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spatial cognition

William H Curley, Peter B Forgacs, Henning U Voss, Mary M Conte, Nicholas D Schiff
Patients with severe brain injury are difficult to assess and frequently subject to misdiagnosis. 'Cognitive motor dissociation' is a term used to describe a subset of such patients with preserved cognition as detected with neuroimaging methods but not evident in behavioural assessments. Unlike the locked-in state, cognitive motor dissociation after severe brain injury is prominently marked by concomitant injuries across the cerebrum in addition to limited or no motoric function. In the present study, we sought to characterize the EEG signals used as indicators of cognition in patients with disorders of consciousness and examine their reliability for potential future use to re-establish communication...
March 19, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Elena Boto, Niall Holmes, James Leggett, Gillian Roberts, Vishal Shah, Sofie S Meyer, Leonardo Duque Muñoz, Karen J Mullinger, Tim M Tierney, Sven Bestmann, Gareth R Barnes, Richard Bowtell, Matthew J Brookes
Imaging human brain function with techniques such as magnetoencephalography typically requires a subject to perform tasks while their head remains still within a restrictive scanner. This artificial environment makes the technique inaccessible to many people, and limits the experimental questions that can be addressed. For example, it has been difficult to apply neuroimaging to investigation of the neural substrates of cognitive development in babies and children, or to study processes in adults that require unconstrained head movement (such as spatial navigation)...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Kate S Collison, Angela Inglis, Sherin Shibin, Soad Saleh, Bernard Andres, Rosario Ubungen, Jennifer Thiam, Princess Mata, Futwan A Al-Mohanna
RATIONALE: Aspartame (L-aspartyl phenylalanine methyl ester) is a non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) approved for use in more than 6000 dietary products and pharmaceuticals consumed by the general public including adults and children, pregnant and nursing mothers. However a recent prospective study reported a doubling of the risk of being overweight amongst 1-year old children whose mothers consumed NNS-sweetened beverages daily during pregnancy. We have previously shown that chronic aspartame (ASP) exposure commencing in utero may detrimentally affect adulthood adiposity status, glucose metabolism and aspects of behavior and spatial cognition, and that this can be modulated by developmental N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade with the competitive antagonist CGP 39551 (CGP)...
2018: PloS One
Andrea M Byrne, Tal Schechter, Robyn Westmacott
We report the neuropsychological profile of a 6-year-old girl with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, a rare X-linked immunodeficiency disorder associated with thrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, and malignancy. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome occurs almost exclusively in males and is extremely rare in females, with no known research focused on cognitive and academic functioning in this population. Our patient was referred due to concerns about her memory and academic functioning. She had a history of progressive thrombocytopenia and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at age 15 months...
March 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Jorge A Avila, Roseanna M Zanca, Denis Shor, Nicholas Paleologos, Amber A Alliger, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Peter A Serrano
Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive drug with neurotoxic effects on the brain producing cognitive impairment and increasing the risk for neurodegenerative disease. Research has focused largely on examining the neurochemical and behavioral deficits induced by injecting relatively high doses of MA [30 mg/kg of body weight (bw)] identifying the upper limits of MA-induced neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we have developed an appetitive mouse model of voluntary oral MA administration (VOMA) based on the consumption of a palatable sweetened oatmeal mash containing a known amount of MA...
February 2018: Heliyon
Wenwen Zheng, Ting Luo, Chuan-Peng Hu, Kaiping Peng
A more babyfaced individual is perceived as more child-like and this impression from babyface, as known as babyface effect, has an impact on social life among various age groups. In this study, the influence of babyfaces on visual selective attention was tested by cognitive task, demonstrating that the female babyface and male mature face would draw participants' attention so that they take their eyes off more slowly. In Experiment 1, a detection task was applied to test the influence of babyfaces on visual selective attention...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour, Mohammad Ahmad
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling prevalent and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorder, which can develop after the exposure to severe traumatic events such as those occurring during wars and natural disasters. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a potent antioxidant, which has an important role in prevention of cognitive dysfunctions. In the present study, the effect of PTX on memory impairment induced by PTSD was investigated using the rat animal model. PTSD-like behavior was induced in animals using a single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD (2 h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, 1-2 min diethyl ether exposure)...
March 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Kimberly S Chiew, Jordan Hashemi, Lee K Gans, Laura Lerebours, Nathaniel J Clement, Mai-Anh T Vu, Guillermo Sapiro, Nicole E Heller, R Alison Adcock
Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Fernanda Nunes, Daniela Pochmann, Amanda Staldoni Almeida, Daniela Melo Marques, Lisiane de Oliveira Porciúncula
Epidemiological studies suggest sex differences in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. The potential benefits of caffeine have been reported in the management of ADHD, but its effects were not properly addressed with respect to sex differences. The present study examined the effects of caffeine (0.3 g/L) administered since childhood in the behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its related proteins in both sexes of a rat model of ADHD (spontaneously hypertensive rats-SHR)...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Daniel M Vahaba, Luke Remage-Healey
Steroid hormones, such as estrogens, were once thought to be exclusively synthesized in the ovaries and enact transcriptional changes over the course of hours to days. However, estrogens are also locally synthesized within neural circuits, wherein they rapidly (within minutes) modulate a range of behaviors, including spatial cognition and communication. Here, we review the role of brain-derived estrogens (neuroestrogens) as modulators within sensory circuits in songbirds. We first present songbirds as an attractive model to explore how neuroestrogens in auditory cortex modulate vocal communication processing and learning...
