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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100734/does-the-superior-colliculus-control-perceptual-sensitivity-or-choice-bias-during-attention-evidence-from-a-multialternative-decision-framework
#1
Devarajan Sridharan, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Tirin Moore, Eric I Knudsen
: Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)-the central structure in the midbrain network-in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097070/sponge-exhalent-seawater-contains-a-unique-chemical-profile-of-dissolved-organic-matter
#2
Cara L Fiore, Christopher J Freeman, Elizabeth B Kujawinski
Sponges are efficient filter feeders, removing significant portions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM) from the water column. While the assimilation and respiration of POM and DOM by sponges and their abundant microbial symbiont communities have received much attention, there is virtually no information on the impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on the composition of DOM at a molecular-level. We applied untargeted and targeted metabolomics techniques to characterize DOM in seawater samples prior to entering the sponge (inhalant reef water), in samples exiting the sponge (exhalent seawater), and in samples collected just outside the reef area (off reef seawater)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095997/abnormal-prefrontal-and-parietal-activity-linked-to-deficient-active-binding-in-working-memory-in-schizophrenia
#3
Stéphanie Grot, Virginie Petel Légaré, Olivier Lipp, Isabelle Soulières, Florin Dolcos, David Luck
Working memory deficits have been widely reported in schizophrenia, and may result from inefficient binding processes. These processes, and their neural correlates, remain understudied in schizophrenia. Thus, we designed an FMRI study aimed at investigating the neural correlates of both passive and active binding in working memory in schizophrenia. Nineteen patients with schizophrenia and 23 matched controls were recruited to perform a working memory binding task, in which they were instructed to memorize three letters and three spatial locations...
January 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093364/fabrication-of-nanofibrous-electrospun-scaffolds-from-a-heterogeneous-library-of-co-and-self-assembling-peptides
#4
Mahboubeh Maleki, Antonino Natalello, Raffaele Pugliese, Fabrizio Gelain
: Self-assembling (SAPs) and co-assembling peptides (CAPs) are driving increasing enthusiasm as synthetic but biologically inspired biomaterials amenable of easy functionalization for regenerative medicine. On the other hand, electrospinning (ES) is a versatile technique useful for tailoring the nanostructures of various biomaterials into scaffolds resembling the extracellular matrices found in organs and tissues. The synergistic merging of these two approaches is a long-awaited advance in nanomedicine that has not been deeply documented so far...
January 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092022/relevance-of-neuroimaging-for-neurocognitive-and-behavioral-outcome-after-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Marsh Königs, Petra Jw Pouwels, L W Ernest van Heurn, Roel Bakx, R Jeroen Vermeulen, J Carel Goslings, Bwee Tien Poll-The, Marleen van der Wees, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Jaap Oosterlaan
This study aims to (1) investigate the neuropathology of mild to severe pediatric TBI and (2) elucidate the predictive value of conventional and innovative neuroimaging for functional outcome. Children aged 8-14 years with trauma control (TC) injury (n = 27) were compared to children with mild TBI and risk factors for complicated TBI (mild(RF+), n = 20) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 17) at 2.8 years post-injury. Neuroimaging measures included: acute computed tomography (CT), volumetric analysis on post-acute conventional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and post-acute diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics and voxel-wise regression)...
January 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088242/differences-in-spatial-distributions-of-iron-supplementation-use-among-pregnant-women-and-associated-factors-in-ethiopia-evidence-from-the-2011-national-population-based-survey
#6
Demewoz Haile, Lianna Tabar, Yihunie Lakew
BACKGROUND: Iron supplementation during pregnancy prevents against low birth weight, incidence of prematurity and postpartum hemorrhage. However, the coverage of iron supplementation is still low in Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate the spatial variations and associated factors of iron supplementation during pregnancy using the 2011 national demographic and health survey data. METHODS: This study used secondary data from the 2011 Ethiopian demographic and health survey...
January 14, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086897/application-of-the-analytic-hierarchy-approach-to-the-risk-assessment-of-zika-virus-disease-transmission-in-guangdong-province-china
#7
Xing Li, Tao Liu, Lifeng Lin, Tie Song, Xiaolong Du, Hualiang Lin, Jianpeng Xiao, Jianfeng He, Liping Liu, Guanghu Zhu, Weilin Zeng, Lingchuan Guo, Zheng Cao, Wenjun Ma, Yonghui Zhang
BACKGROUND: An international spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has attracted global attention in 2015. The infection also affected Guangdong province, which is located in southern China. Multiple factors, including frequent communication with South America and Southeast Asia, suitable climate (sub-tropical) for the habitat of Aedes species, may increase the risk of ZIKV disease transmission in this region. METHODS: An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to develop a semi-quantitative ZIKV risk assessment model...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081452/differential-white-matter-involvement-associated-with-distinct-visuospatial-deficits-after-right-hemisphere-stroke
#8
Alex R Carter, Mark P McAvoy, Joshua S Siegel, Xin Hong, Serguei V Astafiev, Jennifer Rengachary, Kristi Zinn, Nicholas V Metcalf, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
Visuospatial attention depends on the integration of multiple processes, and people with right hemisphere lesions after a stroke may exhibit severe or no visuospatial deficits. The anatomy of core components of visuospatial attention is an area of intense interest. Here we examine the relationship between the disruption of core components of attention and lesion distribution in a heterogeneous group (N = 70) of patients with right hemisphere strokes regardless of the presence of clinical neglect. Deficits of lateralized spatial orienting, measured as the difference in reaction times for responding to visual targets in the contralesional or ipsilesional visual field, and deficits in re-orienting attention, as measured by the difference in reaction times for invalidly versus validly cued targets, were measured using a computerized spatial orienting task...
