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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328932/comparing-internal-migration-across-the-countries-of-latin-america-a-multidimensional-approach
#1
Aude Bernard, Francisco Rowe, Martin Bell, Philipp Ueffing, Elin Charles-Edwards
While considerable progress has been made in understanding the way particular aspects of internal migration, such as its intensity, age profile and spatial impact, vary between countries around the world, little attention to date has been given to establishing how these dimensions of migration interact in different national settings. We use recently developed measures of internal migration that are scale-independent to compare the overall intensity, age composition, spatial impact, and distance profile of internal migration in 19 Latin American countries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328541/molecular-engineering-of-two-photon-fluorescent-probes-for-bioimaging-applications
#2
Hong-Wen Liu, Yongchao Liu, Peng Wang, Xiao-Bing Zhang
During the past two decades, two-photon microscopy (TPM), which utilizes two near-infrared photons as the excitation source, has emerged as a novel, attractive imaging tool for biological research. Compared with one-photon microscopy, TPM offers several advantages, such as lowering background fluorescence in living cells and tissues, reducing photodamage to biosamples, and a photobleaching phenomenon, offering better 3D spatial localization, and increasing penetration depth. Small-molecule-based two-photon fluorescent probes have been well developed for the detection and imaging of various analytes in biological systems...
March 22, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326966/cognitive-load-during-route-selection-increases-reliance-on-spatial-heuristics
#3
Tad T Brunyé, Shaina B Martis, Holly A Taylor
Planning routes from maps involves perceiving the symbolic environment, identifying alternate routes, and applying explicit strategies and implicit heuristics to select an option. Two implicit heuristics have received considerable attention, the southern route preference and initial segment strategy. The current study tested a prediction from decision making theory, that increasing cognitive load during route planning will increase reliance on these heuristics. In two experiments, participants planned routes while under conditions of minimal (0-back) or high (2-back) working memory load...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326925/interaction-of-acupuncture-treatment-and-manipulation-laterality-modulated-by-the-default-mode-network
#4
Xuan Niu, Ming Zhang, Zhenyu Liu, Lijun Bai, Chuanzhu Sun, Shan Wang, Xiaocui Wang, Zhen Chen, Hongyan Chen, Jie Tian
Appropriate selection of ipsilateral or contralateral electroacupuncture (corresponding to the pain site) plays an important role in reaching its better curative effect; however, the involving brain mechanism still remains unclear. Compared with the heat pain model generally established in previous study, capsaicin pain model induces reversible cutaneous allodynia and is proved to be better simulating aspects of clinical nociceptive and neuropathic pain. In the current study, 24 subjects were randomly divided into two groups with a 2 × 2 factorial design: laterality (ipsi- or contralateral side, inter-subject) × treatment with counter-balanced at an interval of one week (verum and placebo electroacupuncture, within-subject)...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325890/environmental-filtering-triggers-community-assembly-of-forest-understorey-plants-in-central-european-pine-stands
#5
Werner Ulrich, Piotr Sewerniak, Radosław Puchałka, Marcin Piwczyński
Habitat filtering models predict ecologically similar plant species to jointly colonize sites due to comparable environmental characteristics leading to an aggregated pattern of species spatial occurrence. Models focused on interspecific competition expect species with similar ecological requirements to be spatially segregated. While both models are corroborated by field work, few empirical studies have tried to infer under which habitat conditions these patterns of co-occurrence prevail. Here we use an exceptional data set on central European pine forest understorey plant communities to assess the change in community structure along gradients of soil productivity and heterogeneity...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325664/-inequities-in-health-socio-demographic-and-spatial-analysis-of-breast-cancer-in-women-from-c%C3%A3-rdoba-argentina
#6
Natalia Tumas, Sonia Alejandra Pou, Maria Del Pilar Diaz
OBJECTIVE: To identify sociodemographic determinants associated with the spatial distribution of the breast cancer incidence in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, in order to reveal underlying social inequities. METHOD: An ecological study was developed in Córdoba (26 counties as geographical units of analysis). The spatial autocorrelation of the crude and standardised incidence rates of breast cancer, and the sociodemographic indicators of urbanization, fertility and population ageing were estimated using Moran's index...