March 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Tanja Jene, Nils C Gassen, Verena Opitz, Kristina Endres, Marianne B Müller, Michael A van der Kooij
Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to an acute stressor may provide novel insights into successful stress-coping strategies. Acute behavioral stress-effects may be restricted to a specific time window early after stress-induction. However, existing behavioral test batteries typically span multiple days or even weeks, limiting the feasibility for a broad behavioral analysis following acute stress. Here, we designed a novel comprehensive behavioral test battery in male mice that assesses multiple behavioral dimensions within a sufficiently brief time window to capture acute stress-effects and its temporal profile...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sara N Burke, Leslie S Gaynor, Carol A Barnes, Russell M Bauer, Jennifer L Bizon, Erik D Roberson, Lee Ryan
A predominant view of perirhinal cortex (PRC) and postrhinal/parahippocampal cortex (POR/PHC) function contends that these structures are tuned to represent objects and spatial information, respectively. However, known anatomical connectivity, together with recent electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and lesion data, indicate that both brain areas participate in spatial and nonspatial processing. Instead of content-based organization, the PRC and PHC/POR may participate in two computationally distinct cortical-hippocampal networks: one network that is tuned to process coarse information quickly, forming gist-like representations of scenes/environments, and a second network tuned to process information about the specific sensory details that are necessary for discrimination across sensory modalities...
March 16, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Holger Schultheis, Laura A Carlson
Mapping spatial expressions such as "behind the cup" to a spatial region requires two processes that have been largely explored independently: reference frame selection and spatial term assignment (Logan & Sadler, 1996). Reference frame selection carves a space into regions. Spatial term assignment evaluates these regions by determining the acceptability of the term for the given configuration. Here we present a systematic investigation of the relation and interplay of these two processes by asking whether (a) information from spatial term assignment feeds back to selection and (b) whether competition during selection is graded...
March 16, 2018: Cognition
Harmen B Gudde, Debra Griffiths, Kenny R Coventry
The memory game paradigm is a behavioral procedure to explore the relationship between language, spatial memory, and object knowledge. Using two different versions of the paradigm, spatial language use and memory for object location are tested under different, experimentally manipulated conditions. This allows us to tease apart proposed models explaining the influence of object knowledge on spatial language (e.g., spatial demonstratives), and spatial memory, as well as understanding the parameters that affect demonstrative choice and spatial memory more broadly...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yu-Ru Guo, Hsiu-Chuan Lee, Yun-Chun Lo, Shao-Chuan Yu, Shih-Yi Huang
Nutritional deficit of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is closely related to cognitive impairment and depression in later life. Cognitive impairment and depression lead to comorbidities, such as metabolic syndrome, in elderly people. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 PUFAs on cognition and depressive-like behavior in an accelerated senescence rat model with prediabetic status. Rats were cotreated with d-gal and sucrose solution for 7 months and then fed fish-oil- or flaxseed-oil-rich diets for 3 months...
March 19, 2018: Food & Function
Marta Zamarbide, Adam W Oaks, Heather L Pond, Julia S Adelman, M Chiara Manzini
Hundreds of genes are mutated in non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with each gene often involved in only a handful of cases. Such heterogeneity can be daunting, but rare recessive loss of function (LOF) mutations can be a good starting point to provide insight into the mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disease. Biallelic LOF mutations in the signaling scaffold CC2D1A cause a rare form of autosomal recessive ID, sometimes associated with ASD and seizures. In parallel, we recently reported that Cc2d1a -deficient mice present with cognitive and social deficits, hyperactivity and anxiety...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Tae-Woon Kim, Hye-Sang Park
Maternal obesity induces hippocampal functional changes and leads to deficits in cognitive functions, such as learning and memory in offspring. We investigated the protective effects of physical exercise against cognitive function deficit in offspring born to obese mothers. Neurotrophic factors, neurogenesis, and apoptosis were analyzed in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus of offspring. Four-week-old female rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks: 12 weeks prior to mating, and 8 weeks during pregnancy and breast-feeding...
March 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Pierpaolo Cerullo, Paola Brancaccio, Serenella Anzilotti, Antonio Vinciguerra, Ornella Cuomo, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Paola Di Vaio, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato, Giuseppe Pignataro
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HI) accounts for the majority of developmental, motor and cognitive deficits in children, leading to life-long neurological impairments. Since the plasmamembrane sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) plays a fundamental role in maintaining ionic homeostasis during adult brain ischemia, in the present work we aimed to demonstrate (1)the involvement of NCX in the pathophysiology of neonatal HI and (2)a possible NCX-based pharmacological intervention. HI was induced in neonatal mice at postnatal day 7(P7) by unilateral cut of the right common carotid artery, followed by 60 min exposure to 8%O2 ...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Yue Cao, Christian Hölscher, Meng-Ming Hu, Ting Wang, Fang Zhao, Yu Bai, Jun Zhang, Mei-Na Wu, Jin-Shun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no cure. The early primary symptom of AD is the decline of memory ability, which gradually develops into complete dementia. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important risk factor of AD; and mimetics of the incretin hormone GLP-1 developed to treat diabetes are being tested as a novel therapeutic strategy for AD. In the present study, we reported for the first time the neuroprotective effects of a novel GLP-1/GIP dual agonist DA5-CH that activates the incretin hormone GLP-1 and GIP receptors in the APP/PS1 transgenic AD mouse model...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Matthias Stangl, Johannes Achtzehn, Karin Huber, Caroline Dietrich, Claus Tempelmann, Thomas Wolbers
A progressive loss of navigational abilities in old age has been observed in numerous studies, but we have only limited understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying this decline [1]. A central component of the brain's navigation circuit are grid cells in entorhinal cortex [2], largely thought to support intrinsic self-motion-related computations, such as path integration (i.e., keeping track of one's position by integrating self-motion cues) [3-6]. Given that entorhinal cortex is particularly vulnerable to neurodegenerative processes during aging and Alzheimer's disease [7-14], deficits in grid cell function could be a key mechanism to explain age-related navigational decline...
March 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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