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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151115/supramodal-effect-of-rightward-prismatic-adaptation-on-spatial-representations-within-the-ventral-attentional-system
#1
Isabel Tissieres, Eleonora Fornari, Stephanie Clarke, Sonia Crottaz-Herbette
Rightward prismatic adaptation (R-PA) was shown to alleviate not only visuo-spatial but also auditory symptoms in neglect. The neural mechanisms underlying the effect of R-PA have been previously investigated in visual tasks, demonstrating a shift of hemispheric dominance for visuo-spatial attention from the right to the left hemisphere both in normal subjects and in patients. We have investigated whether the same neural mechanisms underlie the supramodal effect of R-PA on auditory attention. Normal subjects underwent a brief session of R-PA, which was preceded and followed by an fMRI evaluation during which subjects detected targets within the left, central and right space in the auditory or visual modality...
November 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149617/decoding-early-and-late-cortical-contributions-to-individuation-of-attended-and-unattended-objects
#2
Claire K Naughtin, Jason B Mattingley, Angela D Bender, Paul E Dux
To isolate a visual stimulus as a unique object with a specific spatial location and time of occurrence, it is necessary to first register (individuate) the stimulus as a distinct perceptual entity. Recent investigations into the neural substrates of object individuation have suggested it is subserved by a distributed neural network, but previous manipulations of individuation load have introduced extraneous visual confounds, which might have yielded ambiguous findings, particularly in early cortical areas...
November 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148855/effects-of-virtual-reality-based-training-with-bts-nirvana-on-functional-recovery-in-stroke-patients-preliminary-considerations
#3
Rosaria De Luca, Margherita Russo, Antonino Naro, Provvidenza Tomasello, Simona Leonardi, Floriana Santamaria, Latella Desireè, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Silvestri, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
AIM OF THE STUDY: cognitive impairment occurs frequently in post-stroke patients. This study aimed to determine the effects of a virtual reality training (VRT) with BTs-Nirvana (BTsN) on the recovery of cognitive functions in stroke patients, using the Interactive-Semi-Immersive Program (I-SIP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 12 subjects (randomly divided into two groups: experimental group -EG; and control group -CG), who attended the Laboratory of Robotic and Cognitive Rehabilitation of IRCCS Neurolesi of Messina from January to June 2016...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147961/spatiotemporal-competition-and-task-relevance-shape-the-spatial-distribution-of-emotional-interference-during-rapid-visual-processing-evidence-from-gaze-contingent-eye-tracking
#4
Briana L Kennedy, Daniel Pearson, David J Sutton, Tom Beesley, Steven B Most
People's ability to perceive rapidly presented targets can be disrupted both by voluntary encoding of a preceding target and by spontaneous attention to salient distractors. Distinctions between these sources of interference can be found when people search for a target in multiple rapid streams instead of a single stream: voluntary encoding of a preceding target often elicits subsequent perceptual lapses across the visual field, whereas spontaneous attention to emotionally salient distractors appears to elicit a spatially localized lapse, giving rise to a theoretical account suggesting that emotional distractors and subsequent targets compete spatiotemporally during rapid serial visual processing...
November 16, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145178/minor-hemisphere-major-syndromes
#5
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
A right "minor hemisphere" does not exist as the right hemisphere is dominant for awareness (nosognosia), spatial attention, emotional regulation, facial and voice expressions, visual recognition, and topographical orientation. Without the right hemisphere, the world would be flat, deprived of general and spatial attentions, pointing preferentially to the right side of the space, lacking visual experiences and emotions, exhibiting diminished awareness of the self and environment. Clinical-related syndromes of the right hemisphere are unilateral spatial neglect, object and face visual agnosia, the anosognosia for hemiparesis and/or hemianopia, misidentification syndromes, mania, and other obsessions for the food and the body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144440/field-monitoring-of-drosophila-suzukii-and-associated-communities-in-south-eastern-france-as-a-pre-requisite-for-classical-biological-control
#6
Laurent Kremmer, Marcel Thaon, Nicolas Borowiec, Jean David, Marylène Poirié, Jean-Luc Gatti, Nicolas Ris
The spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Ds), became a major economic pest for fruit production since its establishment in Europe and America. Among potential control methods, only classical biological control appears to be a mean of sustainably regulating Ds in both cultivated and natural habitats. In the frame of risk assessment, pre-release surveys were carried out in a restricted but highly heterogeneous area in the south-east of France using traps and deliberate field exposures of Ds and D. melanogaster larvae/pupae...
