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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324506/induction-of-site-specific-oxidative-damage-at-telomeres-by-killerred-fused-shelretin-proteins
#1
Rong Tan, Li Lan
Chronic oxidative stress is the major endogenous metabolic stress and contributes directly to telomere shortening and senescence. Understanding the dysfunction of telomeres under oxidative stress will greatly facilitate healthy aging and advance the treatment of aging-related diseases. Here, we describe the KR-TEL (KillerRed induced DNA damage at telomeres) system that induces site-specific oxidative damage at telomeres. We have developed the KR-TEL system by fusing killerred with the shelterin component TRF1 (KR-TRF1) or other shelterin proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319747/integration-of-in-silico-methods-and-computational-systems-biology-to-explore-endocrine-disrupting-chemical-binding-with-nuclear-hormone-receptors
#2
P Ruiz, A Sack, M Wampole, S Bobst, M Vracko
Thousands of potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals present difficult regulatory challenges. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals can interfere with several nuclear hormone receptors associated with a variety of adverse health effects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has released its reviews of Tier 1 screening assay results for a set of pesticides in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP), and recently, the Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project (CERAPP) data...
March 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319617/biosimilars-in-psoriasis-the-future-or-not
#3
Roselyn Kellen, Gary Goldenberg
As patents for the biologic agents reach their expiration dates, dermatologists must prepare for the coming of biosimilars. These agents have been deemed "highly similar" to their reference products in a process outlined by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In 2016, the FDA approved 3 biosimilars for various indications including plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. However, biosimilars are not the same as small-molecule generics because they have a complex manufacturing process that makes it impossible to produce identical products to their reference products...
February 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319257/hunger-and-thirst-interact-to-regulate-ingestive-behavior-in-flies-and-mammals
#4
REVIEW
Nicholas Jourjine
In animals, nervous systems regulate the ingestion of food and water in a manner that reflects internal metabolic need. While the coordination of these two ingestive behaviors is essential for homeostasis, it has been unclear how internal signals of hunger and thirst interact to effectively coordinate food and water ingestion. In the last year, work in insects and mammals has begun to elucidate some of these interactions. As reviewed here, these studies have identified novel molecular and neural mechanisms that coordinate the regulation of food and water ingestion behaviors...
March 20, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318170/-application-of-saliva-in-disease-diagnosis
#5
Cheng Xingqun, Zhou Xuedong, Xu Xin
Saliva is secreted by salivary glands and performs a variety of functions, including mouth cleaning and protection, antibacterial activity, and digestion. With the rapid progress in salivaomics, saliva became recognized as a potential pool of biological markers. Being a non-invasive and safe source, saliva is a potential substitute for blood in diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. This review summarizes the latest advancement in saliva-related studies and presents the potential value of saliva in early diagnosis of oral diseases, such as dental caries, periodontal disease, cancer, diabetes, and other systemic disorders...
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317836/microscale-symmetrical-electroporator-array-as-a-versatile-molecular-delivery-system
#6
Mengxing Ouyang, Winfield Hill, Jung Hyun Lee, Soojung Claire Hur
Successful developments of new therapeutic strategies often rely on the ability to deliver exogenous molecules into cytosol. We have developed a versatile on-chip vortex-assisted electroporation system, engineered to conduct sequential intracellular delivery of multiple molecules into various cell types at low voltage in a dosage-controlled manner. Micro-patterned planar electrodes permit substantial reduction in operational voltages and seamless integration with an existing microfluidic technology. Equipped with real-time process visualization functionality, the system enables on-chip optimization of electroporation parameters for cells with varying properties...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317029/listeriomics-an-interactive-web-platform-for-systems-biology-of-listeria
#7
Christophe Bécavin, Mikael Koutero, Nicolas Tchitchek, Franck Cerutti, Pierre Lechat, Nicolas Maillet, Claire Hoede, Hélène Chiapello, Christine Gaspin, Pascale Cossart
As for many model organisms, the amount of Listeria omics data produced has recently increased exponentially. There are now >80 published complete Listeria genomes, around 350 different transcriptomic data sets, and 25 proteomic data sets available. The analysis of these data sets through a systems biology approach and the generation of tools for biologists to browse these various data are a challenge for bioinformaticians. We have developed a web-based platform, named Listeriomics, that integrates different tools for omics data analyses, i...