December 20, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079611/it-is-just-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder%C3%A2-or-is-it
#9
Dana C Won, Christian Guilleminault, Peter J Koltai, Stacey D Quo, Martin T Stein, Irene M Loe
Carly is a 5-year-old girl who presents for an interdisciplinary evaluation due to behaviors at school and home suggestive of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent report of preschool teacher concerns was consistent with ADHD. Psychological testing showed verbal, visual-spatial, and fluid reasoning IQ scores in the average range; processing speed and working memory were below average. Carly's behavior improved when her mother left the room, and she was attentive during testing with a psychologist...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078966/visual-and-cross-modal-cues-increase-the-identification-of-overlapping-visual-stimuli-in-balint-s-syndrome
#10
Daniela D'Imperio, Michele Scandola, Valeria Gobbetto, Cristina Bulgarelli, Matteo Salgarello, Renato Avesani, Valentina Moro
INTRODUCTION: Cross-modal interactions improve the processing of external stimuli, particularly when an isolated sensory modality is impaired. When information from different modalities is integrated, object recognition is facilitated probably as a result of bottom-up and top-down processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of cross-modal stimulation in a case of simultanagnosia. METHOD: We report a detailed analysis of clinical symptoms and an (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) brain positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) study of a patient affected by Balint's syndrome, a rare and invasive visual-spatial disorder following bilateral parieto-occipital lesions...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077669/preparatory-alpha-band-oscillations-reflect-spatial-gating-independently-of-predictions-regarding-target-identity
#11
Theresa Wildegger, Freek van Ede, Mark W Woolrich, Celine R Gillebert, Anna Christina Nobre
Preparatory modulations of cortical alpha-band oscillations are a reliable index of the voluntary allocation of covert spatial attention. It is currently unclear whether attentional cues containing information about a target's identity (such as its visual orientation), in addition to its location, might additionally shape preparatory alpha modulations. Here, we explore this question by directly comparing spatial and feature-based attention in the same visual detection task while recording brain activity using magneto-encephalography (MEG)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075551/cucurbit-n-uril-based-microcapsules-self-assembled-within-microfluidic-droplets-a-versatile-approach-for-supramolecular-architectures-and-materials
#12
Ji Liu, Yang Lan, Ziyi Yu, Cindy S Y Tan, Richard M Parker, Chris Abell, Oren A Scherman
Microencapsulation is a fundamental concept behind a wide range of daily applications ranging from paints, adhesives, and pesticides to targeted drug delivery, transport of vaccines, and self-healing concretes. The beauty of microfluidics to generate microcapsules arises from the capability of fabricating monodisperse and micrometer-scale droplets, which can lead to microcapsules/particles with fine-tuned control over size, shape, and hierarchical structure, as well as high reproducibility, efficient material usage, and high-throughput manipulation...
January 11, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074268/cognitive-deficits-in-patients-with-a-chronic-vestibular-failure
#13
Pauline Popp, Melanie Wulff, Kathrin Finke, Maxine Rühl, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Behavioral studies in rodents and humans have demonstrated deficits of spatial memory and orientation in bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). Our aim was to explore the functional consequences of chronic vestibular failure on different cognitive domains including spatial as well as non-spatial cognitive abilities. Sixteen patients with a unilateral vestibular failure (UVF), 18 patients with a BVF, and 17 healthy controls (HC) participated in the study. To assess the cognitive domains of short-term memory, executive function, processing speed and visuospatial abilities the following tests were used: Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), TAP Alertness and Visual Scanning, the Stroop Color-Word, and the Corsi Block Tapping Test...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073076/spastic-diplegia-in-preterm-born-children-executive-function-impairment-and-neuroanatomical-correlates
#14
Maria Chiara Di Lieto, Paola Brovedani, Chiara Pecini, Anna Maria Chilosi, Vittorio Belmonti, Franco Fabbro, Cosimo Urgesi, Simona Fiori, Andrea Guzzetta, Silvia Perazza, Elisa Sicola, Giovanni Cioni
BACKGROUND: The neuropsychological literature on preterm-born children with spastic diplegia due to periventricular leukomalacia is convergent in reporting deficits in non-verbal intelligence and in visuo-spatial abilities. Nevertheless, other cognitive functions have found to be impaired, but data are scant and not correlated with neuroimaging findings. AIMS: This study analyzes the neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses in preterm-born children with spastic diplegia (pSD) and their relationships with neuroanatomical findings, investigated by a novel scale for MRI classification...