November 16, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144107/safe-return-to-driving-following-severe-acquired-brain-injury-role-of-a-short-neuropsychological-assessment
#7
Donatella Saviola, Antonio DE Tanti, Jessica Conforti, Lucio Posteraro, Alessia Manfredini, Chiara Bagattini, Benedetta Basagni
BACKGROUND: Driving is a complex ability requiring a broad range of motor, cognitive- behavioural and visual skills that may be impaired after severe Acquired Brain Injury (sABI). Resumption of driving is perceived as a major need by patients, being closely linked to personal autonomy, work and social activities. AIM: The objective of this study was to identify a short battery of neuropsychological tests with predictive value with regard to safe return to driving after sABI...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143409/chronnectome-fingerprinting-identifying-individuals-and-predicting-higher-cognitive-functions-using-dynamic-brain-connectivity-patterns
#8
Jin Liu, Xuhong Liao, Mingrui Xia, Yong He
The human brain is a large, interacting dynamic network, and its architecture of coupling among brain regions varies across time (termed the "chronnectome"). However, very little is known about whether and how the dynamic properties of the chronnectome can characterize individual uniqueness, such as identifying individuals as a "fingerprint" of the brain. Here, we employed multiband resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the Human Connectome Project (N = 105) and a sliding time-window dynamic network analysis approach to systematically examine individual time-varying properties of the chronnectome...
November 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143082/spatial-separation-of-photosynthesis-and-ethanol-production-by-cell-type-specific-metabolic-engineering-of-filamentous-cyanobacteria
#9
Shigeki Ehira, Takuto Takeuchi, Akiyoshi Higo
Cyanobacteria, which perform oxygenic photosynthesis, have drawn attention as hosts for the direct production of biofuels and commodity chemicals from CO2 and H2O using light energy. Although cyanobacteria capable of producing diverse chemicals have been generated by metabolic engineering, anaerobic non-photosynthetic culture conditions are often necessary for their production. In this study, we conducted cell type-specific metabolic engineering of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, which forms a terminally differentiated cell called a heterocyst with a semi-regular spacing of 10-15 cells...
November 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140708/role-of-vapor-mass-transfer-in-flow-coating-of-colloidal-dispersions-in-the-evaporative-regime
#10
Charles Loussert, Frédéric Doumenc, Jean-Baptiste Salmon, Vadim S Nikolayev, Beatrice Guerrier
In flow-coating processes at low substrate velocity, solvent evaporation occurs during the film withdrawal and the coating process yields directly a dry deposit. In this regime, often referred to as the evaporative regime, several works performed on blade-coating-like confiurations have reported a deposit thickness hd proportional to the inverse of the substrate velocity V . Such a scaling can be easily derived from simple mass conservation laws, assuming that evaporation occurs on a constant distance, referred to as the evaporation length, noted Lev in the present paper and of the order of the meniscus size...
November 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140532/right-posterior-parietal-cortex-is-involved-in-disengaging-from-threat-a-1-hz-rtms-study
#11
Manon Mulckhuyse, Jan B Engelmann, Dennis J L G Schutter, Karin Roelofs
The right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is implicated in spatial attention, but its specific role in emotional spatial attention remains unclear. In this study, we combined inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a fear-conditioning paradigm to test the role of the right PPC in attentional control of task-irrelevant threatening distractors. In a sham-controlled within-subject design, 1-Hz repetitive TMS was applied to the left and right PPC after which participants performed a visual search task with a distractor that was either associated with a loud noise burst (threat) or not (non-threat)...
November 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140417/fasting-plasma-glucose-in-young-adults-free-of-diabetes-is-associated-with-cognitive-function-in-midlife
#12
Irit Cohen-Manheim, Ronit Sinnreich, Glen M Doniger, Ely S Simon, Ronit Pinchas-Mizrachi, Jeremy D Kark
Background: Evidence for an association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with cognitive function in adults free of diabetes is scarce and based on middle-aged and older adults. We examined the association of FPG, measured at age 30, and of change in FPG from age 30 to 43, with cognitive function at age 50. Methods: 505 nondiabetic participants of the population-based Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic (LRC) cohort study had baseline FPG, 2-h post-oral challenge plasma glucose (OGTT) and insulin determined at ages 28-32, and FPG and OGTT again at ages 41-46...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139285/subradiant-dipolar-interactions-in-plasmonic-nanoring-resonator-array-for-integrated-label-free-biosensing
#13
Yuzhang Liang, Hui Zhang, Wenqi Zhu, Amit Agrawal, Henri J Lezec, Lixia Li, Wei Peng, Yi Zou, Yan-Qing Lu, Ting Xu
With the development of advanced nanofabrication technologies over the last decade, plasmonic nanostructures have attracted wide attention for their potential in label-free biosensing applications. However, the sensing performance of nanostructured plasmonic sensors is primarily limited by the broad-linewidth features with low peak-to-dip signal ratio in the extinction spectra that result from strong radiative damping. Here, we propose and systematically investigate the in-plane and out-of-plane dipolar interactions in an array of plasmonic nanoring resonators that are from the spatial combination of classic nanohole and nanodisk structures...
