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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346751/the-brain-compass-a-perspective-on-how-self-motion-updates-the-head-direction-cell-attractor
#1
REVIEW
Jean Laurens, Dora E Angelaki
Head direction cells form an internal compass signaling head azimuth orientation even without visual landmarks. This property is generated by a neuronal ring attractor that is updated using rotation velocity cues. The properties and origin of this velocity drive remain, however, unknown. We propose a quantitative framework whereby this drive represents a multisensory self-motion estimate computed through an internal model that uses sensory prediction errors of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory cues to improve on-line motor drive...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319100/activity-induced-instability-of-phonons-in-1d-microfluidic-crystals
#2
Alan Cheng Hou Tsang, Michael J Shelley, Eva Kanso
One-dimensional crystals of passively-driven particles in microfluidic channels exhibit collective vibrational modes reminiscent of acoustic 'phonons'. These phonons are induced by the long-range hydrodynamic interactions among the particles and are neutrally stable at the linear level. Here, we analyze the effect of particle activity - self-propulsion - on the emergence and stability of these phonons. We show that the direction of wave propagation in active crystals is sensitive to the intensity of the background flow...
January 10, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305644/mal-de-debarquement-syndrome-a-survey-on-subtypes-misdiagnoses-onset-and-associated-psychological-features
#3
V Mucci, J M Canceri, R Brown, M Dai, S Yakushin, S Watson, A Van Ombergen, V Topsakal, P H Van de Heyning, F L Wuyts, C J Browne
INTRODUCTION: Mal de Debarquement Syndrome (MdDS) is a neurological condition typically characterized by a sensation of motion, that persists longer than a month following exposure to passive motion (e.g., cruise, flight, etc.). The most common form of MdDS is motion triggered (MT). However, recently it has been acknowledged that some patients develop typical MdDS symptoms without an apparent motion trigger. These cases are identified here as spontaneous or other onset (SO) MdDS. This study aimed to address similarities and differences between the MdDS subtypes...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229858/zooplankton-can-actively-adjust-their-motility-to-turbulent-flow
#4
François-Gaël Michalec, Itzhak Fouxon, Sami Souissi, Markus Holzner
Calanoid copepods are among the most abundant metazoans in the ocean and constitute a vital trophic link within marine food webs. They possess relatively narrow swimming capabilities, yet are capable of significant self-locomotion under strong hydrodynamic conditions. Here we provide evidence for an active adaptation that allows these small organisms to adjust their motility in response to background flow. We track simultaneously and in three dimensions the motion of flow tracers and planktonic copepods swimming freely at several intensities of quasi-homogeneous, isotropic turbulence...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190334/the-ventral-posterior-lateral-thalamus-preferentially-encodes-externally-applied-versus-active-movement-implications-for-self-motion-perception
#5
Alexis Dale, Kathleen E Cullen
Successful interaction with our environment requires that voluntary behaviors be precisely coordinated with our perception of self-motion. The vestibular sensors in the inner ear detect self-motion and in turn send projections via the vestibular nuclei to multiple cortical areas through 2 principal thalamocortical pathways, 1 anterior and 1 posterior. While the anterior pathway has been extensively studied, the role of the posterior pathway is not well understood. Accordingly, here we recorded responses from individual neurons in the ventral posterior lateral thalamus of macaque monkeys during externally applied (passive) and actively generated self-motion...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190116/alarmins-in-frozen-shoulder-a-molecular-association-between-inflammation-and-pain
#6
Jonathon Z B Cher, Moeed Akbar, Susan Kitson, Lindsay A N Crowe, Emma Garcia-Melchor, Stephen C Hannah, Michael McLean, Umberto G Fazzi, Shauna C Kerr, George A C Murrell, Neal L Millar
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological mechanisms behind proliferation of fibroblasts and deposition of dense collagen matrix in idiopathic frozen shoulder remain unclear. Alarmins (also known as danger signals) are endogenous molecules that are released into the extracellular milieu after infection or tissue injury and that signal cell and tissue damage. PURPOSE: To investigate whether the presence of alarmins is higher in patients with idiopathic frozen shoulder than in control subjects...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182079/undulatory-swimming-performance-and-body-stiffness-modulation-in-a-soft-robotic-fish-inspired-physical-model
#7
Ardian Jusufi, Daniel M Vogt, Robert J Wood, George V Lauder
Undulatory motion of the body is the dominant mode of locomotion in fishes, and numerous studies of body kinematics and muscle activity patterns have provided insights into the mechanics of swimming. However, it has not been possible to investigate how key parameters such as the extent of bilateral muscle activation affect propulsive performance due to the inability to manipulate muscle activation in live, freely swimming fishes. In this article we extend previous work on passive flexible mechanical models of undulatory propulsion by using actively controlled pneumatic actuators attached to a flexible foil to gain insight into undulatory locomotion and mechanisms for body stiffness control...
