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passive self-motion

Neha Khetan, Chaitanya A Athale
Asters nucleated by Microtubule (MT) organizing centers (MTOCs) converge on chromosomes during spindle assembly in mouse oocytes undergoing meiosis I. Time-lapse imaging suggests that this centripetal motion is driven by a biased 'search-and-capture' mechanism. Here, we develop a model of a random walk in a drift field to test the nature of the bias and the spatio-temporal dynamics of the search process. The model is used to optimize the spatial field of drift in simulations, by comparison to experimental motility statistics...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Gregory M Freisinger, Erin E Hutter, Jacqueline Lewis, Jeffrey F Granger, Andrew H Glassman, Matthew D Beal, Xueliang Pan, Laura C Schmitt, Robert A Siston, Ajit M W Chaudhari
Increased varus-valgus laxity has been reported in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) compared to controls. However, the majority of previous investigations may not report truly passive joint laxity, as their tests have been performed on conscious participants who could be guarding against motion with muscle contraction during laxity evaluation. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a measure of passive knee laxity, recorded when the participant is under anesthesia, is related to varus-valgus excursion during gait, clinical measures of performance, perceived instability, and self-reported function in participants with severe knee OA...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
C-D Liao, Y-C Huang, Y-S Chiu, T-H Liou
OBJECTIVE: Obesity may influence postoperative rehabilitation outcomes after total knee replacement (TKR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI) on the progression of inpatient rehabilitation using continuous passive motion (CPM) and its treatment outcomes. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A retrospective study was conducted in a rehabilitation centre. In total, 354 patients undergoing primary TKR were enrolled through medical chart review...
May 9, 2016: Physiotherapy
Nigar Dursun, Tugba Gokbel, Melike Akarsu, Erbil Dursun
OBJECTIVE: Physical therapy (PT) and botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injections are widely used in the treatment of spastic equinus foot due to cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to show effects of intermittent serial casting (SC) in addition to standard treatment on spasticity, passive range of motion (PROM), and gait. DESIGN: Fifty-one ambulatory patients, treated by BTX-A to plantar flexor muscles, were randomly assigned to casting or control groups in a 2:1 ratio...
September 14, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Yufu Qu, Shenyu Zhu, Ping Zhang
For the design of a passive autofocusing (AF) system for optical microscopes, many time-consuming and tedious experiments have been performed to determine and design a better focus criterion function, owing to the sample-dependence of this function. To accelerate the development of the AF systems in optical microscopes and to increase AF speed as well as maintain the AF accuracy, this study proposes a self-adaptive and nonmechanical motion AF system. The presented AF system does not require the selection and design of a focus criterion function when it is developed...
September 1, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Hyeongyun Cha, Jae Min Chun, Jesus Sotelo, Nenad Miljkovic
Droplet-surface interactions are common to a plethora of natural and industrial processes due to their ability to rapidly exchange energy, mass, and momentum. Droplets are particularly of interest due to their large surface-to-volume ratios and hence enhanced transport properties. For example, coalescence-induced droplet jumping on superhydrophobic surfaces has recently received much attention for its potential to enhance heat transfer, anti-icing, and self-cleaning performance by passively shedding microscale water droplets...
September 27, 2016: ACS Nano
Kelsey J Picha, Josie L Harding, Kellie C Huxel Bliven
CONTEXT: The repetitive demands of throwing affect glenohumeral (GH) range of motion (ROM) and strength. Less is known about hip alterations in skeletally immature athletes. OBJECTIVE: To compare GH and hip ROM and strength between age, position, and side of youth baseball athletes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Multicenter testing. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-two healthy baseball athletes...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
Adrienn G Varga, Roy E Ritzmann
Animals rely upon integrated sensory information for spatial navigation. A question of wide importance in navigation is how sensory cues get transformed into neural codes that represent the animal's orientation within its proximal environment. Here, we investigated the possibility of head-direction coding in the central complex of the cockroach, Blaberus discoidalis. We used extracellular recordings in restrained animals that were rotated on a platform relative to a fixed landmark. The passive rotations allowed us to test for head-direction coding in the absence of self-generated motion cues...
July 25, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Paul A Lewis, Joan E Cunningham
BACKGROUND: In the context of breast cancer, axillary web syndrome (AWS), also called lymphatic cording, typically presents in the weeks after axillary surgery. This painful condition, likely lymphofibrotic in origin, restricts upper extremity range of motion (ROM). There is no established treatment, although physical therapy and other approaches have been used to variable effect. This report describes treatment of a female client with AWS, who had recently undergone a unilateral simple mastectomy with sentinel node biopsy plus axillary dissection...