March 18, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325028/tracking-intrinsic-connectivity-brain-network-features-during-successive-pseudo-resting-states-and-interoceptive-task-fmri
#7
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Advanced multivariate analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contras have revealed that the human brain organizes its activities into multiple intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs). Several fMRI studies have evaluated the modulations of these networks during different cognitive or emotional tasks using blind source separation techniques particularly the independent component analysis (ICA). In this exploratory study, we applied ICA methodology to examine ICN modulations under different interoceptive conditions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325027/identifying-the-effects-of-visceral-interoception-on-human-brain-connectome-a-multivariate-analysis-of-covariance-of-fmri-data
#8
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Sources of variations in the neural circuitry of the human brain and interrelationship between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are still a matter of debate and ongoing research. Here, we applied a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) based on high-dimensional independent component analysis (ICA) to identify the effects of interoception and related variables on human brain connectome. Fifteen healthy right-handed subjects (all females, age range 21 - 48 years; mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.7 years) underwent a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that included continuous intravesical saline infusion and drainage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323684/shifting-spatial-neglect-with-repeated-line-bisections-possible-role-of-lateralized-attentional-fatigue
#9
Mary Woods, John B Williamson, Keith D White, Charles G Maitland, Kenneth M Heilman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Many patients who have signs of neglect immediately after a right hemisphere stroke remain disabled even when they improve on tests of neglect. Few patients are tested for attentional persistence and fatigue despite their importance in many instrumental activities. To investigate whether stimulus repetition might alter the allocation of attention, we repeatedly tested a patient 16 weeks after she developed hemispatial neglect from a right hemisphere stroke. METHODS: During each of three testing sessions given in 1 day, we asked the patient to bisect 90 lines of two lengths, presented in 30-trial blocks in three locations: left, center, and right of her midsagittal plane, partially counterbalanced across sessions...
March 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322985/visual-object-separation-resolves-competitive-interactions-in-somatosensory-cortex-evoked-signals-during-concurrent-vibrotactile-stimulation-of-the-left-and-right-hand
#10
Cheuk Yee Pang, Matthias M Müller
We investigated the effect of visual separation of the left and right hemispaces within peripersonal space to sustained tactile spatial attention processing and show that visually perceived object separation weakens the competitive interaction for concurrent vibrotactile stimulation to two hands. Participants received concurrent vibrotactile stimulation at different frequencies on two hands (right: 20Hz; left: 24Hz) for 4500ms to elicit steady-state somatosensory evoked potentials (SSSEPs). They attended to one of the stimulated hands and reacted to rare transient events embedded in the attended ongoing stream...
March 17, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321798/numerosity-estimates-for-attended-and-unattended-items-in-visual-search
#11
Troy D Kelley, Daniel N Cassenti, Laura R Marusich, Thomas G Ghirardelli
The goal of this research was to examine memories created for the number of items during a visual search task. Participants performed a visual search task for a target defined by a single feature (Experiment 1A), by a conjunction of features (Experiment 1B), or by a specific spatial configuration of features (Experiment 1C). On some trials following the search task, subjects were asked to recall the total number of items in the previous display. In all search types, participants underestimated the total number of items, but the severity of the underestimation varied depending on the efficiency of the search...
March 20, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321187/steps-to-health-in-cognitive-aging-effects-of-physical-activity-on-spatial-attention-and-executive-control-in-the-elderly
#12
Giancarlo Condello, Roberta Forte, Simone Falbo, John B Shea, Angela Di Baldassarre, Laura Capranica, Caterina Pesce
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (PA) habits may positively impact performance of the orienting and executive control networks in community-dwelling aging individuals and diabetics, who are at risk of cognitive dysfunction. To this aim, we tested cross-sectionally whether age, ranging from late middle-age to old adulthood, and PA level independently or interactively predict different facets of the attentional performance. Hundred and thirty female and male individuals and 22 adults with type 2 diabetes aged 55-84 years were recruited and their daily PA (steps) was objectively measured by means of armband monitors...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319191/overt-orienting-of-spatial-attention-and-corticospinal-excitability-during-action-observation-are-unrelated
#13
Sonia Betti, Umberto Castiello, Silvia Guerra, Luisa Sartori
Observing moving body parts can automatically activate topographically corresponding motor representations in the primary motor cortex (M1), the so-called direct matching. Novel neurophysiological findings from social contexts are nonetheless proving that this process is not automatic as previously thought. The motor system can flexibly shift from imitative to incongruent motor preparation, when requested by a social gesture. In the present study we aim to bring an increase in the literature by assessing whether and how diverting overt spatial attention might affect motor preparation in contexts requiring interactive responses from the onlooker...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317834/raman-sensitive-degradation-and-etching-dynamics-of-exfoliated-black-phosphorus
#14
Fadhel Alsaffar, Sarah Alodan, Abdul Alrasheed, Abdulrahman Alhussain, Noura Alrubaiq, Ahmad Abbas, Moh R Amer
Layered black phosphorus has drawn much attention due to the existence of a band gap compared to the widely known graphene. However, environmental stability of black phosphorus is still a major issue, which hinders the realization of practical device applications. Here, we spatially Raman map exfoliated black phosphorus using confocal fast-scanning technique at different time intervals. We observe a Raman intensity modulation for , B2g, and modes. This Raman modulation is found to be caused by optical interference, which gives insights into the oxidation mechanism...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316645/neighborhood-sociodemographics-and-change-in-built-infrastructure
#15
Jana A Hirsch, Geoffrey F Green, Marc Peterson, Daniel A Rodriguez, Penny Gordon-Larsen
While increasing evidence suggests an association between physical infrastructure in neighbourhoods and health outcomes, relatively little research examines how neighbourhoods change physically over time and how these physical improvements are spatially distributed across populations. This paper describes the change over 25 years (1985-2010) in bicycle lanes, off-road trails, bus transit service, and parks, and spatial clusters of changes in these domains relative to neighbourhood sociodemographics in four U...