September 2017: Soft Robotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096909/-assessment-of-mood-disorders-by-passive-data-gathering-the-concept-of-digital-phenotype-versus-psychiatrist-s-professional-culture
#8
A Bourla, F Ferreri, L Ogorzelec, C Guinchard, S Mouchabac
OBJECTIVES: The search for objective clinical signs is a constant practitioners' and researchers' concern in psychiatry. New technologies (embedded sensors, artificial intelligence) give an easier access to untapped information such as passive data (i.e. that do not require patient intervention). The concept of "digital phenotype" is emerging in psychiatry: a psychomotor alteration translated by accelerometer's modifications contrasting with the usual functioning of the subject, or the graphorrhea of patients presenting a manic episode which is replaced by an increase of SMS sent...
October 30, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043978/a-unified-internal-model-theory-to-resolve-the-paradox-of-active-versus-passive-self-motion-sensation
#9
Jean Laurens, Dora E Angelaki
Brainstem and cerebellar neurons implement an internal model to accurately estimate self-motion during externally generated ('passive') movements. However, these neurons show reduced responses during self-generated ('active') movements, indicating that predicted sensory consequences of motor commands cancel sensory signals. Remarkably, the computational processes underlying sensory prediction during active motion and their relationship to internal model computations during passive movements remain unknown. We construct a Kalman filter that incorporates motor commands into a previously established model of optimal passive self-motion estimation...
October 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959018/decoupled-choice-driven-and-stimulus-related-activity-in-parietal-neurons-may-be-misrepresented-by-choice-probabilities
#10
Adam Zaidel, Gregory C DeAngelis, Dora E Angelaki
Trial-by-trial correlations between neural responses and choices (choice probabilities) are often interpreted to reflect a causal contribution of neurons to task performance. However, choice probabilities may arise from top-down, rather than bottom-up, signals. We isolated distinct sensory and decision contributions to single-unit activity recorded from the dorsal medial superior temporal (MSTd) and ventral intraparietal (VIP) areas of monkeys during perception of self-motion. Superficially, neurons in both areas show similar tuning curves during task performance...
September 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898043/orthogonally-functionalized-donor-acceptor-homo-and-heterodimeric-dyes-for-dye-sensitized-solar-cells-an-approach-to-introduce-panchromaticity-and-control-the-charge-recombination
#11
Manik Chandra Sil, Vediappan Sudhakar, Munavvar Fairoos Mele Kavungathodi, Vellimalai Punitharasu, Jayaraj Nithyanandhan
Organic dyes possessing conjugated π-framework forms closely packed monolayers on photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), because of the limitation to control the orientation and the extend of intermolecular π-π interaction, self-aggregation of dyes leads to reduced cell performance. In this report, a series of homodimeric (D1-D1 and D2-D2) and heterodimeric (D1-D2 and D2-D4) donor/acceptor (D/A) dyes containing spiroBiProDOT π-spacer were designed and synthesized by utilizing Pd-catalyzed direct arylation reaction and correlates the device performance with monomeric dyes (D1 and D2)...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772129/the-effects-of-ankle-braces-and-taping-on-lower-extremity-running-kinematics-and-energy-expenditure-in-healthy-non-injured-adults
#12
Kaori Tamura, Kara N Radzak, Rachele E Vogelpohl, Bethany A Wisthoff, Yukiya Oba, Ronald K Hetzler, Christopher D Stickley
Ankle braces and taping are commonly used to prevent ankle sprains and allow return to play following injury, however, it is unclear how passive restriction of joint motion may effect running gait kinematics and energy expenditure during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different types of ankle supports on lower extremity kinematics and energy expenditure during continuous running. Thirteen healthy physically active adults ran at self-selected speed on the treadmill for 30min in four different ankle support conditions: semi-rigid hinged brace, lace-up brace, tape and control...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770512/immediate-intensive-mobilization-compared-with-immediate-conventional-mobilization-for-the-impacted-osteoporotic-conservatively-treated-proximal-humeral-fracture-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
S Carbone, C Razzano, P Albino, R Mezzoprete
PURPOSE: To select in a 2-year survey of proximal humerus fractures accessing the emergency department, a population of osteoporotic stable impacted fractures and to randomize them into two groups, one with an immediate intensive mobilization program and the other with an immediate conventional mobilization program. METHODS: In emergency department, patients with clinical signs of shoulder girdle fracture were submitted to standard X-ray examination and CT scan...