June 2016: International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork
Tjerk P Gutteling, W P Medendorp
When moving around in the world, we have to keep track of important locations in our surroundings. In this process, called spatial updating, we must estimate our body motion and correct representations of memorized spatial locations in accordance with this motion. While the behavioral characteristics of spatial updating across whole body motion have been studied in detail, its neural implementation lacks detailed study. Here we use electroencephalography (EEG) to distinguish various spectral components of this process...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Mariia Kaliuzhna, Elisa Raffaella Ferrè, Bruno Herbelin, Olaf Blanke, Patrick Haggard
Vestibular information about self-motion is combined with other sensory signals. Previous research described both visuo-vestibular and vestibular-tactile bilateral interactions, but the simultaneous interaction between all three sensory modalities has not been explored. Here we exploit a previously reported visuo-vestibular integration to investigate multisensory effects on tactile sensitivity in humans. Tactile sensitivity was measured during passive whole body rotations alone or in conjunction with optic flow, creating either purely vestibular or visuo-vestibular sensations of self-motion...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nadia Möri, Christoph Jud, Rares Salomir, Philippe C Cattin
In noninvasive abdominal tumor treatment, research has focused on minimizing organ motion either by gating, breath holding or tracking of the target. The paradigm shift proposed in this study takes advantage of the respiratory organ motion to passively scan the tumor. In the proposed self-scanning method, the focal point of the HIFU device is held fixed for a given time, while it passively scans the tumor due to breathing motion. The aim of this paper is to present a treatment planning method for such a system and show by simulation its feasibility...
June 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Fengchang Yang, Shizhi Qian, Yiping Zhao, Rui Qiao
The self-diffusiophoresis of Janus catalytic micromotors (JCMs) in confined environment is studied using direct numerical simulations. The simulations revealed that, on average, the translocation of a JCM through a short pore is moderately slowed down by the confinement. This slowdown is far weaker compared to the transport of particles through similar pores driven by forces induced by external means or passive diffusiophoresis. Pairing of two JCMs facilitates the translocation of the one JCM entering the pore first but slows down the second JCM...
June 7, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Suryadeep Dash, Sina Alipour Nazari, Xiaogang Yan, Hongying Wang, J Douglas Crawford
In realistic environments, keeping track of multiple visual targets during eye movements likely involves an interaction between vision, top-down spatial attention, memory, and self-motion information. Recently we found that the superior colliculus (SC) visual memory response is attention-sensitive and continuously updated relative to gaze direction. In that study, animals were trained to remember the location of a saccade target across an intervening smooth pursuit (SP) eye movement (Dash et al., 2015). Here, we modified this paradigm to directly compare the properties of visual and memory updating responses to attended and unattended targets...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Yoon-Hee Cha, Diamond Urbano, Nicole Pariseau
BACKGROUND: Mal de debarquement syndrome is a medically refractory disorder characterized by chronic rocking dizziness that occurs after exposure to passive motion. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can acutely suppress the rocking dizziness but treatment options that extend the benefit of rTMS are needed. OBJECTIVES: 1) To determine whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) added after rTMS can extend the benefit of rTMS; 2) to determine whether participants can safely perform tDCS at home...
July 2016: Brain Stimulation
Benjamin Trefz, Subir K Das, Sergei A Egorov, Peter Virnau, Kurt Binder
We present results for structure and dynamics of mixtures of active and passive particles, from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and integral equation theory (IET) calculations, for a physically motivated model. The perfectly passive limit of the model corresponds to the phase-separating Asakura-Oosawa model for colloid-polymer mixtures in which, for the present study, the colloids are made self-propelling by introducing activity in accordance with the well known Vicsek model. Such activity facilitates phase separation further, as confirmed by our MD simulations and IET calculations...
April 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jorge Hugo Villafañe, Maria Isgrò, Maria Borsatti, Pedro Berjano, Caterina Pirali, Stefano Negrini
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that self-administered action observation treatment can increase the effectiveness of inpatient rehabilitation of patients after a primary total knee replacement. DESIGN: A pilot randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Thirty-one inpatients, admitted to our Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Department. SUBJECTS: After a primary total knee replacement were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=14) or control (n=17) group...
April 11, 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
A Burke Gurney, Christine Mermier, Michael LaPlante, Aditi Majumdar, Kathleen O'Neill, Todd Shewman, James G Gurney
Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background The activity of the rotator cuff muscles has not previously been measured with indwelling electromyography (EMG) comparing ambulation and other movements. Knowledge of the relative contribution of these muscles during various tasks may help to guide rehabilitation progression. Objective To measure activity of the rotator cuff muscles and other shoulder muscles during normal ambulation, shirt and sling donning and doffing, and rehabilitation tasks commonly performed after rotator cuff surgery...
May 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Werner F Helsen, Florian Van Halewyck, Oron Levin, Matthieu P Boisgontier, Ann Lavrysen, Digby Elliott
The present study examines whether non-active older adults are more dependent on visual information when executing aiming movements and whether age-related declines in proprioception play a mediating role herein. Young (N = 40) and older adults (N = 38) were divided into physically active and non-active subgroups based on self-reported sports participation levels. In experiment 1, participants executed wrist-aiming movements with and without visual feedback. In experiment 2, passive proprioceptive acuity was assessed using wrist motion detection and position matching tests...
April 2016: Age (2005-)
Riche Walsh, Sharon Kinsella
BACKGROUND: A loss of internal rotation (IR) of the hip is associated with hip pathology. Improving IR may improve hip range of motion (ROM) or prevent hip pathology. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of caudal mobilisation with movement (MWM) and caudal self-mobilisation with movement (SMWM) on young healthy male subjects with reduced IR of the hip. DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial was performed...
April 2016: Manual Therapy
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