keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

spatial attention

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330457/spatially-selective-responses-to-kanizsa-and-occlusion-stimuli-in-human-visual-cortex
#1
Benjamin de Haas, Dietrich Samuel Schwarzkopf
Early visual cortex responds to illusory contours in which abutting lines or collinear edges imply the presence of an occluding surface, as well as to occluded parts of an object. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and population receptive field (pRF) analysis to map retinotopic responses in early visual cortex using bar stimuli defined by illusory contours, occluded parts of a bar, or subtle luminance contrast. All conditions produced retinotopic responses in early visual field maps even though signal-to-noise ratios were very low...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329741/sex-differences-of-hippocampal-structure-in-bipolar-disorder
#2
Jing Shi, Hua Guo, Fengmei Fan, Hongzhen Fan, Huimei An, Zhiren Wang, Shuping Tan, Fude Yang, Yunlong Tan
Although differential patterns in clinical characteristics have been consistently noted between male and female patients with bipolar disorder (BD), the effect of sex on the hippocampal structure remains unclear. To address this, the present study investigated the effects of BD and sex on the hippocampal structure, and the relationship between the hippocampal structure and cognitive performance. Morphometric and neurocognitive analyses were performed in 91 subjects (patients with BD: male/female = 33/19; normal controls: male/female = 22/17)...
December 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328938/time-course-of-inhibition-of-return-in-a-spatial-cueing-paradigm-with-distractors
#3
Vivian Eng, Alfred Lim, Steve M J Janssen, Jason Satel
Studies of endogenous and exogenous attentional orienting in spatial cueing paradigms have been used to investigate inhibition of return, a behavioral phenomenon characterized by delayed reaction time in response to recently attended locations. When eye movements are suppressed, attention is covertly oriented to central or peripheral stimuli. Overt orienting, on the other hand, requires explicit eye movements to the stimuli. The present study examined the time course of slowed reaction times to previously attended locations when distractors are introduced into overt and covert orienting tasks...
January 9, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328147/optical-diffraction-tomography-with-fully-and-partially-coherent-illumination-in-high-numerical-aperture-label-free-microscopy-invited
#4
Juan M Soto, José A Rodrigo, Tatiana Alieva
Quantitative label-free imaging is an important tool for the study of living microorganisms that, during the last decade, has attracted wide attention from the optical community. Optical diffraction tomography (ODT) is probably the most relevant technique for quantitative label-free 3D imaging applied in wide-field microscopy in the visible range. The ODT is usually performed using spatially coherent light illumination and specially designed holographic microscopes. Nevertheless, the ODT is also compatible with partially coherent illumination and can be realized in conventional wide-field microscopes by applying refocusing techniques, as it has been recently demonstrated...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327394/photothermal-responsive-conjugated-polymer-nanoparticles-for-remote-control-of-gene-expression-in-living-cells
#5
Yunxia Wang, Shengliang Li, Pengbo Zhang, Haotian Bai, Liheng Feng, Fengting Lv, Libing Liu, Shu Wang
Remote control and noninvasive manipulation of cellular bioprocess has received intensive attention as a powerful technology to control cell functions. Here, a strategy is developed to remotely control intracellular gene expression with high spatial and temporal resolutions by using photothermal-responsive conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) as the transducer under near-infrared light irradiation. After being modified with positive charged peptide, the CPNs with superior photothermal conversion capacity could effectively coat on the surface of living cells and generate localized heat to trigger target gene expression...
