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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213830/recognition-memory-for-low-and-high-frequency-filtered-emotional-faces-low-spatial-frequencies-drive-emotional-memory-enhancement-whereas-high-spatial-frequencies-drive-the-emotion-induced-recognition-bias
#1
Michaela Rohr, Johannes Tröger, Nils Michely, Alarith Uhde, Dirk Wentura
This article deals with two well-documented phenomena regarding emotional stimuli: emotional memory enhancement-that is, better long-term memory for emotional than for neutral stimuli-and the emotion-induced recognition bias-that is, a more liberal response criterion for emotional than for neutral stimuli. Studies on visual emotion perception and attention suggest that emotion-related processes can be modulated by means of spatial-frequency filtering of the presented emotional stimuli. Specifically, low spatial frequencies are assumed to play a primary role for the influence of emotion on attention and judgment...
February 17, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213649/the-role-of-executive-attention-in-object-substitution-masking
#2
Hannah L Filmer, Roxanne Wells-Peris, Paul E Dux
It was long thought that a key characteristic of object substitution masking (OSM) was the requirement for spatial attention to be dispersed for the mask to impact visual sensitivity. However, recent studies have provided evidence questioning whether spatial attention interacts with OSM magnitude, suggesting that the previous reports reflect the impact of performance being at ceiling for the low attention load conditions. Another technique that has been employed to modulate attention in OSM paradigms involves presenting the target stimulus foveally, but with another demanding task shown immediately prior, and thus taxing executive/temporal attention...
February 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213117/involuntary-orienting-of-attention-to-a-sound-desynchronizes-the-occipital-alpha-rhythm-and-improves-visual-perception
#3
Wenfeng Feng, Viola S Störmer, Antigona Martinez, John J McDonald, Steven A Hillyard
Directing attention voluntarily to the location of a visual target results in an amplitude reduction (desynchronization) of the occipital alpha rhythm (8-14 Hz), which is predictive of improved perceptual processing of the target. Here we investigated whether modulations of the occipital alpha rhythm triggered by the involuntary orienting of attention to a salient but spatially non-predictive sound would similarly influence perception of a subsequent visual target. Target discrimination was more accurate when a sound preceded the target at the same location (validly cued trials) than when the sound was on the side opposite to the target (invalidly cued trials)...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212416/the-variability-of-multisensory-processes-of-natural-stimuli-in-human-and-non-human-primates-in-a-detection-task
#4
Cécile Juan, Céline Cappe, Baptiste Alric, Benoit Roby, Sophie Gilardeau, Pascal Barone, Pascal Girard
BACKGROUND: Behavioral studies in both human and animals generally converge to the dogma that multisensory integration improves reaction times (RTs) in comparison to unimodal stimulation. These multisensory effects depend on diverse conditions among which the most studied were the spatial and temporal congruences. Further, most of the studies are using relatively simple stimuli while in everyday life, we are confronted to a large variety of complex stimulations constantly changing our attentional focus over time, a modality switch that can impact on stimuli detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208745/astrocytic-pathological-calcium-homeostasis-and-impaired-vesicle-trafficking-in-neurodegeneration
#5
REVIEW
Nina Vardjan, Alexej Verkhratsky, Robert Zorec
Although the central nervous system (CNS) consists of highly heterogeneous populations of neurones and glial cells, clustered into diverse anatomical regions with specific functions, there are some conditions, including alertness, awareness and attention that require simultaneous, coordinated and spatially homogeneous activity within a large area of the brain. During such events, the brain, representing only about two percent of body mass, but consuming one fifth of body glucose at rest, needs additional energy to be produced...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197120/is-inhibition-of-return-modulated-by-involuntary-orienting-of-spatial-attention-an-erp-study
#6
Fada Pan, Xiaogang Wu, Li Zhang
Inhibition of return (IOR) is a mechanism that indicates individuals' faster responses or higher accuracy to targets appearing in the novel location relative to the cued location. According to the "reorienting hypothesis," disengagement from the cued location is necessary for the generation of IOR. However, more and more studies have questioned this theory because of dissociation between voluntary or involuntary spatial orienting and the IOR effect. To further explore the "reorienting hypothesis" of IOR, the present experiment employed an atypical cue-target paradigm which combined a spatially non-predictive peripheral cue that was presumed to trigger IOR with a spatially non-predictive central cue that was used to reflexively trigger a shift of attention...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197067/naso-temporal-asymmetries-suppression-of-emotional-faces-in-the-temporal-visual-hemifield
#7
David Framorando, Mylène Bapst, Nathalie Vuille, Alan J Pegna
An ongoing debate exists regarding the possible existence of a retino-tectal visual pathway projecting to the amygdala, which would rapidly process information involving threatening or behaviorally-relevant stimuli. It has been suggested that this route might be responsible for the involuntary capture of attention by potentially dangerous stimuli. In separate studies, anatomical evidence has suggested that the retino-tectal pathway relies essentially on projections from the nasal hemiretina (temporal visual field)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194095/altered-hippocampo-cerebello-cortical-circuit-in-schizophrenia-by-a-spatiotemporal-consistency-and-causal-connectivity-analysis
#8
Xi Chen, Yuchao Jiang, Lin Chen, Hui He, Li Dong, Changyue Hou, Mingjun Duan, Mi Yang, Dezhong Yao, Cheng Luo
In the current study, FOur-dimensional Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) analysis was used to investigate the local consistency by integrating the temporal and spatial information of the local region. In the current study, resting-state fMRI data of 69 schizophrenia patients and 70 healthy controls were collected. FOCA was utilized to investigate the local consistency. Moreover, Granger causal analysis was used to investigate causal functional connectivity among these areas, which exhibited significantly different local consistency between groups...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193545/gaze-cueing-requires-intact-face-processing-insights-from-acquired-prosopagnosia
#9
Nicolas Burra, Dirk Kerzel, Meike Ramon
Gaze-cueing is the automatic spatial orienting of attention in the direction of perceived gaze. Participants respond faster to targets located at positions congruent with the direction of gaze, compared to incongruent ones (gaze cueing effect, GCE). However, it still remains unclear whether its occurrence depends on intact integration of information from the entire eye region or face, rather than simply the presence of the eyes per se. To address this question, we investigated the GCE in PS, an extensively studied case of pure acquired prosopagnosia...
