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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340375/repetitive-tms-in-right-sensorimotor-areas-affects-the-selection-and-completion-of-contralateral-movements
#1
Maria Gutierrez-Herrera, Styrmir Saevarsson, Thomas Huber, Joachim Hermsdörfer, Waltraud Stadler
Although the existence of directional motor deficits (DMD) associated with movement planning and/or execution seems to be widely recognized, neglect and single cell studies examining their neuroanatomical foundation have produced contradictory and inconclusive findings. The present study assessed the occurrence of DMD following the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over two regions, as commonly reported in the neglect literature, namely the right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG) and the right angular gyrus (rAG)...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335024/impaired-dual-tasking-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-reduced-focusing-of-cortico-striatal-activity
#2
Freek Nieuwhof, Bastiaan R Bloem, Miriam F Reelick, Esther Aarts, Inbal Maidan, Anat Mirelman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Ivan Toni, Rick C Helmich
Impaired dual tasking, namely the inability to concurrently perform a cognitive and a motor task (e.g. 'stops walking while talking'), is a largely unexplained and frequent symptom of Parkinson's disease. Here we consider two circuit-level accounts of how striatal dopamine depletion might lead to impaired dual tasking in patients with Parkinson's disease. First, the loss of segregation between striatal territories induced by dopamine depletion may lead to dysfunctional overlaps between the motor and cognitive processes usually implemented in parallel cortico-striatal circuits...
March 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334075/intrinsic-brain-hub-connectivity-underlies-individual-differences-in-spatial-working-memory
#3
Jin Liu, Mingrui Xia, Zhengjia Dai, Xiaoying Wang, Xuhong Liao, Yanchao Bi, Yong He
Spatial working memory (SWM) is an important component of working memory and plays an essential role in driving high-level cognitive abilities. Recent studies have demonstrated that individual SWM is associated with global brain communication. However, whether specific network nodal connectivity, such as brain hub connectivity, is involved in individual SWM performances remains largely unknown. Here, we collected resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) data from a large group of 130 young healthy participants and evaluated their SWM performances...
October 13, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334072/the-lateral-habenula-as-a-relay-of-cortical-information-to-process-working-memory
#4
Victor Mathis, Alexandra Barbelivien, Monique Majchrzak, Chantal Mathis, Jean-Christophe Cassel, Lucas Lecourtier
Working memory is a cognitive ability allowing the temporary storage of information to solve problems or adjust behavior. While working memory is known to mainly depend on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), very few is known about how cortical information are relayed subcortically. By its connectivity, the lateral habenula (lHb) might act as a subcortical relay for cortical information. Indeed, the lHb receives inputs from several mPFC subregions, and recent findings suggest a role for the lHb in online processing of spatial information, a fundamental aspect of working memory...
October 13, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333632/enhanced-just-noticeable-difference-model-for-images-with-pattern-complexity
#5
Jinjian Wu, Leida Li, Weisheng Dong, Guangming Shi, Weisi Lin, C-C Jay Kuo
The just noticeable difference (JND) in an image, which reveals the visibility limitation of the human visual system (HVS), is widely used for visual redundancy estimation in signal processing. To determine the JND threshold with the current schemes, the spatial masking effect is estimated as the contrast masking, and this cannot accurately account for the complicated interaction among visual contents. Research on cognitive science indicates that the HVS is highly adapted to extract the repeated patterns for visual content representation...
March 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333487/adaptation-of-the-arizona-cognitive-task-battery-for-use-with-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-mus-musculus-of-down-syndrome
#6
Michael R Hunsaker, Genevieve K Smith, Raymond P Kesner
We propose and validate a clear strategy to efficiently and comprehensively characterize neurobehavioral deficits in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome. This novel approach uses neurocognitive theory to design and select behavioral tasks that test specific hypotheses concerning the results of Down syndrome. In this article, we model the Arizona Cognitive Task Battery, used to study human populations with Down syndrome, in Ts65Dn mice. We observed specific deficits for spatial memory, impaired long-term memory for visual objects, acquisition and reversal of motor responses, reduced motor dexterity, and impaired adaptive function as measured by nesting and anxiety tasks...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329855/better-cognition-in-new-birth-cohorts-of-70-year-olds-but-greater-decline-thereafter
#7
Valgeir Thorvaldsson, Peter Karlsson, Johan Skoog, Ingmar Skoog, Boo Johansson
Objectives: To evaluate birth cohort differences in level of cognition and rate of change in old age. Methods: Data were drawn from three population-based Swedish samples including age-homogenous cohorts born 1901/02, 1906/07, and 1930, and measured on the same cognitive tests at ages 70, 75, and 79 as part of the Gerontological and Geriatric Populations Studies in Gothenburg (H70). We fitted growth curve models to the data using a Bayesian framework and derived estimates and inferences from the marginal posterior distributions...
