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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151281/skeletal-muscle-performance-and-ageing
#1
REVIEW
Michael Tieland, Inez Trouwborst, Brian C Clark
The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co-morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151169/parkinson-s-disease-experimental-models-and-reality
#2
REVIEW
Peizhou Jiang, Dennis W Dickson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive movement disorder of adults and the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Neuropathologic diagnosis of PD requires moderate-to-marked neuronal loss in the ventrolateral substantia nigra pars compacta and α-synuclein (αS) Lewy body pathology. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration correlates with the Parkinsonian motor features, but involvement of other peripheral and central nervous system regions leads to a wide range of non-motor features...
November 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151139/integration-of-bacterial-expansin-on-agarolytic-complexes-to-enhance-the-degrading-activity-of-red-algae-by-control-of-gelling-properties
#3
Da Woon Jeong, Jeong Eun Hyeon, Young-Chul Joo, Sang Kyu Shin, Sung Ok Han
Expansin act by loosening hydrogen bonds in densely packed polysaccharides. This work characterizes the biological functions of expansin in the gelling and degradation of algal polysaccharides. In this study, the bacterial expansin BpEX from Bacillus pumilus was fused with the dockerin module of a cellulosome system for assembly with agarolytic complexes. The assembly of chimeric expansin caused an indicative enhancement in agarase activity. The enzymatic activities on agar substrate and natural biomass were 3...
November 18, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150936/the-roles-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-tissue-development-and-regenerative-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Maryam Majidinia, Javad Aghazadeh, Rana Jahanban-Esfahlani, Bahman Yousefi
Regenerative medicine is a translational field which combines tissue engineering and molecular biology to construct spare organs or help injured or defective tissues to regenerate or restore their normal functions. This is particularly important with specific organs such as heart, central nervous system, retina or limbs which possess very limited regenerative capacity. As such, regenerative medicine has received peculiar attention in the last decade. In this regard, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has been subject to intensive research, since it plays many essential roles in the regulation of the progenitor cell fate, developmental decisions, proliferation during embryonic development, and adult tissue homeostasis...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150680/potential-landscape-of-high-dimensional-nonlinear-stochastic-dynamics-with-large-noise
#5
Ying Tang, Ruoshi Yuan, Gaowei Wang, Xiaomei Zhu, Ping Ao
Quantifying stochastic processes is essential to understand many natural phenomena, particularly in biology, including the cell-fate decision in developmental processes as well as the genesis and progression of cancers. While various attempts have been made to construct potential landscape in high dimensional systems and to estimate transition rates, they are practically limited to the cases where either noise is small or detailed balance condition holds. A general and practical approach to investigate real-world nonequilibrium systems, which are typically high-dimensional and subject to large multiplicative noise and the breakdown of detailed balance, remains elusive...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150145/neuroimaging-biomarkers-as-predictors-of-treatment-outcome-in-major-depressive-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Trehani M Fonseka, Glenda M MacQueen, Sidney H Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Current practice for selecting pharmacological and non-pharmacological antidepressant treatments has yielded low response and remission rates in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Neuroimaging biomarkers of brain structure and function may be useful in guiding treatment selection by predicting response vs. non-response outcomes. METHODS: In this review, we summarize data from studies examining predictors of treatment response using structural and functional neuroimaging modalities, as they pertain to pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and stimulation treatment strategies...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149918/oxygen-transfer-in-moving-bed-biofilm-reactor-and-integrated-fixed-film-activated-sludge-processes
#7
(no author information available yet)
A demonstrated approach to design the, so-called, medium-bubble air diffusion network for oxygen transfer into the aerobic zone(s) of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) processes is described in this paper. Operational full-scale biological water resource recovery systems treating municipal sewerage demonstrate that medium-bubble air diffusion networks designed using the method presented here provide reliable service. Further improvement is possible, however, as knowledge gaps prevent more rational process designs...