March 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316234/modeling-exposure-in-the-tox21-in-vitro-bioassays
#8
Fabian Christoph Fischer, Luise Henneberger, Maria König, Kai Bittermann, Lukas Linden, Kai-Uwe Goss, Beate I Escher
High-throughput in vitro bioassays are becoming increasingly important in the risk characterization of anthropogenic chemicals. Large databases gather nominal effect concentrations (Cnom) for diverse modes of action. However, the biologically effective concentration can substantially deviate due to differences in chemical partitioning. In this study, we modeled freely dissolved (Cfree), cellular (Ccell), and membrane concentrations (Cmem) in the Tox21 GeneBLAzer bioassays for a set of neutral and ionogenic organic chemicals covering a large physicochemical space...
March 19, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315483/functional-proteomic-analysis-of-corticosteroid-pharmacodynamics-in-rat-liver-relationship-to-hepatic-stress-signaling-energy-regulation-and-drug-metabolism
#9
Vivaswath S Ayyar, Richard R Almon, Debra C DuBois, Siddharth Sukumaran, Jun Qu, William J Jusko
Corticosteroids (CS) are anti-inflammatory agents that cause extensive pharmacogenomic and proteomic changes in multiple tissues. An understanding of the proteome-wide effects of CS in liver and its relationships to altered hepatic and systemic physiology remains incomplete. Here, we report the application of a functional pharmacoproteomic approach to gain integrated insight into the complex nature of CS responses in liver in vivo. An in-depth functional analysis was performed using rich pharmacodynamic (temporal-based) proteomic data measured over 66h in rat liver following a single dose of methylprednisolone (MPL)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315246/system-wide-profiling-of-protein-amino-termini-from-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissue-specimens-for-the-identification-of-novel-substrates
#10
Zon W Lai, Oliver Schilling
Clinical tissues are used for histopathological diagnosis of many diseases including immunostaining and morphology subtyping as well as in molecular research such as for the analyses of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Formalin fixation and paraffin embedment (FFPE) of tissue specimens is routinely used for preserving clinical tissues for long-term storage, allowing histopathological diagnosis of many diseases. As such, FFPE tissues currently represent the most comprehensive collection of all clinical specimens, allowing great source of material for research opportunity, possibly due to the concern of protein integrity from antigen retrieval from fixation process...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314818/allometric-analysis-detects-brain-size-independent-effects-of-sex-and-sex-chromosome-complement-on-human-cerebellar-organization
#11
Catherine Mankiw, Min Tae M Park, P K Reardon, Ari M Fish, Liv S Clasen, Deanna Greenstein, Jay N Giedd, Jonathan D Blumenthal, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty, Armin Raznahan
The cerebellum is a large hindbrain structure that is increasingly recognized for its contribution to diverse domains of cognitive and affective processing in human health and disease. Although several of these domains are sex-biased, our fundamental understanding of cerebellar sex differences - including their spatial distribution, potential biological determinants, and independence from brain volume variation - lags far behind that for the cerebrum. Here, we harness automated neuroimaging methods for cerebellar morphometrics in 417 individuals to (i) localize normative male-female differences in raw cerebellar volume, (ii) compare these to sex chromosome effects estimated across five rare X-/Y-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) syndromes, and (iii) clarify brain size-independent effects of sex and SCA on cerebellar anatomy using a generalizable allometric approach which considers scaling relationships between regional cerebellar volume and brain volume in health...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306551/master-equations-and-the-theory-of-stochastic-path-integrals
#12
Markus F Weber, Erwin Frey
This review provides a pedagogic and self-contained introduction to master equations and to their representation by path integrals. Since the 1930s, master equations have served as a fundamental tool to understand the role of fluctuations in complex biological, chemical, and physical systems. Despite their simple appearance, analyses of master equations most often rely on low-noise approximations such as the Kramers-Moyal or the system size expansion, or require ad-hoc closure schemes for the derivation of low-order moment equations...
April 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306220/multicellular-biohybrid-materials-probing-the-interplay-of-cells-of-different-types-precisely-positioned-and-constrained-on-3d-wireframe-like-microstructures
#13
Maurizio R Gullo, Shoji Takeuchi, Oliver Paul
Driven by the unbroken miniaturization trend in microtechnology, the development of smaller, yet reliable and efficient, highly integrated microsystems can benefit from inherent capabilities of biological cells. In particular, by featuring multiple types of cells, biohybrid systems exhibiting self-contained sensing and actuation capabilities can be conceived. To ensure the proper functioning of such multicellular biohybrid systems, the intended cell arrangement needs to be maintained over time. Microscaffolds designed for this purpose should therefore selectively guide or hinder cell migration...
