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passive self-motion

Benjamin M Friedrich
External forces acting on a microswimmer can feed back on its self-propulsion mechanism. We discuss this load response for a generic microswimmer that swims by cyclic shape changes. We show that the change in cycle frequency is proportional to the Lighthill efficiency of self-propulsion. As a specific example, we consider Najafi's three-sphere swimmer. The force-velocity relation of a microswimmer implies a correction for a formal superposition principle for active and passive motion.
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Andrew W Ellis, Corina G Schöne, Dominique Vibert, Marco D Caversaccio, Fred W Mast
There is evidence that vestibular sensory processing affects, and is affected by, higher cognitive processes. This is highly relevant from a clinical perspective, where there is evidence for cognitive impairments in patients with peripheral vestibular deficits. The vestibular system performs complex probabilistic computations, and we claim that understanding these is important for investigating interactions between vestibular processing and cognition. Furthermore, this will aid our understanding of patients' self-motion perception and will provide useful information for clinical interventions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal Silva, Carla Rodrigues Carvalho, Felipe Gonçalves Belladonna, Marina Carvalho Prado, Ricardo Tadeu Lopes, Gustavo De-Deus, Edson Jorge Lima Moreira
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare four final irrigation protocols (passive ultrasonic irrigation [PUI], EndoVac, Self-Adjusting File [SAF] and EasyClean) on the removal of accumulated hard-tissue debris (AHTD) from mesial canals of mandibular molars through microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty mesial roots of mandibular molars presenting isthmuses type I or III were scanned in a micro-CT device and instrumented up to Reciproc R40 instrument...
May 10, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Naoki Mugii, Takashi Matsushita, Sachie Oohata, Hirokazu Okita, Tetsutarou Yahata, Fujiko Someya, Minoru Hasegawa, Manabu Fujimoto, Kazuhiko Takehara, Yasuhito Hamaguchi
OBJECTIVE: Severe skin sclerosis in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) can result in a loss of hand function. The aim of this study is to examine the long-term changes of finger passive range of motion (ROM) in Japanese SSc patients treated with self-administered stretching. METHODS: This is a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study. Forty-three Japanese patients with SSc were given instructions on self-administered stretching. ROM was assessed using a goniometer on their first visit and after 1 year, 3 years, 5 years, and 9 years...
April 18, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
Heike Schemmann, Nadine Rensing, Christoff Zalpour
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify and systematically categorize musculoskeletal assessments used in quantitatively based studies about posture and movement in musicians playing high string instruments (violin, viola) in order to inform further research and help to identify gaps in knowledge. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the databases Cochrane, CINAHL, and PubMed as well as the journal Medical Problems of Performing Artists...
March 2018: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
Adam Witten, Mikkel B Clausen, Kristian Thorborg, Mikkel L Attrup, Per Hölmich
PURPOSE: Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) is associated with low self-reported shoulder function, impairments in shoulder strength and range of motion (ROM), and pain. It is not known how the symptomatology associated with SIS is reflected in the choice of treatment. This study compares self-reported shoulder function, shoulder strength, ROM, and pain in patients with SIS considered candidates and non-candidates for subacromial decompression (SAD). METHOD: Self-reported shoulder function (Q-DASH and SPADI), maximum isometric muscle strength in shoulder abduction (Abd-strength) and external rotation (ER-strength), active abduction ROM (Abd-ROM) and passive internal rotation ROM (IR-ROM) were measured in a consecutive cohort of patients with SIS referred to an orthopedic outpatient clinic...
March 17, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
J Harder, A Cacciuto
We use computer simulations to study the behavior of a mixture of large passive charged colloids in a suspension of smaller active dipolar Janus particles. We find that when a single charged colloid is present in solution, it acquires a rotational or translational motion depending on how the active dipoles self-assemble on its surface to form active complexes. The collective behavior of these complexes is quite remarkable, and includes swarming behavior and coherent macroscopic motion. We detail how the variety of different phenomenologies emerging in this system can ultimately be controlled by the strength of the active forces and the relative concentration of the two species...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Sidney Bovet, Henrique Galvan Debarba, Bruno Herbelin, Eray Molla, Ronan Boulic
With the broad range of motion capture devices available on the market, it is now commonplace to directly control the limb movement of an avatar during immersion in a virtual environment. Here, we study how the subjective experience of embodying a full-body controlled avatar is influenced by motor alteration and self-contact mismatches. Self-contact is in particular a strong source of passive haptic feedback and we assume it to bring a clear benefit in terms of embodiment. For evaluating this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulate self-contacts and the virtual hand displacement relatively to the body...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Benjamin S Killen, Krista L Zelizney, Xin Ye
CONTEXT: Static stretching (SS) and self-administered foam rolling (SAFR) are both effective techniques often used in rehabilitation settings to improve one's range-of-motion (ROM). However, their effects on non-intervened contralateral limb's performance remain equivocal. OBJECTIVE: To examine the acute effects of unilateral hamstrings SS and SAFR on the contralateral hip flexion passive ROM and the strength performance. DESIGN: Randomized crossover trial...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Maud Pradines, Marjolaine Baude, Christina Marciniak, Gerard Francisco, Jean-Michel Gracies, Emilie Hutin, Nicolas Bayle
BACKGROUND: In current health care systems, long-duration stretching, performed daily, cannot be obtained through prescriptions of physical therapy. In addition, the short-term efficacy of the various stretching techniques is disputed, and their long-term effects remain undocumented. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in extensibility in 6 lower limb muscles and in ambulation speed after a ≥1-year self-stretch program, the Guided Self-rehabilitation Contract (GSC), in individuals with chronic spastic paresis...
