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spatial attention

Andrea Marotta, Rafael Román-Caballero, Juan Lupiáñez
Eye gaze conveys rich information concerning the states of mind of others, playing a critical role in social interactions, signaling internal states, and guiding others' attention. On the basis of its social significance, some researchers have proposed that eye gaze may represent a unique attentional stimulus. However, contrary to this notion, the majority of the literature has shown indistinguishable attentional effects when eye gaze and arrows have been used as cues. Taking a different approach, in this study we aimed at finding qualitative attentional differences between gazes and arrows when they were used as targets instead of as cues...
March 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Christina J Howard, Hayley Boulton, Emily Brown, Craig P A Arnold, Matthew K Belmonte, Suvobrata Mitra
The position monitoring task is a measure of divided spatial attention in which participants track the changing positions of one or more objects, attempting to represent positions with as much precision as possible. Typically precision of representations declines with each target object added to participants' attention load. Since the motor system requires precise representations of changing target positions, we investigated whether position monitoring would be facilitated by increasing engagement of the motor system...
March 15, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
A D Nikulin
This review is focused on the structural aspects of interaction between ribosomal proteins and ribosomal RNA in bacterial ribosomes and complexes of ribosomal proteins with specific fragments of ribosomal RNA. Special attention is given to the recognition of specific spatial architecture of the double-stranded ribosomal RNA by ribosomal proteins and to the role of unstructured protein regions in stabilization of distant ribosomal RNA segments.
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
A V Finkelstein
The ability of proteins to spontaneously form their spatial structures is a long-standing puzzle in molecular biology. Experimentally measured rates of spontaneous folding of single-domain globular proteins range from microseconds to hours: the difference - 10-11 orders of magnitude - is the same as between the lifespan of a mosquito and the age of the Universe. This review (based on the literature and some personal recollections) describes a winding road to understanding spontaneous folding of protein structure...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Charlotte Sosson, Carrie Georges, Mathieu Guillaume, Anne-Marie Schuller, Christine Schiltz
Numbers are thought to be spatially organized along a left-to-right horizontal axis with small/large numbers on its left/right respectively. Behavioral evidence for this mental number line (MNL) comes from studies showing that the reallocation of spatial attention by active left/right head rotation facilitated the generation of small/large numbers respectively. While spatial biases in random number generation (RNG) during active movement are well established in adults, comparable evidence in children is lacking and it remains unclear whether and how children's access to the MNL is affected by active head rotation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ella Z Lattenkamp, Samuel Kaiser, Rožle Kaučič, Martina Großmann, Klemen Koselj, Holger R Goerlitz
Sensory systems experience a trade-off between maximizing the detail and amount of sampled information. This trade-off is particularly pronounced in sensory systems that are highly specialized for a single task and thus experience limitations in other tasks. We hypothesised that combining sensory input from multiple streams of information may resolve this trade-off and improve detection and sensing reliability. Specifically, we predicted that perceptive limitations experienced by animals reliant on specialised active echolocation can be compensated for by the phylogenetically older and less specialised process of passive hearing...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Niklas Wilming, Peter König, Seth König, Elizabeth A Buffalo
Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex allow for the precise decoding of position in space. Along with potentially playing an important role in navigation, grid cells have recently been hypothesized to make a general contribution to mental operations. A prerequisite for this hypothesis is that grid cell activity does not critically depend on physical movement. Here, we show that movement of covert attention, without any physical movement, also elicits spatial receptive fields with a triangular tiling of space...
March 14, 2018: ELife
Martin Lamos, Radek Marecek, Tomáš Slavíček, Michal Mikl, Ivan Rektor, Jiri Jan
Growing interest in the examination of large-scale brain network functional connectivity dynamics is accompanied by an effort to find the electrophysiological correlates. The commonly used constraints applied to spatial and spectral domains during EEG data analysis may leave part of the neural activity unrecognized. We propose an approach that blindly reveals multimodal EEG spectral patterns that are related to the dynamics of the BOLD functional network connectivity.
 Approach. The blind decomposition of EEG spectrogram by Parallel Factor Analysis has been shown to be a useful technique for uncovering patterns of neural activity...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Tianlu Wang, Celine R Gillebert
Visuospatial attention and short-term memory allow us to prioritize, select, and briefly maintain part of the visual information that reaches our senses. These cognitive abilities are quantitatively accounted for by Bundesen's theory of visual attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). Previous studies have suggested that TVA-based assessments are sensitive to inter-individual differences in spatial bias, visual short-term memory capacity, top-down control, and processing speed in healthy volunteers as well as in patients with various neurological and psychiatric conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Valerio Santangelo
Higher-order cognitive processes were shown to rely on the interplay between large-scale neural networks. However, brain networks involved with the capability to split attentional resource over multiple spatial locations and multiple stimuli or sensory modalities have been largely unexplored to date. Here I re-analyzed data from Santangelo et al. (2010) to explore the causal interactions between large-scale brain networks during divided attention. During fMRI scanning, participants monitored streams of visual and/or auditory stimuli in one or two spatial locations for detection of occasional targets...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Yoana Rabanal-Ruiz, Viktor I Korolchuk
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) coordinates cellular growth and metabolism with environmental inputs to ensure that cells grow only under favourable conditions. When active, mTORC1 stimulates biosynthetic pathways including protein, lipid and nucleotide synthesis and inhibits cellular catabolism through repression of the autophagic pathway, thereby promoting cell growth and proliferation. The recruitment of mTORC1 to the lysosomal surface has been shown to be essential for its activation...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yen-Ru Chen, Kai-Hsin Liou, Dun-Yen Kang, Jiun-Jen Chen, Li-Chiang Lin
Investigating metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as water adsorbents has drawn increasing attention for their potential in energy-related applications such as water production and heat transformation. A specific MOF, MIL-100(Fe), is of particular interest for its large adsorption capacity with the occurrence of water condensation at a relatively low partial pressure. In the synthesis of MIL-100(Fe), depending on the reactants, structures with varying anion terminals (e.g., F-, Cl-, or OH-) on the metal trimer have been reported...