November 15, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138699/for-better-or-worse-the-effect-of-prismatic-adaptation-on-auditory-neglect
#14
Isabel Tissieres, Mona Elamly, Stephanie Clarke, Sonia Crottaz-Herbette
Patients with auditory neglect attend less to auditory stimuli on their left and/or make systematic directional errors when indicating sound positions. Rightward prismatic adaptation (R-PA) was repeatedly shown to alleviate symptoms of visuospatial neglect and once to restore partially spatial bias in dichotic listening. It is currently unknown whether R-PA affects only this ear-related symptom or also other aspects of auditory neglect. We have investigated the effect of R-PA on left ear extinction in dichotic listening, space-related inattention assessed by diotic listening, and directional errors in auditory localization in patients with auditory neglect...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137159/linear-vs-nonlinear-extreme-learning-machine-for-spectral-spatial-classification-of-hyperspectral-images
#15
Faxian Cao, Zhijing Yang, Jinchang Ren, Mengying Jiang, Wing-Kuen Ling
As a new machine learning approach, the extreme learning machine (ELM) has received much attention due to its good performance. However, when directly applied to hyperspectral image (HSI) classification, the recognition rate is low. This is because ELM does not use spatial information, which is very important for HSI classification. In view of this, this paper proposes a new framework for the spectral-spatial classification of HSI by combining ELM with loopy belief propagation (LBP). The original ELM is linear, and the nonlinear ELMs (or Kernel ELMs) are an improvement of linear ELM (LELM)...
November 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136606/heavy-metals-in-soils-of-hechuan-county-in-the-upper-yangtze-sw-china-comparative-pollution-assessment-using-multiple-indices-with-high-spatial-resolution-sampling
#16
Maofei Ni, Rong Mao, Zhongmin Jia, Ruozhu Dong, Siyue Li
In order to assess heavy metals (HMs) in soils of the upper Yangtze Basin, a very high-spatial-resolution sampling (582 soil samples) was conducted from Hechuan County, an important agricultural practice area in the Southwest China. Multiple indices including geoaccumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF), sediment pollution index (SPI) and risk index (RI), as well as multivariate statistics were employed for pollution assessment and source identification of HMs in soils. Our results demonstrated that the averages of eight HMs decreased in the following order: Zn (82...
November 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135938/effects-of-a-lutein-and-zeaxanthin-intervention-on-cognitive-function-a-randomized-double-masked-placebo-controlled-trial-of-younger-healthy-adults
#17
Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Emily R Bovier, Laura M Fletcher, L Stephen Miller, Catherine M Mewborn, Cutter A Lindbergh, Jeffrey H Baxter, Billy R Hammond
Background: Past studies have suggested that higher lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) levels in serum and in the central nervous system (as quantified by measuring macular pigment optical density, MPOD) are related to improved cognitive function in older adults. Very few studies have addressed the issue of xanthophylls and cognitive function in younger adults, and no controlled trials have been conducted to date to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z can change cognitive function in this population...
November 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134612/altered-connectivity-patterns-among-resting-state-networks-in-patients-with-ischemic-white-matter-lesions
#18
Ju-Rong Ding, Xin Ding, Bo Hua, Xingzhong Xiong, Yuqiao Wen, Zhongxiang Ding, Qingsong Wang, Paul Thompson
White matter lesions (WMLs) have been associated with cognitive and motor decline. Resting state networks (RSNs) are spatially coherent patterns in the human brain and their interactions sustain our daily function. Therefore, investigating the altered intra- and inter-network connectivity among the RSNs may help to understand the association of WMLs with impaired cognitive and motor function. Here, we assessed alterations in functional connectivity patterns based on six well-defined RSNs-the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), frontal-parietal control network (FPCN), auditory network (AN), sensory motor network (SMN) and visual network (VN)-in 15 patients with ischemic WMLs and 15 controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133837/contrasting-runoff-trends-between-dry-and-wet-parts-of-eastern-tibetan-plateau
#19
Yuanyuan Wang, Yongqiang Zhang, Francis H S Chiew, Tim R McVicar, Lu Zhang, Hongxia Li, Guanghua Qin
As the "Asian Water Tower", the Tibetan Plateau (TP) provides water resources for more than 1.4 billion people, but suffers from climatic and environmental changes, followed by the changes in water balance components. We used state-of-the-art satellite-based products to estimate spatial and temporal variations and trends in annual precipitation, evapotranspiration and total water storage change across eastern TP, which were then used to reconstruct an annual runoff variability series for 2003-2014. The basin-scale reconstructed streamflow variability matched well with gauge observations for five large rivers...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133436/ventral-midline-thalamus-is-necessary-for-hippocampal-place-field-stability-and-cell-firing-modulation
#20
T Cholvin, V Hok, L Giorgi, F A Chaillan, B Poucet
The reuniens (Re) and Rhomboid (Rh) nuclei of the ventral midline thalamus are reciprocally connected with the hippocampus (Hip) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Growing evidence suggests that these nuclei might play a crucial role in cognitive processes requiring Hip-mPFC interactions, including spatial navigation. Here, we tested the effect of ReRh lesions on the firing properties and spatial activity of dorsal hippocampal CA1 place cells as male rats explored a familiar or a novel environment. We found no change in the spatial characteristics of CA1 place cells in the familiar environment following ReRh lesions...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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