January 12, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324745/proof-of-concept-study-of-an-at-home-engaging-digital-intervention-for-pediatric-adhd
#6
Naomi O Davis, Jeffrey Bower, Scott H Kollins
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological and behavioral therapies have limited impact on the distinct neurocognitive impairments associated with ADHD, and existing cognitive training programs have shown limited efficacy. This proof-of-concept study assessed treatment acceptability and explored outcomes for a novel digital treatment targeting cognitive processes implicated in ADHD. METHOD: Participants included 40 children with ADHD and 40 children without ADHD. Following psychiatric screening, ADHD ratings, and baseline neuropsychological measures, participants completed 28-days of at-home treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323167/neural-correlates-of-perceptual-separation-induced-enhancement-of-prepulse-inhibition-of-startle-in-humans
#7
Ming Lei, Changxin Zhang, Liang Li
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is the suppression of the startle reflex when the intense startling stimulus is shortly preceded by a weaker non-startling stimulus (prepulse). In rats, the auditory precedence-effect-induced perceived spatial separation between the fear-conditioned prepulse and a noise masker facilitates selective attention to the prepulse and enhances PPI. However, whether the perceptual separation between the prepulse and a noise masker can also enhance PPI in humans remains unclear. Also, the relationship between the PPI enhancement and the change in early cortical representations of prepulse signals is unclear...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321703/executive-functions-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-panic-disorder-patients-in-comparison-to-healty-controls
#8
Emel Kurt, Erol Yildirim, Volkan Topçuoğlu
Introduction: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have impaired cognitive functions, including attention, verbal and visual memory, and visual-spatial abilities as well as executive function But some studies did not show any disturbance in executive function of patients with OCD. To date, only few studies have been conducted on neuropsychological functioning of patients with panic disorder (PD). There are limited studies to reach a definite conclusion on executive functions of patients with OCD and those with PD...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321242/adhesion-growth-regulatory-galectins-tested-in-combination-evidence-for-formation-of-hybrids-as-heterodimers
#9
Michelle C Miller, Anna-Kristen Ludwig, Kanin Wichapong, Herbert Kaltner, Jürgen Kopitz, Hans-Joachim Gabius, Kevin H Mayo
The delineation of the physiological significance of protein (lectin)-glycan recognition and the structural analysis of individual lectins have directed our attention to studying them in combination. In this report, we tested the hypothesis of hybrid formation by using binary mixtures of homodimeric galectins-1 and -7 as well as a proteolytically truncated version of chimera-type galectin-3. Initial supportive evidence is provided by affinity chromatography using resin-presented galectin-7. Intriguingly, extent of cell binding by cross-linking of surface counter-receptor increased significantly for monomeric galectin-3 form by presence of galectin-1 or -7...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320520/not-seeing-the-grass-for-the-trees-timber-plantations-and-agriculture-shrink-tropical-montane-grassland-by-two-thirds-over-four-decades-in-the-palani-hills-a-western-ghats-sky-island
#10
M Arasumani, Danish Khan, Arundhati Das, Ian Lockwood, Robert Stewart, Ravi A Kiran, M Muthukumar, Milind Bunyan, V V Robin
Tropical montane habitats, grasslands, in particular, merit urgent conservation attention owing to the disproportionate levels of endemic biodiversity they harbour, the ecosystem services they provide, and the fact that they are among the most threatened habitats globally. The Shola Sky Islands in the Western Ghats host a matrix of native forest-grassland matrix that has been planted over the last century, with exotic timber plantations. The popular discourse on the landscape change is that mainly forests have been lost to the timber plantations and recent court directives are to restore Shola forest trees...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318828/-study-on-spatial-distribution-characteristics-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-resource-species-richness-based-on-national-census-of-chinese-medicine-resources-pilot
#11
Xiao-Bo Zhang, Hui Wang, Zhi-Xian Jing, Meng Li, Lan-Ping Guo, Lu-Qi Huang
Based on the data collected by the census team in the national census information management system, the spatial autocorrelation analysis method was used to analyze the similarity of the richness of Chinese herbal medicine resources in the investigated counties. The results showed that the species richness in the investigated counties appeared a tendency to focus on the distribution of the characteristics. Among them, the areas with sparse resources are concentrated in most areas of the north of the Yangtze River, northwest and most areas of Tibet...
November 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318251/environmental-fate-and-exposure-models-advances-and-challenges-in-21st-century-chemical-risk-assessment
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Di Guardo, Todd Gouin, Matthew MacLeod, Martin Scheringer
Environmental fate and exposure models are a powerful means to integrate information on chemicals, their partitioning and degradation behaviour, the environmental scenario and the emissions in order to compile a picture of chemical distribution and fluxes in the multimedia environment. A 1995 pioneering book, resulting from a series of workshops among model developers and users, reported the main advantages and identified needs for research in the field of multimedia fate models. Considerable efforts were devoted to their improvement in the past 25 years and many aspects were refined; notably the inclusion of nanomaterials among the modelled substances, the development of models at different spatial and temporal scales, the estimation of chemical properties and emission data, the incorporation of additional environmental media and processes, the integration of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis in the simulations...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317323/monocular-channels-have-a-functional-role-in-endogenous-orienting
#13
William Saban, Liora Sekely, Raymond M Klein, Shai Gabay
The literature has long emphasized the role of higher cortical structures in endogenous orienting. Based on evolutionary explanation and previous data, we explored the possibility that lower monocular channels may also have a functional role in endogenous orienting of attention. Sensitive behavioral manipulation was used to probe the contribution of monocularly segregated regions in a simple cue - target detection task. A central spatially informative cue, and its ensuing target, were presented to the same or different eyes at varying cue-target intervals...