December 9, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329842/magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-progressive-brain-injury-in-rats-acutely-intoxicated-with-diisopropylfluorophosphate
#8
Brad A Hobson, Sílvia Sisó, Douglas J Rowland, Danielle J Harvey, Donald A Bruun, Joel R Garbow, Pamela J Lein
Acute intoxication with organophosphates (OPs) can trigger seizures that progress to status epilepticus, and survivors often exhibit chronic neuropathology, cognitive impairment, affective disorders and/or electroencephalographic abnormalities. Understanding how acute injury transitions to persistent neurological sequelae is critical to developing medical countermeasures for mitigating damage following OP-induced seizures. Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the spatiotemporal patterns of neuropathology for one month after acute intoxication with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)...
March 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329827/the-influence-of-the-physical-envirnment-on-residents-with-dementia-in-long-term-care-settings-a-review-of-the-empirical-literature
#9
Habib Chaudhury, Heather A Cooke, Heather Cowie, Leila Razaghi
Background and Objectives: The physical environment in long-term care facilities has an important role in the care of residents with dementia. This paper presents a literature review focusing on recent empirical research in this area and situates the research with therapeutic goals related to the physical environment. Research Design and Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in Ageline, PsychINFO, CINAHL, Medline and Google Scholar databases to identify relevant articles...
March 10, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329377/time-to-refocus-assessment-of-vision-in-older-adults-contrast-sensitivity-but-not-visual-acuity-is-associated-with-gait-in-older-adults
#10
Eoin Duggan, Orna Donoghue, Rose Anne Kenny, Hilary Cronin, James Loughman, Ciarán Finucane
Background: The relationship between measures of visual function and gait related risk factors for falls is unclear. In this study, we examine the relationship between visual function (visual acuity [VA] and contrast sensitivity [CS] at multiple spatial frequencies) and quantitative spatiotemporal gait, using a large, nationally representative sample of community dwelling older adults. Methods: Participants aged 50 and over were recruited as part of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA)...
February 28, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328029/structure-mapping-for-social-learning
#11
Stella Christie
Analogical reasoning is a foundational tool for human learning, allowing learners to recognize relational structures in new events and domains. Here I sketch some grounds for understanding and applying analogical reasoning in social learning. The social world is fundamentally characterized by relations between people, with common relational structures-such as kinships and social hierarchies-forming social units that dictate social behaviors. Just as young learners use analogical reasoning for learning relational structures in other domains-spatial relations, verbs, relational categories-analogical reasoning ought to be a useful cognitive tool for acquiring social relations and structures...
March 22, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326966/cognitive-load-during-route-selection-increases-reliance-on-spatial-heuristics
#12
Tad T Brunyé, Shaina B Martis, Holly A Taylor
Planning routes from maps involves perceiving the symbolic environment, identifying alternate routes, and applying explicit strategies and implicit heuristics to select an option. Two implicit heuristics have received considerable attention, the southern route preference and initial segment strategy. The current study tested a prediction from decision making theory, that increasing cognitive load during route planning will increase reliance on these heuristics. In two experiments, participants planned routes while under conditions of minimal (0-back) or high (2-back) working memory load...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326925/interaction-of-acupuncture-treatment-and-manipulation-laterality-modulated-by-the-default-mode-network
#13
Xuan Niu, Ming Zhang, Zhenyu Liu, Lijun Bai, Chuanzhu Sun, Shan Wang, Xiaocui Wang, Zhen Chen, Hongyan Chen, Jie Tian
Appropriate selection of ipsilateral or contralateral electroacupuncture (corresponding to the pain site) plays an important role in reaching its better curative effect; however, the involving brain mechanism still remains unclear. Compared with the heat pain model generally established in previous study, capsaicin pain model induces reversible cutaneous allodynia and is proved to be better simulating aspects of clinical nociceptive and neuropathic pain. In the current study, 24 subjects were randomly divided into two groups with a 2 × 2 factorial design: laterality (ipsi- or contralateral side, inter-subject) × treatment with counter-balanced at an interval of one week (verum and placebo electroacupuncture, within-subject)...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325028/tracking-intrinsic-connectivity-brain-network-features-during-successive-pseudo-resting-states-and-interoceptive-task-fmri
#14
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Advanced multivariate analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contras have revealed that the human brain organizes its activities into multiple intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs). Several fMRI studies have evaluated the modulations of these networks during different cognitive or emotional tasks using blind source separation techniques particularly the independent component analysis (ICA). In this exploratory study, we applied ICA methodology to examine ICN modulations under different interoceptive conditions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325027/identifying-the-effects-of-visceral-interoception-on-human-brain-connectome-a-multivariate-analysis-of-covariance-of-fmri-data
#15
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Sources of variations in the neural circuitry of the human brain and interrelationship between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are still a matter of debate and ongoing research. Here, we applied a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) based on high-dimensional independent component analysis (ICA) to identify the effects of interoception and related variables on human brain connectome. Fifteen healthy right-handed subjects (all females, age range 21 - 48 years; mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.7 years) underwent a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that included continuous intravesical saline infusion and drainage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324745/spatial-cognition-goal-vector-cells-in-the-bat-hippocampus
#16
William de Cothi, Hugo J Spiers
A new study recording from the hippocampus of flying bats has revealed populations of neurons tuned to the egocentric direction of the goal, the distance to the goal or their conjunction during spatial navigation.