January 7, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070274/cunningham-s-skinks-show-low-genetic-connectivity-and-signatures-of-divergent-selection-across-its-distribution
#15
Benjamin Y Ofori, Linda J Beaumont, Adam J Stow
Establishing corridors of connecting habitat has become a mainstay conservation strategy to maintain gene flow and facilitate climate-driven range shifts. Yet, little attention has been given to ascertaining the extent to which corridors will benefit philopatric species, which might exhibit localized adaptation. Measures of genetic connectivity and adaptive genetic variation across species' ranges can help fill this knowledge gap. Here, we characterized the spatial genetic structure of Cunningham's skink (Egernia cunninghami), a philopatric species distributed along Australia's Great Dividing Range, and assessed evidence of localized adaptation...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070001/neuroimaging-biomarkers-predict-brain-structural-connectivity-change-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#16
Philipp Boehm-Sturm, Martina Füchtemeier, Marco Foddis, Susanne Mueller, Rebecca C Trueman, Marietta Zille, Jan Leo Rinnenthal, Theodore Kypraios, Laurence Shaw, Ulrich Dirnagl, Tracy D Farr
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic hypoperfusion in the mouse brain has been suggested to mimic aspects of vascular cognitive impairment, such as white matter damage. Although this model has attracted attention, our group has struggled to generate a reliable cognitive and pathological phenotype. This study aimed to identify neuroimaging biomarkers of brain pathology in aged, more severely hypoperfused mice. METHODS: We used magnetic resonance imaging to characterize brain degeneration in mice hypoperfused by refining the surgical procedure to use the smallest reported diameter microcoils (160 μm)...
January 9, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067115/macro-porous-hydrogel-scaffolds-for-3-d-cell-culture-and-tissue-engineering
#17
Changjiang Fan, Dong-An Wang
Hydrogels have been promising candidate scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering due to their tissue-like physical properties and capability for homogeneous cell loading. However, the encapsulated cells are generally entrapped and constrained in the submicron- or nano-sized gel networks, seriously limiting cell growth and tissue formation. Meanwhile, the spatially-confined settlement inhibits attachment and spreading of anchorage dependent cells, leading to their apoptosis. In recent years, macro-porous hydrogels have attracted increasing attention in use as cell delivery vehicles and tissue engineering scaffolds...
January 8, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065714/transient-inactivation-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-rats-disrupts-avoidance-of-a-dynamic-object
#18
Jan Svoboda, Veronika Lobellová, Anna Popelíková, Nikhil Ahuja, Eduard Kelemen, Aleš Stuchlík
Although animals often learn and monitor the spatial properties of relevant moving objects such as conspecifics and predators to properly organize their own spatial behavior, the underlying brain substrate has received little attention and hence remains elusive. Because the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) participates in conflict monitoring and effort-based decision making, and ACC neurons respond to objects in the environment, it may also play a role in the monitoring of moving cues and exerting the appropriate spatial response...
January 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065605/early-commissural-diencephalic-neurons-control-habenular-axon-extension-and-targeting
#19
Carlo A Beretta, Nicolas Dross, Luca Guglielmi, Peter Bankhead, Marina Soulika, Jose A Gutierrez-Triana, Alessio Paolini, Lucia Poggi, Julien Falk, Soojin Ryu, Marika Kapsimali, Ulrike Engel, Matthias Carl
Most neuronal populations form on both the left and right sides of the brain. Their efferent axons appear to grow synchronously along similar pathways on each side, although the neurons or their environment often differ between the two hemispheres [1-4]. How this coordination is controlled has received little attention. Frequently, neurons establish interhemispheric connections, which can function to integrate information between brain hemispheres (e.g., [5]). Such commissures form very early, suggesting their potential developmental role in coordinating ipsilateral axon navigation during embryonic development [4]...
December 29, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064375/a-quantum-chemistry-evaluation-of-the-stereochemical-activity-of-the-lone-pair-in-pb-ii-complexes-with-sequestering-ligands
#20
Aurélien Moncomble, Jean-Paul Cornard, Michel Meyer
The stereochemical activity of the lone pair on Pb(II) complexes is assessed using several theoretical methods, including structural analyses, computations of Fukui functions, natural bond orbitals, electron localization function, investigation of the electron density and of its laplacian. The attention is focused on four octadentate N-carbamoylmethyl-substituted tetraazamacrocycles of various ring sizes ranging from 8 to 14 atoms associated with the Pb(II) cation. The theoretical study illustrates the geometrical constraints imposed by the ring structure which limits the spatial development of the lone pair but without fully preventing it...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
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