February 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190682/perception-of-active-head-rotation-in-patients-with-severe-left-unilateral-spatial-neglect
#10
Shinobu Kaibe, Manabu Okita, Hideto Kaba
Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemisphere damage, and is characterized by a failure to perceive and report stimuli in the contralesional side of space. To test the reference shift hypothesis that contralesional spatial neglect in right-brain-damaged patients is attributed to a rightward deviation of the egocentric reference frame, we measured the final angular position to which controls and left-side neglect patients actively turned their head toward the left in response to a verbal instruction given from each of three locations-right, left, and front-in two conditions, with and without visual feedback...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190655/development-of-helix-stabilized-cell-penetrating-peptides-containing-cationic-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-disubstituted-amino-acids-as-helical-promoters
#11
Hiroko Yamashita, Takashi Misawa, Makoto Oba, Masakazu Tanaka, Mikihiko Naito, Masaaki Kurihara, Yosuke Demizu
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) have attracted many scientists' attention as intracellular delivery tools due to their high cargo molecule transportation efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Therefore, in many research fields CPP, such as HIV-Tat and oligoarginine (Rn), are used to deliver hydrophilic drugs and biomolecules, including proteins, DNA, and RNA. We designed four types of CPP that contained cationic α,α-disubstituted amino acids (Api(C2Gu) and Api(C4Gu)) as helical promoters; i.e., 1-4 [FAM-β-Ala-(l-Arg-l-Arg-Xaa)3-(Gly)3-NH2 (1: Xaa=Api(C2Gu), 2: Xaa=Api(C4Gu)), 3: FAM-β-Ala-(l-Arg)8-Api(C2Gu)-(Gly)3-NH2, and 4: FAM-β-Ala-(l-Arg)5-Api(C2Gu)-(l-Arg)2-Api(C2Gu)-(Gly)3-NH2], and investigated their preferred secondary structures and cell membrane-penetrating ability...
February 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188917/impaired-visual-short-term-memory-capacity-is-distinctively-associated-with-structural-connectivity-of-the-posterior-thalamic-radiation-and-the-splenium-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-preterm-born-adults
#12
A Menegaux, C Meng, J Neitzel, J G Bäuml, H J Müller, P Bartmann, D Wolke, A M Wohlschläger, K Finke, C Sorg
Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk for lasting changes in both the cortico-thalamic system and attention; however, the link between cortico-thalamic and attention changes is as yet little understood. In preterm newborns, cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic structural connectivity are distinctively altered, with increased local clustering for cortico-cortical and decreased integrity for cortico-thalamic connectivity. In preterm-born adults, among the various attention functions, visual short-term memory (vSTM) capacity is selectively impaired...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188851/modulation-of-azimuth-tuning-plasticity-in-rat-primary-auditory-cortex-by-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#13
Lixia Gao, Xinjian Li, Wenwei Yang, Xinde Sun
Neurons in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of adult animals exhibit short-term plasticity of frequency selectivity and tonotopic organization in behavioral contexts ranging from classical conditioning to attention tasks. However, it is still largely unknown whether short-term plasticity of spatial tuning takes place in A1 of adult animals and whether this spatial turning plasticity in A1 of adults is mediated by medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as there are reciprocal connection between mPFC and auditory cortex (AC)...
February 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185547/a-novel-scan-statistics-approach-for-clustering-identification-and-comparison-in-binary-genomic-data
#14
Danilo Pellin, Clelia Di Serio
BACKGROUND: In biomedical research a relevant issue is to identify time intervals or portions of a n-dimensional support where a particular event of interest is more likely to occur than expected. Algorithms that require to specify a-priori number/dimension/length of clusters assumed for the data suffer from a high degree of arbitrariness whenever no precise information are available, and this may strongly affect final estimation on parameters. Within this framework, spatial scan-statistics have been proposed in the literature, representing a valid non-parametric alternative...