2017: Journal of Urbanism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314817/fef-controlled-alpha-delay-activity-precedes-stimulus-induced-gamma-band-activity-in-visual-cortex
#16
Tzvetan Popov, Sabine Kastner, Ole Jensen
Recent findings in the visual system of non-human primates have demonstrated an important role of gamma band activity (40 - 100 Hz) in the feed-forward flow of sensory information, whereas feedback control appears to be dynamically established by oscillations in the alpha (8 - 13 Hz) and beta bands (13 - 18 Hz) (van Kerkoerle et al., 2014; Bastos et al., 2015). It is not clear, however, how alpha oscillations are controlled and how they interact with the flow of visual information mediated by gamma band activity...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314189/single-vehicle-crashes-along-rural-mountainous-highways-in-malaysia-an-application-of-random-parameters-negative-binomial-model
#17
Rusdi Rusli, Md Mazharul Haque, Mark King, Wong Shaw Voon
Mountainous highways generally associate with complex driving environment because of constrained road geometries, limited cross-section elements, inappropriate roadside features, and adverse weather conditions. As a result, single-vehicle (SV) crashes are overrepresented along mountainous roads, particularly in developing countries, but little attention is known about the roadway geometric, traffic and weather factors contributing to these SV crashes. As such, the main objective of the present study is to investigate SV crashes using detailed data obtained from a rigorous site survey and existing databases...
March 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303749/-spontaneous-visual-perspective-taking-mediated-by-attention-orienting-that-is-voluntary-and-not-reflexive
#18
Mark R Gardner, Zainabb Hull, Donna Taylor, Caroline J Edmonds
Experiments revealing 'spontaneous' visual perspective-taking are conventionally interpreted as demonstrating that adults have the capacity to track simple mental states in a fast and efficient manner ('implicit mentalising'). A rival account suggests that these experiments can be explained by the general purpose mechanisms responsible for reflexive attentional orienting. Here, we report two experiments designed to distinguish between these competing accounts. In Experiment 1, we assessed whether reflexive attention orienting was sufficient to yield findings interpreted as spontaneous perspective taking in the 'avatar task' (Samson et al...
March 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303479/testing-the-generality-of-the-zoom-lens-model-evidence-for-visual-pathway-specific-effects-of-attended-region-size-on-perception
#19
Stephanie C Goodhew, Rebecca K Lawrence, Mark Edwards
There are volumes of information available to process in visual scenes. Visual spatial attention is a critically important selection mechanism that prevents these volumes from overwhelming our visual system's limited-capacity processing resources. We were interested in understanding the effect of the size of the attended area on visual perception. The prevailing model of attended-region size across cognition, perception, and neuroscience is the zoom-lens model. This model stipulates that the magnitude of perceptual processing enhancement is inversely related to the size of the attended region, such that a narrow attended-region facilitates greater perceptual enhancement than a wider region...
March 16, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297598/centimeter-scale-cvd-growth-of-highly-crystalline-single-layer-mos2-film-with-spatial-homogeneity-and-the-visualization-of-grain-boundaries
#20
Li Tao, Kun Chen, Zefeng Chen, Wenjun Chen, Xuchun Gui, Huanjun Chen, Xinming Li, Jian-Bin Xu
MoS2 monolayer attracts considerable attention due to its semiconducting nature with a direct bandgap which can be tuned by various approaches. Yet a controllable and low-cost method to produce large-scale, high-quality, and uniform MoS2 monolayer continuous film, which is of crucial importance for practical applications and optical measurements, remains a great challenge. Most previously reported MoS2 monolayer films had limited crystalline sizes, and the high density of grain boundaries inside the films greatly affected the electrical properties...
March 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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