March 2, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Estêvão Rios Monteiro, Andrew D Vigotsky, Jefferson da Silva Novaes, Jakob Škarabot
Background: Self-massage is a ubiquitous intervention similar to massage, but performed by the recipient him- or herself rather than by a therapist, most often using a tool (e.g., foam roller, roller massager). Self-massage has been found to have a wide range of effects. It is particularly known for increasing flexibility acutely, although not always. The variability of the results in previous studies may potentially be a function of the tool used. Recent findings also suggest that self-massage exerts global effects...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Christian Pfeiffer, Jean-Paul Noel, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
Human-environment interactions are mediated through the body and occur within the peripersonal space (PPS), the space immediately adjacent to and surrounding the body. The PPS is taken to be a critical interface between the body and the environment, and indeed, body-part specific PPS remapping has been shown to depend on body-part utilization, such as upper limb movements in otherwise static observers. How vestibular signals induced by whole-body movement contribute to PPS representation is less well understood...
April 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Mariia Kaliuzhna, Steven Gale, Mario Prsa, Raphael Maire, Olaf Blanke
Unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) is accompanied by deficits in processing of visual and vestibular self-motion cues. The present study examined whether multisensory integration of these two types of information is, nevertheless, intact in such patients. Patients were seated on a rotating platform with a screen simulating 3D rotation in front of them and asked to judge the relative magnitude of two successive rotations in the yaw plane in three conditions: vestibular stimulation, visual stimulation and bimodal stimulation (congruent stimuli from both modalities together)...
March 2018: Neuropsychologia
Andrew L Skinner, Christopher J Stone, Hazel Doughty, Marcus R Munafò
Introduction: Recent developments in smoking cessation support systems and interventions have highlighted the requirement for unobtrusive, passive ways to measure smoking behaviour. A number of systems have been developed for this that either use bespoke sensing technology, or expensive combinations of wearables and smartphones. Here we present StopWatch, a system for passive detection of cigarette smoking that runs on a low-cost smartwatch and does not require additional sensing or a connected smartphone...
January 24, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Tapan Chandra Adhyapak, Sara Jabbari-Farouji
We analyze a minimal model for a rigid spherical microswimmer and explore the consequences of its extended surface on the interplay between its self-propulsion and flow properties. The model is the first order representation of microswimmers, such as bacteria and algae, with rigid bodies and flexible propelling appendages. The flow field of such a microswimmer at finite distances significantly differs from that of a point-force (Stokeslet) dipole. For a suspension of microswimmers, we derive the grand mobility matrix that connects the motion of an individual swimmer to the active and passive forces and torques acting on all the swimmers...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Jean Laurens, Dora E Angelaki
Head direction cells form an internal compass signaling head azimuth orientation even without visual landmarks. This property is generated by a neuronal ring attractor that is updated using rotation velocity cues. The properties and origin of this velocity drive remain, however, unknown. We propose a quantitative framework whereby this drive represents a multisensory self-motion estimate computed through an internal model that uses sensory prediction errors of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory cues to improve on-line motor drive...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
Alan Cheng Hou Tsang, Michael J Shelley, Eva Kanso
One-dimensional crystals of passively-driven particles in microfluidic channels exhibit collective vibrational modes reminiscent of acoustic 'phonons'. These phonons are induced by the long-range hydrodynamic interactions among the particles and are neutrally stable at the linear level. Here, we analyze the effect of particle activity - self-propulsion - on the emergence and stability of these phonons. We show that the direction of wave propagation in active crystals is sensitive to the intensity of the background flow...
February 14, 2018: Soft Matter
V Mucci, J M Canceri, R Brown, M Dai, S Yakushin, S Watson, A Van Ombergen, V Topsakal, P H Van de Heyning, F L Wuyts, C J Browne
INTRODUCTION: Mal de Debarquement Syndrome (MdDS) is a neurological condition typically characterized by a sensation of motion, that persists longer than a month following exposure to passive motion (e.g., cruise, flight, etc.). The most common form of MdDS is motion triggered (MT). However, recently it has been acknowledged that some patients develop typical MdDS symptoms without an apparent motion trigger. These cases are identified here as spontaneous or other onset (SO) MdDS. This study aimed to address similarities and differences between the MdDS subtypes...
March 2018: Journal of Neurology
François-Gaël Michalec, Itzhak Fouxon, Sami Souissi, Markus Holzner
Calanoid copepods are among the most abundant metazoans in the ocean and constitute a vital trophic link within marine food webs. They possess relatively narrow swimming capabilities, yet are capable of significant self-locomotion under strong hydrodynamic conditions. Here we provide evidence for an active adaptation that allows these small organisms to adjust their motility in response to background flow. We track simultaneously and in three dimensions the motion of flow tracers and planktonic copepods swimming freely at several intensities of quasi-homogeneous, isotropic turbulence...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alexis Dale, Kathleen E Cullen
Successful interaction with our environment requires that voluntary behaviors be precisely coordinated with our perception of self-motion. The vestibular sensors in the inner ear detect self-motion and in turn send projections via the vestibular nuclei to multiple cortical areas through 2 principal thalamocortical pathways, 1 anterior and 1 posterior. While the anterior pathway has been extensively studied, the role of the posterior pathway is not well understood. Accordingly, here we recorded responses from individual neurons in the ventral posterior lateral thalamus of macaque monkeys during externally applied (passive) and actively generated self-motion...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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