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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748832/temporo-spatial-distribution-of-insecticide-resistance-in-indian-malaria-vectors-in-the-last-quarter-century-need-for-regular-resistance-monitoring-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Kamaraju Raghavendra, Poonam Sharma Velamuri, Vaishali Verma, Natarajan Elamathi, Tapan Kumar Barik, Rajendra Mohan Bhatt, Aditya Prasad Dash
The Indian vector control programme similar to other programmes in the world is still reliant on chemical insecticides. Anopheles culicifacies is the major vector out of six primary malaria vectors in India and alone contributes about 2/3 malaria cases annually; and per se its control is actually control of malaria in India. For effective management of vectors, current information on their susceptibility status to different insecticides is essential. In this review, an attempt was made to compile and present the available data on the susceptibility status of different malaria vector species in India from the last 2...
April 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748095/the-origin-of-mathematics-and-number-sense-in-the-cerebellum-with-implications-for-finger-counting-and-dyscalculia
#2
Larry Vandervert
BACKGROUND: Mathematicians and scientists have struggled to adequately describe the ultimate foundations of mathematics. Nobel laureates Albert Einstein and Eugene Wigner were perplexed by this issue, with Wigner concluding that the workability of mathematics in the real world is a mystery we cannot explain. In response to this classic enigma, the major purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical model of the ultimate origin of mathematics and "number sense" (as defined by S. Dehaene) that is proposed to involve the learning of inverse dynamics models through the collaboration of the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex (but prominently cerebellum-driven)...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745552/human-interaction-with-robotic-systems-performance-and-workload-evaluations
#3
L Reinerman-Jones, D J Barber, J L Szalma, P A Hancock
We first tested the effect of differing tactile informational forms (i.e. directional cues vs. static cues vs. dynamic cues) on objective performance and perceived workload in a collaborative human-robot task. A second experiment evaluated the influence of task load and informational message type (i.e. single words vs. grouped phrases) on that same collaborative task. In both experiments, the relationship of personal characteristics (attentional control and spatial ability) to performance and workload was also measured...
July 26, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745537/spatial-genetic-structure-and-body-size-divergence-in-endangered-gymnogobius-isaza-in-ancient-lake-biwa
#4
Takefumi Nakazawa, Shang-Yin Vanson Liu, Yoichiro Sakai, Kiwako S Araki, Cheng-Han Tsai, Noboru Okuda
Gymnogobius isaza is a freshwater goby endemic to ancient Lake Biwa, the largest lake in Japan. The species is now listed as 'Critically Endangered' in the Red Data Book of Japan. Nevertheless, it remains subject to fishing without any specific management strategies. Previous studies using mitochondrial DNA markers showed that this fish species has two cryptic lineages. However, little is known about spatial genetic structure and ecological differences across the broad lakescape. In this study, we collected fish samples at nine locations along the lakeshore during the breeding season and tested for the presence of spatial heterogeneity in the lineage's composition while measuring body size as the most fundamental biological trait...
July 26, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743958/the-influence-of-endogenous-and-exogenous-spatial-attention-on-decision-confidence
#5
Phillipp Kurtz, Katharine A Shapcott, Jochen Kaiser, Joscha T Schmiedt, Michael C Schmid
Spatial attention allows us to make more accurate decisions about events in our environment. Decision confidence is thought to be intimately linked to the decision making process as confidence ratings are tightly coupled to decision accuracy. While both spatial attention and decision confidence have been subjected to extensive research, surprisingly little is known about the interaction between these two processes. Since attention increases performance it might be expected that confidence would also increase...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743460/high-resolution-in-vivo-imaging-of-human-locus-coeruleus-by-magnetization-transfer-mri-at-3t-and-7t
#6
Nikos Priovoulos, Heidi I L Jacobs, Dimo Ivanov, Kamil Uludag, Frans R J Verhey, Benedikt A Poser
Locus Coeruleus (LC) is a neuromelanin-rich brainstem structure that is the source of noradrenaline in the cortex and is thought to modulate attention and memory. LC imaging in vivo is commonly performed with a 2D T1-weighted Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) MRI sequence, an approach that suffers from several drawbacks at 3T, including long acquisition times and highly anisotropic spatial resolution. In this study, we developed a high-resolution Magnetization Transfer (MT) sequence for LC imaging at both 7T and 3T and compared its performance to a TSE sequence...