September 22, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184188/stimulus-phase-locking-of-cortical-oscillations-for-rhythmic-tone-sequences-in-rats
#15
Takahiro Noda, Tomoki Amemiya, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Hirokazu Takahashi
Humans can rapidly detect regular patterns (i.e., within few cycles) without any special attention to the acoustic environment. This suggests that human sensory systems are equipped with a powerful mechanism for automatically predicting forthcoming stimuli to detect regularity. It has recently been hypothesized that the neural basis of sensory predictions exists for not only what happens (predictive coding) but also when a particular stimulus occurs (predictive timing). Here, we hypothesize that the phases of neural oscillations are critical in predictive timing, and these oscillations are modulated in a band-specific manner when acoustic patterns become predictable, i...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184165/visual-spatial-training-efficacy-in-children-affected-by-migraine-without-aura-a-multicenter-study
#16
Francesco Precenzano, Maria Ruberto, Lucia Parisi, Margherita Salerno, Agata Maltese, Beatrice Gallai, Rosa Marotta, Serena Marianna Lavano, Francesco Lavano, Michele Roccella
Routinely in the clinical practice, children affected by migraine without aura (MwA) tend to exhibit severe and persistent difficulties within cognitive processes such as attention, memory, and visual-motor integration (VMI) skills. The aim of this study was to assess the visual-spatial and visual-motor abilities among a sample of children with MwA and the effects of a specific computerized training. The study population was composed of 84 patients affected by MwA (39 girls and 45 boys; mean age: 8.91±2.46 years), and they were randomly divided into two groups (group A and group B) comparable for age (P=0...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182479/the-first-letter-position-effect-in-visual-word-recognition-the-role-of-spatial-attention
#17
Andrew J Aschenbrenner, David A Balota, Alexandra J Weigand, Michele Scaltritti, Derek Besner
A prominent question in visual word recognition is whether letters within a word are processed in parallel or in a left to right sequence. Although most contemporary models posit parallel processing, this notion seems at odds with well-established serial position effects in word identification that indicate preferential processing for the initial letter. The present study reports 4 experiments designed to further probe the locus of the first position processing advantage. The paradigm involved masked target words presented for short durations and required participants to subsequently select from 2 alternatives, 1 which was identical to the target and 1 that differed by a single letter...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180996/predicting-the-potential-role-of-non-human-hosts-in-zika-virus-maintenance
#18
Constantino González-Salazar, Christopher R Stephens, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero
Arboviruses are often maintained in complex cycles involving vertebrates such as mammals or birds and blood-feeding mosquitoes. However, the role of wildlife hosts in their emergence or re-emergence in human populations has received little attention. The recent emergence of Zika virus in America, and previous occurrences of chikungunya and dengue, forces us to confront a potential new disease-emergence phenomenon. Using a spatial data mining framework to identify potential biotic interactions, based on the degree of co-occurrence between different species, we identified those mammal species with the highest potential for establishing mammal-vector interactions, considering as principal vector Aedes aegypti...
February 8, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178946/quantitative-analysis-of-axon-collaterals-of-single-pyramidal-cells-of-the-anterior-piriform-cortex-of-the-guinea-pig
#19
Junli Yang, Gerhard Litscher, Zhongren Sun, Qiang Tang, Kiyoshi Kishi, Satoko Oda, Masaaki Takayanagi, Zemin Sheng, Yang Liu, Wenhai Guo, Ting Zhang, Lu Wang, Ingrid Gaischek, Daniela Litscher, Irmgard Th Lippe, Masaru Kuroda
BACKGROUND: The role of the piriform cortex (PC) in olfactory information processing remains largely unknown. The anterior part of the piriform cortex (APC) has been the focus of cortical-level studies of olfactory coding, and associative processes have attracted considerable attention as an important part in odor discrimination and olfactory information processing. Associational connections of pyramidal cells in the guinea pig APC were studied by direct visualization of axons stained and quantitatively analyzed by intracellular biocytin injection in vivo...
February 8, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176932/intrauterine-levonorgestrel-delivery-with-frameless-fibrous-delivery-system-review-of-clinical-experience
#20
REVIEW
Dirk Wildemeersch, Amaury Andrade, Norman D Goldstuck, Thomas Hasskamp, Geert Jackers
The concept of using a frameless intrauterine device (IUD) instead of the conventional plastic framed IUD is not new. Frameless copper IUDs have been available since the late 1990s. They rely on an anchoring system to retain in the uterine cavity. The clinical experience with these IUDs suggests that frameless IUDs fit better as they are thin and, therefore, do not disturb or irritate the uterus. High tolerance and continuation rates have been achieved as complaints of pain are virtually nonexistent and the impact on menstrual blood loss is minimal...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
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