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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813846/closed-loop-emg-informed-model-based-analysis-of-human-musculoskeletal-mechanics-on-rough-terrains
#1
C Varotto, Z Sawacha, L Gizzi, D Farina, M Sartori
This work aims at estimating the musculoskeletal forces acting in the human lower extremity during locomotion on rough terrains. We employ computational models of the human neuro-musculoskeletal system that are informed by multi-modal movement data including foot-ground reaction forces, 3D marker trajectories and lower extremity electromyograms (EMG). Data were recorded from one healthy subject locomoting on rough grounds realized using foam rubber blocks of different heights. Blocks arrangement was randomized across all locomotion trials to prevent adaptation to specific ground morphology...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813674/an-integrated-systems-biology-approach-identifies-trim25-as-a-key-determinant-of-breast-cancer-metastasis
#2
Logan A Walsh, Mariano J Alvarez, Erich Y Sabio, Marsha Reyngold, Vladimir Makarov, Suranjit Mukherjee, Ken-Wing Lee, Alexis Desrichard, Şevin Turcan, Martin G Dalin, Vinagolu K Rajasekhar, Shuibing Chen, Linda T Vahdat, Andrea Califano, Timothy A Chan
At the root of most fatal malignancies are aberrantly activated transcriptional networks that drive metastatic dissemination. Although individual metastasis-associated genes have been described, the complex regulatory networks presiding over the initiation and maintenance of metastatic tumors are still poorly understood. There is untapped value in identifying therapeutic targets that broadly govern coordinated transcriptional modules dictating metastatic progression. Here, we reverse engineered and interrogated a breast cancer-specific transcriptional interaction network (interactome) to define transcriptional control structures causally responsible for regulating genetic programs underlying breast cancer metastasis in individual patients...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813055/multivesicular-droplets-a-cell-model-system-to-study-compartmentalised-biochemical-reactions
#3
N Nuti, P E Verboket, P S Dittrich
Multivesicular vesicles (MVVs) are artificial liposomal structures widely used as a platform to study the compartmentalisation of cells and as a scaffold for artificial cell/protocell models. Current preparation techniques for MVVs, however, offer poor control on the size, lamellarity, and loading of inner lipid vesicles. Here, we introduce a microfluidic device for the production of multivesicular droplets (MVDs): a novel model system combining the ease of use and control of droplet microfluidics with the biological relevance of MVVs...
August 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812622/species-rich-networks-and-eco-evolutionary-synthesis-at-the-metacommunity-level
#4
Hirokazu Toju, Masato Yamamichi, Paulo R Guimarães, Jens M Olesen, Akihiko Mougi, Takehito Yoshida, John N Thompson
Understanding how ecological and evolutionary processes interdependently structure biosphere dynamics is a major challenge in the era of worldwide ecosystem degradation. However, our knowledge of 'eco-evolutionary feedbacks' depends largely on findings from simple systems representing limited spatial scales and involving few species. Here we review recent conceptual developments for the understanding of multispecies coevolutionary processes and then discuss how new lines of concepts and methods will accelerate the integration of ecology and evolutionary biology...
January 24, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812601/recent-extinctions-disturb-path-to-equilibrium-diversity-in-caribbean-bats
#5
Luis Valente, Rampal S Etienne, Liliana M Dávalos
Islands are ideal systems to model temporal changes in biodiversity and reveal the influence of humans on natural communities. Although theory predicts biodiversity on islands tends towards an equilibrium value, the recent extinction of large proportions of island biotas complicates testing this model. The well-preserved subfossil record of Caribbean bats-involving multiple insular radiations-provides a rare opportunity to model diversity dynamics in an insular community. Here, we reconstruct the diversity trajectory in noctilionoid bats of the Greater Antilles by applying a dynamic model of colonization, extinction and speciation to phylogenetic and palaeontological data including all known extinct and extant species...
January 9, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812260/zinc-metabolism-and-metallothioneins
#6
REVIEW
Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci, Kemal Yuce, Rasim Mogulkoc
Among the trace elements, zinc is one of the most used elements in biological systems. Zinc is found in the structure of more than 2700 enzymes, including hydrolases, transferases, oxyreductases, ligases, isomerases, and lyases. Not surprisingly, it is present in almost all body cells. Preserving the stability and integrity of biological membranes and ion channels, zinc is also an intracellular regulator and provides structural support to proteins during molecular interactions. It acts as a structural element in nucleic acids or other gene-regulating proteins...
August 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812207/the-vaginal-microbiome-and-its-potential-to-impact-efficacy-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-women
#7
REVIEW
Jennifer Velloza, Renee Heffron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes existing evidence addressing the potential modulation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) products, specifically 1% tenofovir (TFV) gel and oral tenofovir-based PrEP, by vaginal dysbiosis and discusses future considerations for delivering novel, long-acting PrEP products to women at high risk for vaginal dysbiosis and HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: We describe results from analyses investigating the modification of PrEP efficacy by vaginal dysbiosis and studies of biological mechanisms that could render PrEP ineffective in the presence of specific microbiota...