March 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
J F Tornero-Aguilera, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Previous studies have shown that actuate stress have a negative effect on working memory, visio-spatial ability and symptoms of disassociation. We conducted the present research with the aim of to analyse the effect of experience and training in psychophysiological response, attention and memory of soldiers in combat. Variables of blood lactate, blood glucose, blood oxygen saturation, body temperature, heart rate, lower body muscular strength manifestation, autonomic modulation, cortical arousal, cognitive and somatic anxiety, and memory by a post mission questionnaire were analysed before and after a combat simulation in 49 soldiers of Spanish Army...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Eleftheria Giannouli, Otmar Bock, Wiebren Zijlstra
Increasing evidence indicates that mobility depends on cognitive resources, but the exact relationships between various cognitive functions and different mobility parameters still need to be investigated. This study examines the hypothesis that cognitive functioning is more closely related to real-life mobility performance than to mobility capacity as measured with standardized laboratory tests. The final sample used for analysis consisted of 66 older adults (72.3 ± 5.6 years). Cognition was assessed by measures of planning (HOTAP test), spatial working memory (Grid-Span test) and visuospatial attention (Attention Window test)...
March 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Chia-Ling Li, M Pilar Aivar, Matthew H Tong, Mary M Hayhoe
Search is a central visual function. Most of what is known about search derives from experiments where subjects view 2D displays on computer monitors. In the natural world, however, search involves movement of the body in large-scale spatial contexts, and it is unclear how this might affect search strategies. In this experiment, we explore the nature of memory representations developed when searching in an immersive virtual environment. By manipulating target location, we demonstrate that search depends on episodic spatial memory as well as learnt spatial priors...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tim Rohe, Uta Noppeney
Behaviorally, it is well established that human observers integrate signals near-optimally weighted in proportion to their reliabilities as predicted by maximum likelihood estimation. Yet, despite abundant behavioral evidence, it is unclear how the human brain accomplishes this feat. In a spatial ventriloquist paradigm, participants were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual signals and reported the location of the auditory or the visual signal. Combining psychophysics, multivariate functional MRI (fMRI) decoding, and models of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), we characterized the computational operations underlying audiovisual integration at distinct cortical levels...
January 2018: ENeuro
Cheima Bouziane, Matthan W A Caan, Hyke G H Tamminga, Anouk Schrantee, Marco A Bottelier, Michiel B de Ruiter, Sandra J J Kooij, Liesbeth Reneman
Several diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have shown a delay in brain white matter (WM) development. Because these studies were mainly conducted in children and adolescents, these WM abnormalities have been assumed, but not proven to progress into adulthood. To provide further insight in the natural history of WM maturation delay in ADHD, we here investigated the modulating effect of age on WM in children and adults. 120 stimulant-treatment naive male ADHD children (10-12 years of age) and adults (23-40 years of age) with ADHD (according to DSM-IV; all subtypes) were included, along with 23 age and gender matched controls...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Brandi Lee Drisdelle, Pierre Jolicoeur
To improve our understanding of the mechanisms of target selection, we examined how the spatial separation of salient items and their similarity to a pre-defined target interact using lateralised electrophysiological correlates of visual spatial attention (N2pc component) and visual-short term memory (VSTM; SPCN component). Using these features of target selection, we sought to expand on previous work proposing a model of early and late selection, where the N2pc is suggested to reflect the selection probability of visual stimuli (Aubin and Jolicoeur, 2016)...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Yongli Guo, Qing Wu, Changsuo Li, Zhenhua Zhao, Bin Sun, Shiyi He, Guanghui Jiang, Yuanzheng Zhai, Fang Guo
  The paper proposes a risk-based early warning considering characteristics of fracture-karst aquifer in North China and applied it in a super-large fracture-karst water source. Groundwater vulnerability, types of land use, water abundance, transmissivity and spatial temporal variation of groundwater quality were chosen as indexes of the method. Weights of factors were obtained by using AHP method based on relative importance of factors, maps of factors were zoned by GIS, early warning map was conducted based on extension theory with the help of GIS, ENVI+IDL...
March 1, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Guido Gainotti, Luigi Trojano
Since the classic papers of Kleist, Mayer Gross, and Critchley, constructional apraxia (CA) has been considered to be a typical sign of a parietal lobe lesion, and as a precious tool to appreciate the spatial abilities subserved by this lobe. However, the development of more sophisticated neuropsychologic models and methods of investigation has revealed several problematic aspects. It has become increasingly clear that CA is a heterogeneous construct that can be examined with very different tasks, that are only mildly interconnected, and tap various kinds of visuospatial, perceptual, attentional, planning, and motor mechanisms...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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