November 17, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148148/an-integrative-translational-approach-to-study-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-a-position-paper-from-the-working-group-on-myocardial-function-of-the-european-society-of-cardiology
#8
REVIEW
Andre P Lourenço, Adelino F Leite-Moreira, Jean-Luc Balligand, Johann Bauersachs, Dana Dawson, Rudolf A de Boer, Leon J de Windt, Inês Falcão-Pires, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Stefan Franz, Mauro Giacca, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Emilio Hirsch, Christoph Maack, Manuel Mayr, Burkert Pieske, Thomas Thum, Carlo G Tocchetti, Dirk L Brutsaert, Stephane Heymans
As heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) rises to epidemic proportions, major steps in patient management and therapeutic development are badly needed. With the current position paper we seek to update our view on HFpEF as a highly complex systemic syndrome, from risk factors and mechanisms to long-term clinical manifestations. We will revise recent advances in animal model development, experimental set-ups and basic and translational science approaches to HFpEF research, highlighting their drawbacks and advantages...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143053/recent-advances-in-microfluidic-technologies-for-cell-to-cell-interaction-studies
#9
REVIEW
Mario Rothbauer, Helene Zirath, Peter Ertl
Microfluidic cell cultures are ideally positioned to become the next generation of in vitro diagnostic tools for biomedical research, where key biological processes such as cell signalling and dynamic cell-to-cell interactions can be reliably analysed under reproducible physiological cell culture conditions. In the last decade, a large number of microfluidic cell analysis systems have been developed for a variety of applications including drug target optimization, drug screening and toxicological testing. More recently, advanced in vitro microfluidic cell culture systems have emerged that are capable of replicating the complex three-dimensional architectures of tissues and organs and thus represent valid biological models for investigating the mechanism and function of human tissue structures, as well as studying the onset and progression of diseases such as cancer...
November 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140977/low-cost-and-open-source-multi-fluorescence-imaging-system-for-teaching-and-research-in-biology-and-bioengineering
#10
Isaac Nuñez, Tamara Matute, Roberto Herrera, Juan Keymer, Timothy Marzullo, Timothy Rudge, Fernán Federici
The advent of easy-to-use open source microcontrollers, off-the-shelf electronics and customizable manufacturing technologies has facilitated the development of inexpensive scientific devices and laboratory equipment. In this study, we describe an imaging system that integrates low-cost and open-source hardware, software and genetic resources. The multi-fluorescence imaging system consists of readily available 470 nm LEDs, a Raspberry Pi camera and a set of filters made with low cost acrylics. This device allows imaging in scales ranging from single colonies to entire plates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140973/a-coupled-oscillator-model-of-olfactory-bulb-gamma-oscillations
#11
Guoshi Li, Thomas A Cleland
The olfactory bulb transforms not only the information content of the primary sensory representation, but also its underlying coding metric. High-variance, slow-timescale primary odor representations are transformed by bulbar circuitry into secondary representations based on principal neuron spike patterns that are tightly regulated in time. This emergent fast timescale for signaling is reflected in gamma-band local field potentials, presumably serving to efficiently integrate olfactory sensory information into the temporally regulated information networks of the central nervous system...
November 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140316/hybrid-system-for-in-vivo-epifluorescence-and-4d-optoacoustic-imaging
#12
Zhenyue Chen, Xosé Luis Deán-Ben, Sven Gottschalk, Daniel Razansky
Epifluorescence imaging is widely used in cell and molecular biology due to its excellent sensitivity, contrast, and ease of implementation. Optoacoustic imaging has been shown to deliver a highly complementary and unique set of capabilities for biological discovery, such as high spatial resolution in noninvasive deep tissue observations, fast volumetric imaging capacity, and spectrally enriched contrast. In this Letter, we report on a hybrid system combining planar fluorescence and real-time volumetric four-dimensional optoacoustic imaging by means of a fiberscope integrated within a handheld hemispherical ultrasound detection array...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137794/monitoring-the-effect-of-sonoporation-on-the-cells-using-electrochemical-approach
#13
Mohammad Ali Khayamian, Majid Baniassadi, Mohammad Abdolahad
Sonoporation is applied to enhance the permeability of the cell to bioactive materials by employing the acoustic cavitation of microbubbles. This phenomena would be helpful in molecular biology, delivery of large molecules into the cells and gene therapy. Many methods have been applied to monitor the biological effects and trace of sonoporation on the cells such as scanning/transmission electron microscopy, confocal imaging and flow cytometry. Here, we monitored the effect of sonoporation on the cells using electrochemical method with an integrated three electrode system...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136845/controlled-modification-of-electrochemical-microsystems-with-polyethylenimine-reduced-graphene-oxide-using-electrophoretic-deposition-sensing-of-dopamine-levels-in-meat-samples
#14
Karima Kahlouche, Roxana Jijie, Ioana Hosu, Alexandre Barras, Tijani Gharbi, Reda Yahiaoui, Guillaume Herlem, Marhoun Ferhat, Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub
Microsystems play an important role in many biological and environmental applications. The integration of electrical interfaces into such miniaturized systems provides new opportunities for electrochemical sensing where high sensitivity and selectivity towards the analyte are requested. This can be only achieved upon controlled functionalization of the working electrode, a challenge for compact microsystems. In this work, we demonstrate the benefit of electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of reduced graphene oxide/polyethylenimine (rGO/PEI) for the selective modification of a gold (Au) microelectrode in a microsystem comprising a Pt counter and a Ag/AgCl reference electrode...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136171/mating-system-and-effective-population-size-of-the-overexploited-neotropical-tree-myroxylon-peruiferum-l-f-and-their-impact-on-seedling-production
#15
Ellida de Aguiar Silvestre, Kaiser Dias Schwarcz, Carolina Grando, Jaqueline Bueno de Campos, Patricia Sanae Sujii, Evandro Vagner Tambarussi, Camila Menezes Trindade Macrini, José Baldin Pinheiro, Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion, Maria Imaculada Zucchi
The reproductive system of a tree species has substantial impact on genetic diversity and structure within and among natural populations. Such information, should be considered when planning tree planting for forest restoration. Here, we describe the mating system and genetic diversity of an overexploited Neotropical tree, Myroxylon peruiferum L.f. (Fabaceae) sampled from a forest remnant (10 seed trees and 200 seeds) and assess whether the effective population size of nursery-grown seedlings (148 seedlings) is sufficient to prevent inbreeding depression in reintroduced populations...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134742/innovative-technologies-for-point-of-care-testing-of-viral-hepatitis%C3%A2-in-low-resource-and-decentralized-settings
#16
Léa Duchesne, Karine Lacombe
According to the Global Burden of Diseases, chronic viral hepatitis B and C are one of the most challenging global health conditions that rank among the first causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low and middle income countries are particularly affected by the health burden associated with HBV or HCV infection. One major gap in efficiently addressing the issue of viral hepatitis is universal screening. However, the costs and chronic lack of human resources for using traditional screening strategies based on serology and molecular biology preclude any scaling-up...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134711/x-exceptionalism-in-caenorhabditis-speciation
#17
Asher D Cutter
Speciation genetics research in diverse organisms shows the X-chromosome to be exceptional in how it contributes to 'rules' of speciation. Until recently, however, the nematode phylum has been nearly silent on this issue, despite the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans having touched most other topics in biology. Studies of speciation with Caenorhabditis accelerated with the recent discovery of species pairs showing partial inter-fertility. The resulting genetic analyses of reproductive isolation in nematodes demonstrate key roles for the X-chromosome in hybrid male sterility and inviability, opening up new understanding of the genetic causes of Haldane's rule, Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule, and enabling tests of the large-X effect hypothesis...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134060/modelling-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-under-hypoxia-and-its-role-in-cancer-metabolism
#18
Filmon Eyassu, Claudio Angione
Metabolism is the only biological system that can be fully modelled at genome scale. As a result, metabolic models have been increasingly used to study the molecular mechanisms of various diseases. Hypoxia, a low-oxygen tension, is a well-known characteristic of many cancer cells. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) controls the flux of metabolites between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle and is a key enzyme in metabolic reprogramming in cancer metabolism. Here, we develop and manually curate a constraint-based metabolic model to investigate the mechanism of pyruvate dehydrogenase under hypoxia...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133455/how-causal-analysis-can-reveal-autonomy-in-models-of-biological-systems
#19
William Marshall, Hyunju Kim, Sara I Walker, Giulio Tononi, Larissa Albantakis
Standard techniques for studying biological systems largely focus on their dynamical or, more recently, their informational properties, usually taking either a reductionist or holistic perspective. Yet, studying only individual system elements or the dynamics of the system as a whole disregards the organizational structure of the system-whether there are subsets of elements with joint causes or effects, and whether the system is strongly integrated or composed of several loosely interacting components. Integrated information theory offers a theoretical framework to (1) investigate the compositional cause-effect structure of a system and to (2) identify causal borders of highly integrated elements comprising local maxima of intrinsic cause-effect power...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132718/bioturbation-effects-on-bioaccumulation-of-cadmium-in-the-wetland-plant-typha-latifolia-a-nature-based-experiment
#20
Trung Kien Hoang, Anne Probst, Didier Orange, Franck Gilbert, Arnaud Elger, Jean Kallerhoff, François Laurent, Sabina Bassil, Thi Thuy Duong, Magali Gerino
The development of efficient bioremediation techniques to reduce aquatic pollutant load in natural sediment is one of the current challenges in ecological engineering. A nature-based solution for metal bioremediation is proposed through a combination of bioturbation and phytoremediation processes in experimental indoor microcosms. The invertebrates Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta Tubificidae) was used as an active ecological engineer for bioturbation enhancement. The riparian plant species Typha latifolia was selected for its efficiency in phyto-accumulating pollutants from sediment...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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