July 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742118/similarities-and-differences-between-on-scalp-and-conventional-in-helmet-magnetoencephalography-recordings
#7
Lau M Andersen, Robert Oostenveld, Christoph Pfeiffer, Silvia Ruffieux, Veikko Jousmäki, Matti Hämäläinen, Justin F Schneiderman, Daniel Lundqvist
The development of new magnetic sensor technologies that promise sensitivities approaching that of conventional MEG technology while operating at far lower operating temperatures has catalysed the growing field of on-scalp MEG. The feasibility of on-scalp MEG has been demonstrated via benchmarking of new sensor technologies performing neuromagnetic recordings in close proximity to the head surface against state-of-the-art in-helmet MEG sensor technology. However, earlier work has provided little information about how these two approaches compare, or about the reliability of observed differences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741223/citrulline-metabolism-in-plants
#8
REVIEW
Vijay Joshi, Alisdair R Fernie
Citrulline was chemically isolated more than 100 years ago and is ubiquitous in animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi. Most of the research on plant citrulline metabolism and transport has been carried out in Arabidopsis thaliana and the Cucurbitaceae family, particularly in watermelon which accumulates this non-proteinogenic amino acid to very high levels. Industrially, citrulline is produced via specially optimized microbial strains; however, the amounts present in watermelon render it an economically viable source providing that other high-value compounds can be co-extracted...
July 25, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736303/the-good-and-the-bad-collagens-of-fibrosis-their-role-in-signaling-and-organ-function
#9
M A Karsdal, S H Nielsen, D J Leeming, L L Langholm, M J Nielsen, T Manon-Jensen, A Siebuhr, N S Gudmann, S Rønnow, J M Sand, S J Daniels, J H Mortensen, D Schuppan
Usually the dense extracellular structure in fibrotic tissues is described as extracellular matrix (ECM) or simply as collagen. However, fibrosis is not just fibrosis, which is already exemplified by the variant morphological characteristics of fibrosis due to viral versus cholestatic, autoimmune or toxic liver injury, with reticular, chicken wire and bridging fibrosis. Importantly, the overall composition of the ECM, especially the relative amounts of the many types of collagens, which represent the most abundant ECM molecules and which centrally modulate cellular functions and physiological processes, changes dramatically during fibrosis progression...
July 20, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734549/habitual-versus-goal-driven-attention
#10
REVIEW
Yuhong V Jiang
Recent research has expanded the list of factors that control spatial attention. Beside current goals and perceptual salience, statistical learning, reward, motivation and emotion also affect attention. But do these various factors influence spatial attention in the same manner, as suggested by the integrated framework of attention, or do they target different aspects of spatial attention? Here I present evidence that the control of attention may be implemented in two ways. Whereas current goals typically modulate where in space attention is prioritized, search habits affect how one moves attention in space...
July 4, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733049/the-time-course-of-attention-modulation-elicited-by-spatial-uncertainty
#11
Dan Huang, Huilou Liang, Linyan Xue, Meijian Wang, Qiyi Hu, Yao Chen
Uncertainty regarding the target location is an influential factor for spatial attention. Modulation in spatial uncertainty can lead to adjustments in attention scope and variations in attention effects. Hence, investigating spatial uncertainty modulation is important for understanding the underlying mechanism of spatial attention. However, the temporal dynamics of this modulation remains unclear. To evaluate the time course of spatial uncertainty modulation, we adopted a Posner-like attention orienting paradigm with central or peripheral cues...
July 18, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732260/differences-in-emotional-stimuli-processing-in-subjects-with-mtle-with-and-without-depression
#12
Lidija Preglej, Ksenija Marinković, Hrvoje Hećimović
In healthy people, a preference in attention maintenance and memory for words with emotional valence comparing to neutral words has been shown. The pattern of emotional stimuli processing may be different in people with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and it may be sensitive to the presence of depressive symptoms. In order to explore these possibilities, we applied the emotional spatial cueing attentional task and the free recall memory task to participants (N=39) with MTLE and compared them with healthy controls...