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324109/sex-specific-life-course-changes-in-the-neuro-metabolic-phenotype-of-glut3-null-heterozygous-mice-ketogenic-diet-ameliorates-electroencephalographic-seizures-and-improves-sociability
#17
Yun Dai, Yuanzi Zhao, Masatoshi Tomi, Bo-Chul Shin, Shanthie Thamotharan, Andrey Mazarati, Raman Sankar, Elizabeth A Wang, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine, Jingjing Zhang, Andrew Frew, Jeffry R Alger, Peter Clark, Monica Sondhi, Sudatip Kositamongkol, Leah Leibovitch, Sherin U Devaskar
We tested the hypothesis that exposure of glut3+/- mice to a ketogenic diet ameliorates autism-like features which includes aberrant behavior and electrographic seizures. We first investigated the life course sex-specific changes in basal plasma-CSF-brain metabolic profile, brain glucose transport/uptake, glucose and monocarboxylate transporter proteins, and ATP in the presence or absence of systemic insulin administration. Glut3+/- male but not female mice (5m of age) displayed reduced CSF glucose/lactate concentrations with no change in brain Glut1, Mct2, glucose uptake or ATP...
January 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323092/the-effect-of-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-on-executive-functions-impaired-verbal-fluency-and-intact-updating-planning-and-conflict-resolution-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Gyula Demeter, István Valálik, Péter Pajkossy, Agnes Szőllősi, Ágnes Lukács, Ferenc Kemény, Mihály Racsmány
Although the improvement of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is well documented, there are open questions regarding its impact on cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of bilateral DBS of the STN on executive functions in PD patients using a DBS wait-listed PD control group. Ten PD patients with DBS implantation (DBS group) and ten PD wait-listed patients (Clinical control group) participated in the study...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322222/white-matter-maturation-is-associated-with-the-emergence-of-theory-of-mind-in-early-childhood
#19
Charlotte Grosse Wiesmann, Jan Schreiber, Tania Singer, Nikolaus Steinbeis, Angela D Friederici
The ability to attribute mental states to other individuals is crucial for human cognition. A milestone of this ability is reached around the age of 4, when children start understanding that others can have false beliefs about the world. The neural basis supporting this critical step is currently unknown. Here, we relate this behavioural change to the maturation of white matter structure in 3- and 4-year-old children. Tract-based spatial statistics and probabilistic tractography show that the developmental breakthrough in false belief understanding is associated with age-related changes in local white matter structure in temporoparietal regions, the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, and with increased dorsal white matter connectivity between temporoparietal and inferior frontal regions...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321961/aging-affects-spatial-reconstruction-more-than-spatial-pattern-separation-performance-even-after-extended-practice
#20
Rachel Clark, Asli C Tahan, Patrick D Watson, Joan Severson, Neal J Cohen, Michelle Voss
Although the hippocampus experiences age-related anatomical and functional deterioration, the effects of aging vary across hippocampal-dependent cognitive processes. In particular, whether or not the hippocampus is known to be required for a spatial memory process is not an accurate predictor on its own of whether aging will affect performance. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to compare the effects of healthy aging on a test of spatial pattern separation and a test of spatial relational processing, which are two aspects of spatial memory that uniquely emphasize the use of multiple hippocampal-dependent processes...
March 21, 2017: Hippocampus
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