August 15, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810832/genome-wide-analysis-of-basic-helix-loop-helix-bhlh-transcription-factors-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#8
Xin Niu, Yuxiang Guan, Shoukun Chen, Haifeng Li
BACKGROUND: As a superfamily of transcription factors (TFs), the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins have been characterized functionally in many plants with a vital role in the regulation of diverse biological processes including growth, development, response to various stresses, and so on. However, no systemic analysis of the bHLH TFs has been reported in Brachypodium distachyon, an emerging model plant in Poaceae. RESULTS: A total of 146 bHLH TFs were identified in the Brachypodium distachyon genome and classified into 24 subfamilies...
August 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809418/native-extracellular-matrix-derived-semipermeable-optically-transparent-and-inexpensive-membrane-inserts-for-microfluidic-cell-culture
#9
Mark J Mondrinos, Yoon-Suk Yi, Nan-Kun Wu, Xueting Ding, Dongeun Huh
Semipermeable cell culture membranes are commonly used in multilayered microfluidic devices to mimic the basement membrane in vivo and to create compartmentalized microenvironments for physiological cell growth and differentiation. However, existing membranes are predominantly made up of synthetic polymers, providing limited capacity to replicate cellular interactions with native extracellular matrices that play a crucial role in the induction of physiological phenotypes. Here we describe a new type of cell culture membranes engineered from native extracellular matrix (ECM) materials that are thin, semipermeable, optically transparent, and amenable to integration into microfluidic cell culture devices...
August 15, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809029/model-clades-versus-model-species-anolis-lizards-as-an-integrative-model-of-anatomical-evolution
#10
Thomas J Sanger, Bonnie K Kircher
Anolis lizards , known for their replicated patterns of morphological diversification, are widely studied in the fields of evolution and ecology. As a textbook example of adaptive radiation, this genus has supported decades of intense study in natural history, behavior, morphological evolution, and systematics. Following the publication of the A. carolinensis genome, research on Anolis lizards has expanded into new areas, toward obtaining an understanding the developmental and genetic bases of anole diversity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808136/eplant-visualizing-and-exploring-multiple-levels-of-data-for-hypothesis-generation-in-plant-biology
#11
Jamie Waese, Jim Fan, Asher Pasha, Hans Yu, Geoffrey Fucile, Ruian Shi, Matthew Cumming, Lawrence Kelley, Michael Sternberg, Vivek Krishnakumar, Erik Ferlanti, Jason Miller, Chris Town, Wolfgang Stuerzlinger, Nicholas J Provart
A big challenge in current systems biology research arises when different types of data must be accessed from separate sources and visualized using separate tools. The high cognitive load required to navigate such a workflow is detrimental to hypothesis generation. Accordingly, there is a need for a robust research platform that incorporates all data, and provides integrated search, analysis, and visualization features through a single portal. Here, we present ePlant (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant), a visual analytic tool for exploring multiple levels of Arabidopsis data through a zoomable user interface...
August 14, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807931/identification-of-novel-growth-regulators-in-plant-populations-expressing-random-peptides
#12
Zhilong Bao, Maureen A Clancy, Raquel F Carvalho, Kiona Elliott, Kevin M Folta
The use of chemical genomics approaches allows the identification of small molecules that integrate into biological systems, thereby changing discrete processes that influence growth, development or metabolism. Libraries of chemicals are applied to living systems, and changes in phenotype are observed, potentially leading to the identification of new growth regulators. This work describes an approach that is the nexus of chemical-genomics and synthetic biology. Here each plant in an extensive population synthesizes a unique small peptide arising from a transgene composed of a randomized nucleic acid sequence core, flanked by translational start, stop, and cysteine-encoding (for disulfide cyclization) sequences...
August 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807887/an-integrative-system-biology-approach-to-unravel-potential-drug-candidates-for-multiple-age-related-disorders
#13
Isha Srivastava, Pooja Khurana, Mohini Yadav, Yasha Hasija
Aging, though an inevitable part of life, is becoming a worldwide social and economic problem. Healthy aging is usually marked by low probability of age related disorders. Good therapeutic approaches are still in need to cure age related disorders. Occurrence of more than one ARD in an individual, expresses the need of discovery of such target proteins, which can affect multiple ARDs. Advanced scientific and medical research technologies throughout last three decades have arrived to the point where lots of key molecular determinants affect human disorders can be examined thoroughly...