July 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731436/impaired-processing-of-serial-order-determines-working-memory-impairments-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Maya De Belder, Patrick Santens, Anne Sieben, Wim Fias
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) problems are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the affected mechanisms leading to impaired WM are still insufficiently understood. The ability to efficiently process serial order in WM has been demonstrated to be fundamental to fluent daily life functioning. The decreased capability to mentally process serial position in WM has been put forward as the underlying explanation for generally compromised WM performance. OBJECTIVE: Determine which mechanisms, such as order processing, are responsible for deficient WM functioning in AD...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729633/threats-to-large-brown-algal-forests-in-temperate-seas-the-overlooked-role-of-native-herbivorous-fish
#14
Fabrizio Gianni, Fabrizio Bartolini, Alexis Pey, Mathieu Laurent, Gustavo M Martins, Laura Airoldi, Luisa Mangialajo
Canopy-forming algae are declining globally due to multiple disturbances. This decline has recently been on the increase due to the spread of some tropical herbivorous fishes. This new phenomenon has drawn attention to the effects of fish herbivory in temperate areas, which have been assumed to be negligible compared to that of invertebrates, such as sea urchins. In this study, the impact of a Mediterranean native herbivorous fish (Sarpa salpa, salema) was assessed on the canopy-forming seaweed Cystoseira amentacea var...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725022/action-video-games-improve-reading-abilities-and-visual-to-auditory-attentional-shifting-in-english-speaking-children-with-dyslexia
#15
Sandro Franceschini, Piergiorgio Trevisan, Luca Ronconi, Sara Bertoni, Susan Colmar, Kit Double, Andrea Facoetti, Simone Gori
Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read and there is some evidence that action video games (AVG), without any direct phonological or orthographic stimulation, improve reading efficiency in Italian children with dyslexia. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying this improvement and the extent to which the benefits of AVG training would generalize to deep English orthography, remain two critical questions. During reading acquisition, children have to integrate written letters with speech sounds, rapidly shifting their attention from visual to auditory modality...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724985/increased-neural-noise-and-impaired-brain-synchronization-in-fibromyalgia-patients-during-cognitive-interference
#16
A J González-Villar, N Samartin-Veiga, M Arias, M T Carrillo-de-la-Peña
Fibromyalgia (FM) and other chronic pain syndromes are associated with cognitive dysfunction and attentional deficits, but the neural basis of such alterations is poorly understood. Dyscognition may be related to high levels of neural noise, understood as increased random electrical fluctuations that impair neural communication; however, this hypothesis has not yet been tested in any chronic pain condition. Here we compared electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in 18 FM patients -with high self-reported levels of cognitive dysfunction- and 22 controls during a cognitive control task...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722549/adaptive-reuse-in-the-healthcare-industry-repurposing-abandoned-buildings-to-serve-medical-missions
#17
James K Elrod, John L Fortenberry
BACKGROUND: Adaptive reuse-the practice of identifying, acquiring, renovating, and placing back into service a building or similar structure for a purpose different than that for which it was originally designed-offers great potential for addressing the spatial expansion needs of healthcare establishments in a unique and mutually beneficial manner. This repurposing approach, however, has received very little attention in the health sciences literature, diminishing the opportunities of those serving in hospitals, medical clinics, and related care providing institutions to acquire an understanding of the practice...
July 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718175/deployment-of-spatial-attention-to-a-structural-framework-exogenous-alerting-and-endogenous-goal-directed-factors
#18
Lisa N Jefferies, Vincent Di Lollo
The main question examined in the present work was whether spatial attention can be deployed to an appropriate structural framework not only endogenously when the framework is displayed continuously, as in previous work, but also exogenously, when it is displayed transiently 100 ms before the target. The results of five experiments answered that question in the negative. We found that the onset transient triggered by a brief presentation of the structural framework did enhance the response to the upcoming target...
July 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717820/differences-between-endogenous-attention-to-spatial-locations-and-sensory-modalities
#19
J Vibell, C Klinge, M Zampini, A C Nobre, C Spence
Vibell et al. (J Cogn Neurosci 19:109-120, 2007) reported that endogenously attending to a sensory modality (vision or touch) modulated perceptual processing, in part, by the relative speeding-up of neural activation (i.e., as a result of prior entry). However, it was unclear whether it was the fine temporal discrimination required by the temporal-order judgment task that was used, or rather, the type of attentional modulation (spatial locations or sensory modalities) that was responsible for the shift in latencies that they observed...
July 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715777/regular-cannabis-and-alcohol-use-is-associated-with-resting-state-time-course-power-spectra-in-incarcerated-adolescents
#20
Sandra Thijssen, Barnaly Rashid, Shruti Gopal, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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