine-model
#13
Sandrine Bergeron, Yaohua Chen, Florent Auger, Julie Deguil, Nicolas Durieux, Emilie Skrobala, Romain Barus, Camille Potey, Charlotte Cordonnier, Florence Pasquier, Laura Ravasi, Régis Bordet, Sophie Gautier
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) could contribute to cognitive impairment in the general population and in patients with dementia. We designed a study to (i) develop a murine model of CMBs, (ii) assess whether CMBs affect cognition in this model and (iii) assess whether this model is sensitive to pharmacological modulation. Male C57Bl6/J mice were stereotactically administered collagenase to induce cortical lesion analysed by MRI at 24 h. CMB-mice were assessed at six weeks post-lesion for cognitive performances (Barnes maze and Touchscreen automated paired-associated learning (PAL) task) and for cerebral metabolism (in vivo PET/CT with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG))...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330372/non-estrogenic-xanthohumol-derivatives-mitigate-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-impairment-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#14
Cristobal L Miranda, Lance A Johnson, Oriane de Montgolfier, Valerie D Elias, Lea S Ullrich, Joshua J Hay, Ines L Paraiso, Jaewoo Choi, Ralph L Reed, Johana S Revel, Chrissa Kioussi, Gerd Bobe, Urszula T Iwaniec, Russell T Turner, Benita S Katzenellenbogen, John A Katzenellenbogen, Paul R Blakemore, Adrian F Gombart, Claudia S Maier, Jacob Raber, Jan F Stevens
Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid from hops, improves dysfunctional glucose and lipid metabolism in animal models of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, its metabolic transformation into the estrogenic metabolite, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), poses a potential health concern for its use in humans. To address this concern, we evaluated two hydrogenated derivatives, α,β-dihydro-XN (DXN) and tetrahydro-XN (TXN), which showed negligible affinity for estrogen receptors α and β, and which cannot be metabolically converted into 8-PN...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329741/sex-differences-of-hippocampal-structure-in-bipolar-disorder
#15
Jing Shi, Hua Guo, Fengmei Fan, Hongzhen Fan, Huimei An, Zhiren Wang, Shuping Tan, Fude Yang, Yunlong Tan
Although differential patterns in clinical characteristics have been consistently noted between male and female patients with bipolar disorder (BD), the effect of sex on the hippocampal structure remains unclear. To address this, the present study investigated the effects of BD and sex on the hippocampal structure, and the relationship between the hippocampal structure and cognitive performance. Morphometric and neurocognitive analyses were performed in 91 subjects (patients with BD: male/female = 33/19; normal controls: male/female = 22/17)...
December 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327279/emotion-recognition-and-psychological-comorbidity-in-friedreich-s-ataxia
#16
Teresa Costabile, Veronica Capretti, Filomena Abate, Agnese Liguori, Francesca Paciello, Chiara Pane, Anna De Rosa, Silvio Peluso, Giuseppe De Michele, Alessandro Filla, Francesco Saccà
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disease presenting with ataxia, corticospinal signs, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac abnormalities. Little effort has been made to understand the psychological and emotional burden of the disease. The aim of our study was to measure patients' ability to recognize emotions using visual and non-verbal auditory hints, and to correlate this ability with psychological, neuropsychological, and neurological variables. We included 20 patients with FRDA, and 20 age, sex, and education matched healthy controls (HC)...
January 11, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326274/social-place-cells-in-the-bat-hippocampus
#17
David B Omer, Shir R Maimon, Liora Las, Nachum Ulanovsky
Social animals have to know the spatial positions of conspecifics. However, it is unknown how the position of others is represented in the brain. We designed a spatial observational-learning task, in which an observer bat mimicked a demonstrator bat while we recorded hippocampal dorsal-CA1 neurons from the observer bat. A neuronal subpopulation represented the position of the other bat, in allocentric coordinates. About half of these "social place-cells" represented also the observer's own position-that is, were place cells...
January 12, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326231/linked-networks-for-learning-and-expressing-location-specific-threat
#18
Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, James A Bisby, Aidan J Horner, John A King, Daniel S Pine, Neil Burgess
Learning locations of danger within our environment is a vital adaptive ability whose neural bases are only partially understood. We examined fMRI brain activity while participants navigated a virtual environment in which flowers appeared and were "picked." Picking flowers in the danger zone (one-half of the environment) predicted an electric shock to the wrist (or "bee sting"); flowers in the safe zone never predicted shock; and household objects served as controls for neutral spatial memory. Participants demonstrated learning with shock expectancy ratings and skin conductance increases for flowers in the danger zone...
January 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325715/orexin-knockout-mice-exhibit-impaired-spatial-working-memory
#19
Ruozhi Dang, Qiuhan Chen, Jie Song, Chao He, Jun Zhang, Jianxia Xia, Zhian Hu
Orexins play a crucial role in the maintenance of arousal and are involved in the modulation of diverse physiological process, including cognitive function. Recent data have suggested that orexins are involved in learning and memory processes. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of orexin deficiency on working memory. A delayed non-matching-to-place T-maze task was used to evaluate spatial working memory in mice lacking orexin prepro-peptide (orexin knockout; KO) and wild-type controls. We demonstrated that the number of correct choices in the orexin KO mice became lower than that of the controls over training...
January 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325011/cognitive-complaints-in-memory-clinic-patients-and-in-depressive-patients-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis
#20
Lisa Miebach, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Ingo Frommann, Klaus Fließbach, Frank Jessen, Rachel Buckley, Michael Wagner
Background and Objectives: Cognitive complaints are discussed as early signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, they are also very common in cognitively normal older adults and in patients with depression. Qualitative, interview-based approaches might be useful to identify those features of cognitive complaints specific for the experiences of cognitive decline in preclinical or prodromal AD versus those complaints typically reported by depressed patients. Research Design and Methods: A semi-structured interview was administered to 21 cognitively normal older adults (HC), 18 nondemented memory clinic patients (MC), and 11 patients with a major depression (MD), all above 55 years...
January 8, 2018: Gerontologist
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