March 17, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303939/integrated-multi-ise-arrays-with-improved-sensitivity-accuracy-and-precision
#14
Chunling Wang, Hongyan Yuan, Zhijuan Duan, Dan Xiao
Increasing use of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) in the biological and environmental fields has generated demand for high-sensitivity ISEs. However, improving the sensitivities of ISEs remains a challenge because of the limit of the Nernstian slope (59.2/n mV). Here, we present a universal ion detection method using an electronic integrated multi-electrode system (EIMES) that bypasses the Nernstian slope limit of 59.2/n mV, thereby enabling substantial enhancement of the sensitivity of ISEs. The results reveal that the response slope is greatly increased from 57...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303187/ecological-consequences-of-colony-structure-in-dynamic-ant-nest-networks
#15
Samuel Ellis, Daniel W Franks, Elva J H Robinson
Access to resources depends on an individual's position within the environment. This is particularly important to animals that invest heavily in nest construction, such as social insects. Many ant species have a polydomous nesting strategy: a single colony inhabits several spatially separated nests, often exchanging resources between the nests. Different nests in a polydomous colony potentially have differential access to resources, but the ecological consequences of this are unclear. In this study, we investigate how nest survival and budding in polydomous wood ant (Formica lugubris) colonies are affected by being part of a multi-nest system...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303150/development-of-synebrick-vectors-as-a-synthetic-biology-platform-for-gene-expression-in-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942
#16
Wook Jin Kim, Sun-Mi Lee, Youngsoon Um, Sang Jun Sim, Han Min Woo
Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes that are able to assimilate CO2 using solar energy and water. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has suggested the possibility of direct CO2 conversion to value-added chemicals. However, engineering of cyanobacteria has been limited due to the lack of various genetic tools for expression and control of multiple genes to reconstruct metabolic pathways for biochemicals from CO2. Thus, we developed SyneBrick vectors as a synthetic biology platform for gene expression in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a model cyanobacterium...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302571/alpha-9-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-mediate-hypothermic-responses-elicited-by-provocative-motion-in-mice
#17
Longlong Tu, Lauren Poppi, John Rudd, Ethan T Cresswell, Doug W Smith, Alan Brichta, Eugene Nalivaiko
Hypothermic responses accompany motion sickness in humans and can be elicited by provocative motion in rats. We aimed to determine the potential role in these responses of the efferent cholinergic vestibular innervation. To this end, we used knockout (KO) mice lacking α9 cholinoreceptor subunit predominantly expressed in the vestibular hair cells and CBA strain as a wild-type (WT) control. In WT mice, circular horizontal motion (1Hz, 4cm radius, 20min) caused rapid and dramatic falls in core body temperature and surface head temperature associated with a transient rise in the tail temperature; these responses were substantially attenuated in KO mice; changes were (WT vs...
March 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301983/applying-systems-biology-methodology-to-identify-genetic-factors-possibly-associated-with-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Brad G Kurowski, Amery Treble-Barna, Alexis J Pitzer, Shari L Wade, Lisa J Martin, Ranjit S Chima, Anil Jegga
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is linked with a number of medical, neurological, cognitive, and behavioral sequelae. The influence of genetic factors on the biology and related recovery after TBI is poorly understood. Studies that seek to elucidate the impact of genetic influences on neurorecovery after TBI will lead to better individualization of prognosis and inform development of novel treatments, which are considerably lacking. Current genetic studies related to TBI have focused on specific candidate genes...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301871/a-unified-model-of-the-hierarchical-and-stochastic-theories-of-gastric-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Yanjing Song, Yao Wang, Chuan Tong, Hongqing Xi, Xudong Zhao, Yi Wang, Lin Chen
Gastric cancer (GC) is a life-threatening disease worldwide. Despite remarkable advances in treatments for GC, it is still fatal to many patients due to cancer progression, recurrence and metastasis. Regarding the development of novel therapeutic techniques, many studies have focused on the biological mechanisms that initiate tumours and cause treatment resistance. Tumours have traditionally been considered to result from somatic mutations, either via clonal evolution or through a stochastic model. However, emerging evidence has characterised tumours using a hierarchical organisational structure, with cancer stem cells (CSCs) at the apex...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301461/metabolomics-and-lipidomics-using-traveling-wave-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry
#20
Giuseppe Paglia, Giuseppe Astarita
Metabolomics and lipidomics aim to profile the wide range of metabolites and lipids that are present in biological samples. Recently, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been used to support metabolomics and lipidomics applications to facilitate the separation and the identification of complex mixtures of analytes. IMS is a gas-phase electrophoretic technique that enables the separation of ions in the gas phase according to their charge, shape and size. Occurring within milliseconds, IMS separation is compatible with modern mass spectrometry (MS) operating with microsecond scan speeds...
April 2017: Nature Protocols
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