January 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316294/the-effects-of-sun-compass-error-on-spatial-search-by-clark-s-nutcrackers
#14
Debbie M Kelly, Ken Cheng, Russell Balda, Alan C Kamil
Animals employ compasses during navigation, but little attention has been paid to how accuracy is maintained in the face of compass error, inevitable in biological systems. The use of multiple landmarks may minimize the effect of compass error. We allowed Clark's nutcrackers to cache seeds in an outdoor aviary with either one or four landmarks present, and subsequently subjected them to small clock-shifts mimicking the effects of compass error. As predicted, results showed a significant decrease in search accuracy following the clock-shift when one landmark was present but not when four landmarks were present...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316239/distribution-and-space-use-of-seed-dispersing-rodents-in-central-pyrenees-implications-for-genetic-diversity-conservation-and-plant-recruitment
#15
Jon Urgoiti, Alberto Muñoz, Josep Maria Espelta, Raúl Bonal
The function and conservation of many forest ecosystems depend on the distribution and diversity of the community of rodents that consume and disperse seeds. The habitat preferences and interactions are especially relevant in alpine systems where such granivorous rodents reach the southernmost limit of their distribution and are especially sensitive to global warming. We analysed the community of granivorous rodents in the Pyrenees, one of the southernmost mountain ranges of Europe. Rodent species were identified by DNA with particular attention to the Apodemus species, which are prominent seed-dispersing rodents in Europe...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316114/on-the-prevalence-and-dynamics-of-inverted-trophic-pyramids-and-otherwise-top-heavy-communities
#16
REVIEW
Douglas J McCauley, Gabriel Gellner, Neo D Martinez, Richard J Williams, Stuart A Sandin, Fiorenza Micheli, Peter J Mumby, Kevin S McCann
Classically, biomass partitioning across trophic levels was thought to add up to a pyramidal distribution. Numerous exceptions have, however, been noted including complete pyramidal inversions. Elevated levels of biomass top-heaviness (i.e. high consumer/resource biomass ratios) have been reported from Arctic tundra communities to Brazilian phytotelmata, and in species assemblages as diverse as those dominated by sharks and ants. We highlight two major pathways for creating top-heaviness, via: (1) endogenous channels that enhance energy transfer across trophic boundaries within a community and (2) exogenous pathways that transfer energy into communities from across spatial and temporal boundaries...
January 9, 2018: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314415/differentially-categorized-structural-brain-hubs-are-involved-in-different-microstructural-functional-and-cognitive-characteristics-and-contribute-to-individual-identification
#17
Xindi Wang, Qixiang Lin, Mingrui Xia, Yong He
Very little is known regarding whether structural hubs of human brain networks that enable efficient information communication may be classified into different categories. Using three multimodal neuroimaging data sets, we construct individual structural brain networks and further identify hub regions based on eight widely used graph-nodal metrics, followed by comprehensive characteristics and reproducibility analyses. We show the three categories of structural hubs in the brain network, namely, aggregated, distributed, and connector hubs...
January 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311603/attentional-gain-is-modulated-by-probabilistic-feature-expectations-in-a-spatial-cueing-task-erp-evidence
#18
Anna Marzecová, Antonio Schettino, Andreas Widmann, Iria SanMiguel, Sonja A Kotz, Erich Schröger
Several theoretical and empirical studies suggest that attention and perceptual expectations influence perception in an interactive manner, whereby attentional gain is enhanced for predicted stimuli. The current study assessed whether attention and perceptual expectations interface when they are fully orthogonal, i.e., each of them relates to different stimulus features. We used a spatial cueing task with block-wise spatial attention cues that directed attention to either left or right visual field, in which Gabor gratings of either predicted (more likely) or unpredicted (less likely) orientation were presented...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311140/visual-short-term-memory-activity-in-parietal-lobe-reflects-cognitive-processes-beyond-attentional-selection
#19
Summer L Sheremata, David C Somers, Sarah Shomstein
Visual attention and short-term memory (VSTM) are distinct yet inter-related processes. While both require selection of information across the visual field, memory additionally requires maintenance of information across time and distraction. VSTM recruits areas within human (male and female) dorsal and ventral parietal cortex that are also implicated in spatial selection, therefore, it is important to determine if overlapping activation might reflect shared attentional demands. Here, identical stimuli and controlled sustained attention across both tasks were used to ask whether fMRI signal amplitude, functional connectivity, and contralateral visual field bias reflect memory-specific task demands...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302132/improving-the-use-of-crop-models-for-risk-assessment-and-climate-change-adaptation
#20
Andrew J Challinor, Christoph Müller, Senthold Asseng, Chetan Deva, Kathryn Jane Nicklin, Daniel Wallach, Eline Vanuytrecht, Stephen Whitfield, Julian Ramirez-Villegas, Ann-Kristin Koehler
Crop models are used for an increasingly broad range of applications, with a commensurate proliferation of methods. Careful framing of research questions and development of targeted and appropriate methods are therefore increasingly important. In conjunction with the other authors in this special issue, we have developed a set of criteria for use of crop models in assessments of impacts, adaptation and risk. Our analysis drew on the other papers in this special issue, and on our experience in the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment 2017 and the MACSUR, AgMIP and ISIMIP projects...
January 2018: Agricultural Systems
keyword
keyword
103168
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"