August 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806953/a-fast-healthcare-interoperability-resources-fhir-layer-implemented-over-i2b2
#14
Abdelali Boussadi, Eric Zapletal
BACKGROUND: Standards and technical specifications have been developed to define how the information contained in Electronic Health Records (EHRs) should be structured, semantically described, and communicated. Current trends rely on differentiating the representation of data instances from the definition of clinical information models. The dual model approach, which combines a reference model (RM) and a clinical information model (CIM), sets in practice this software design pattern. The most recent initiative, proposed by HL7, is called Fast Health Interoperability Resources (FHIR)...
August 14, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806720/exploration-of-acute-genotoxic-effects-and-antigenotoxic-potential-of-gambogic-acid-using-allium-cepa-assay
#15
Abhishek Shetty, Thejaswini Venkatesh, Padmanaban S Suresh, Rie Tsutsumi
The plant derived xanthanoid gambogic acid (GA) is well known for its anticancer activity. To date, biological actions of GA on plant system have not been reported. In the present study, we evaluated the potential acute genotoxic activity of GA, and its antigenotoxic potential against H2O2 induced genetic damage using Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay under hydroponic conditions. There was a significant decrease in the percentage of mitotic index/prophase index with the increase in clastogenicity percentage in a dose and time-dependent manner when Allium cepa bulbs were exposed to GA at 0...
August 5, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806583/plant-genome-scale-reconstruction-from-single-cell-to-multi-tissue-modelling-and-omics-analyses
#16
REVIEW
Cristiana Gomes de Oliveira Dal'Molin, Lars Keld Nielsen
In this review, we present the latest developments in plant systems biology with particular emphasis on plant genome-scale reconstructions and multi-omics analyses. Understanding multicellular metabolism is far from trivial and 'omics' data are difficult to interpret in the absence of a systems framework. 'Omics' data appropriately integrated with genome-scale reconstructions and modelling facilitates our understanding of how individual components interact and influence overall cell, tissue or organisms function...
August 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805306/bioprocess-scale-up-down-as-integrative-enabling-technology-from-fluid-mechanics-to-systems-biology-and-beyond
#17
Frank Delvigne, Ralf Takors, Rob Mudde, Walter van Gulik, Henk Noorman
Efficient optimization of microbial processes is a critical issue for achieving a number of sustainable development goals, considering the impact of microbial biotechnology in agrofood, environment, biopharmaceutical and chemical industries. Many of these applications require scale-up after proof of concept. However, the behaviour of microbial systems remains unpredictable (at least partially) when shifting from laboratory-scale to industrial conditions. The need for robust microbial systems is thus highly needed in this context, as well as a better understanding of the interactions between fluid mechanics and cell physiology...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804628/from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-to-human-the-important-gene-co-expression-modules
#18
Wei Liu, Li Li, Hua Ye, Haiwei Chen, Weibiao Shen, Yuexian Zhong, Tian Tian, Huaqin He
Network-based systems biology has become an important method for analyzing high-throughput gene expression data and gene function mining. Yeast has long been a popular model organism for biomedical research. In the current study, a weighted gene co-expression network analysis algorithm was applied to construct a gene co-expression network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Seventeen stable gene co-expression modules were detected from 2,814 S. cerevisiae microarray data. Further characterization of these modules with the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery tool indicated that these modules were associated with certain biological processes, such as heat response, cell cycle, translational regulation, mitochondrion oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid metabolism and autophagy...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803148/combustion-derived-nanoparticles-the-neuroenteric-system-cervical-vagus-hyperphosphorylated-alpha-synuclein-and-tau-in-young-mexico-city-residents
#19
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Beatriz Pérez-Guillé, Partha S Mukherjee, Angélica Gónzalez-Maciel
Mexico City (MC) young residents are exposed to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), have high frontal concentrations of combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs), accumulation of hyperphosphorylated aggregated α-synuclein (α-Syn) and early Parkinson's disease (PD). Swallowed CDNPs have easy access to epithelium and submucosa, damaging gastrointestinal (GI) barrier integrity and accessing the enteric nervous system (ENS). This study is focused on the ENS, vagus nerves and GI barrier in young MC v clean air controls...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802702/novel-method-of-extracting-motion-from-natural-movies
#20
Wataru Suzuki, Noritaka Ichinohe, Toshiki Tani, Taku Hayami, Naohisa Miyakawa, Satoshi Watanabe, Hiroshige Takeichi
BACKGROUND: The visual system in primates can be segregated into motion and shape pathways. Interaction occurs at multiple stages along these pathways. Processing of shape-from-motion and biological motion is considered to be a higher-order integration process involving motion and shape information. However, relatively limited types of stimuli have been used in previous studies on these integration processes. NEW METHOD: We propose a new algorithm to extract object motion information from natural movies and to move random dots in accordance with the information...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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