August 2, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769743/neural-response-to-biological-motion-in-healthy-adults-varies-as-a-function-of-autistic-like-traits
#14
Meghan H Puglia, James P Morris
Perception of biological motion is an important social cognitive ability that has been mapped to specialized brain regions. Perceptual deficits and neural differences during biological motion perception have previously been associated with autism, a disorder classified by social and communication difficulties and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviors. However, the traits associated with autism are not limited to diagnostic categories, but are normally distributed within the general population and show the same patterns of heritability across the continuum...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755779/thermo-and-soluto-capillarity-passive-and-active-drops
#15
REVIEW
Yuri S Ryazantsev, Manuel G Velarde, Ramón G Rubio, Eduardo Guzmán, Francisco Ortega, Pilar López
A survey is provided of a variety of problems where a passive or an active drop experiences directed motion consequence of the action of an external or internal agent or a combination of both. An active drop is capable of reacting by engendering autonomous, self-propelled motion in favor or against the agent. The phenomena involved offer diverse complexity but one way or another the drop motion finally rests on thermo- or soluto-capillarity hence on interfacial tension gradients. Accordingly, here a minimal mathematical framework underlying such drop motions is provided when direct external temperature or solute gradients, illumination, internal heat generation or surface chemical reaction are incorporated into the physico-chemical-hydrodynamics...
July 20, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742362/convective-self-sustained-motion-in-mixtures-of-chemically-active-and-passive-particles
#16
Oleg E Shklyaev, Henry Shum, Victor V Yashin, Anna C Balazs
We develop a model to describe the behavior of a system of active and passive particles in solution that can undergo spontaneous self-organization and self-sustained motion. The active particles are uniformly coated with a catalyst that decomposes the reagent in the surrounding fluid. The resulting variations in the fluid density give rise to a convective flow around the active particles. The generated fluid flow, in turn, drives the self-organization of both the active and passive particles into clusters that undergo self-sustained propulsion along the bottom wall of a microchamber...
August 3, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720777/aging-and-rejuvenation-of-active-matter-under-topological-constraints
#17
Liesbeth M C Janssen, Andreas Kaiser, Hartmut Löwen
The coupling of active, self-motile particles to topological constraints can give rise to novel non-equilibrium dynamical patterns that lack any passive counterpart. Here we study the behavior of self-propelled rods confined to a compact spherical manifold by means of Brownian dynamics simulations. We establish the state diagram and find that short active rods at sufficiently high density exhibit a glass transition toward a disordered state characterized by persistent self-spinning motion. By periodically melting and revitrifying the spherical spinning glass, we observe clear signatures of time-dependent aging and rejuvenation physics...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671813/self-powered-acceleration-sensor-based-on-liquid-metal-triboelectric-nanogenerator-for-vibration-monitoring
#18
Binbin Zhang, Lei Zhang, Weili Deng, Long Jin, Fengjun Chun, Hong Pan, Bingni Gu, Haitao Zhang, Zekai Lv, Weiqing Yang, Zhong Lin Wang
An acceleration sensor is an essential component of the vibration measurement, while the passivity and sensitivity are the pivotal features for its application. Here, we report a self-powered and highly sensitive acceleration sensor based on a triboelectric nanogenerator composed of a liquid metal mercury droplet (LMMD) and nanofiber-networked polyvinylidene fluoride (nn-PVDF) film. Due to the ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratio of nn-PVDF film and high surface tension, high mass density, high elastic as well as mechanical robustness of LMMD, the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current reach up to 15...
July 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665655/real-time-observation-of-internal-motion-within-ultrafast-dissipative-optical-soliton-molecules
#19
Katarzyna Krupa, K Nithyanandan, Ugo Andral, Patrice Tchofo-Dinda, Philippe Grelu
Real-time access to the internal ultrafast dynamics of complex dissipative optical systems opens new explorations of pulse-pulse interactions and dynamic patterns. We present the first direct experimental evidence of the internal motion of a dissipative optical soliton molecule generated in a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser. We map the internal motion of a soliton pair molecule by using a dispersive Fourier-transform imaging technique, revealing different categories of internal pulsations, including vibrationlike and phase drifting dynamics...
June 16, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651417/-influences-of-different-rehabilitative-methods-on-function-of-hands-and-psychological-anxiety-of-patients-with-deeply-burned-hands-retaining-denatured-dermis-and-grafting-large-autologous-skin
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
H Peng, P F Liang, A Wang, L Q Yue
Objective: To investigate influences of different rehabilitative methods on function of hands and psychological anxiety of patients with deeply burned hands retaining denatured dermis and grafting large autologous skin. Methods: Forty-four patients with deeply burned hands, conforming to the study criteria were admitted to Department of Burns and Reconstructive Surgery of Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2014 to June 2015. Patients were divided into propaganda education rehabilitation group (PER, n=23) and specially-assigned person rehabilitation group (SAPR, n=21) according to the random number table and patients' willingness...
May 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
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